A league is a unit of length. It was common in Europe and Latin America, but is no longer an official unit in any nation; the word meant the distance a person could walk in an hour. Since the Middle Ages, many values have been specified in several countries; the league was used in Ancient Rome, defined as 1 1⁄2 Roman miles. The origin is the leuga Gallica, the league of Gaul; the Argentine league is 5.572 km or 6,666 varas: 1 vara is 0.83 m. On land, the league is most defined as three miles, though the length of a mile could vary from place to place and depending on the era. At sea, a league is three nautical miles. English usage included many of the other leagues mentioned below; the French lieue – at different times – existed in several variants: 10,000, 12,000, 13,200 and 14,400 French feet, about 3.25 to 4.68 km. It was used along with the metric system for a while but is now long discontinued. Metric lieue was used in France from 1812 to 1840, 1 lieue = 4000 m; as used in Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, a league is four kilometres.
In some rural parts of Mexico, the league is still used in the original sense of the distance that can be covered on foot in an hour, so that a league along a good road on level ground is a greater distance than a league on a difficult path over rough terrain. In Portugal and other parts of the former Portuguese Empire, there were several units called league: Légua of 18 to a degree = 6,172.84 meters Légua of 20 to a degree = 5,555.56 meters Légua of 25 to a degree = 4,444.44 metersThe names of the several léguas referred to the number of units that made the length corresponding to an angle degree of a meridian arc. As a transitory measure, after Portugal adopted the metric system, the metric légua, of 5.0 km, was used. In Brazil, the légua is still used where it has been described as about 6.6 km. The legua or Spanish league was understood as equivalent to 3 millas; this varied depending on local standards for the pie and on the precision of measurement, but was equivalent to 4,180 meters before the legua was abolished by Philip II in 1568.
It remains in use in parts of Latin America, where its exact meaning varies. Legua nautica: Between 1400 and 1600 the Spanish nautical league was equal to four Roman miles of 4,842 feet, making it 19,368 feet; that seems pretty straightforward until one realizes that the accepted number of Spanish nautical leagues to a degree varied between 14 1/6 to 16 2/3 so in actual practice the length of a Spanish nautical league was 25,733 feet to 21,874 feet respectively. Legua de por grado: From the 15th century through the early 17th century, the Spanish league of the degree was based on four Arabic miles. Although most contemporary accounts used an Arabic mile of 6,444 feet, which gave a Spanish league of the degree of 25,776 feet others defined an Arabic mile as just 6,000 feet making a Spanish league of the degree 24,000 feet. Legua geographica or geográfica: Starting around 1630 the Spanish geographical league was used as the official nautical measurement and continued so through the 1840s, its use on Spanish charts did not become mandatory until 1718.
It was four millias in length. From 1630 to 1718 a millia was 5,564 feet, making a geographical league of four millias equal 22,256 feet, but from 1718 through the 1830s the millia was defined as the equivalent of just over 5,210 feet, giving a shorter geographical league of just over 20,842 feet. Legua marítima: From around 1840 through the early 20th century, a Spanish marine league equaled 18,263.52 feet, i.e. about 35 feet longer than our modern maritime league. In the early Hispanic settlements of New Mexico, Texas and Colorado, a league was a unit of area, defined as 25 million square varas or about 4,428.4 acres. This usage of league is referenced in the Texas Constitution. So defined, a league of land would encompass a square, one Spanish league on each side. A comparison of the different lengths for a "league", in different countries and at different times in history, is given in the table below. Miles are included in this list because of the linkage between the two units. Similar units: 1066.8 meters – verst, see Obsolete Russian units of measurement 3200 meters – kosh, used in North Bihar, India.
Medieval weights and measures for various definitions of the league. List of obsolete units of measurement Portuguese customary units Spanish customary units Seven-league boots Walking
Mateo Leal de Ayala
Mateo Leal de Ayala was a Spanish army officer and politician. He served during the Viceroyalty of Peru as Alguazil Mayor, Lieutenant Governor and Governor of Buenos Aires and Paraguay. Ayala was born on November 20, 1579 in Madrid, son of Isidro Leal de Ayala and Rosa de Medina, belonging to a distinguished family of La Cabrera, he was married in the city of Potosí with María Magdalena de Aguilar, born in that city and daughter of Ginés Martínez and Leonor de Vargas. In early seventeenth century, Ayala arrived at Buenos Aires from the Peru, acquired a large estate of 500 rods of land, in the area of Pago de la Matanza. In Buenos Aires he held the highest political positions, being designated the 27 of December of 1613 as governor of the Río de la Plata and Paraguay, and was elected alcalde in first vote of Buenos Aires in 1621. Todo-argentina.net
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department. Situated on the Pirai River in the eastern Tropical Lowlands of Bolivia, the city of Santa Cruz and its metropolitan area are home to over 70% of the population of the department and it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world; the city was first founded in 1561 by Spanish explorer Ñuflo de Chavez about 200 km east of its current location, was moved several times until it was established on the Pirai River in the late 16th century. For much of its history, Santa Cruz was a small outpost town, after Bolivia gained its independence in 1825 there was little attention from the authorities or the population in general to settle the region, it was not until after the middle of the 20th century with profound agrarian and land reforms that the city began to grow at a fast pace. The city is Bolivia's most populous, produces nearly 35% of Bolivia's gross domestic product, receives over 40% of all foreign direct investment in the country.
This has helped make Santa Cruz the most important business center in Bolivia and the preferred destination of migrants from all over the country. Like much of the history of the people of the region, the history of the area before the arrival of European explorers is not well documented because of the somewhat nomadic nature and the absence of a written language in the culture of the local tribes. However, recent data suggests that the current location of the city of Santa Cruz was inhabited by an Arawak tribe that came to be known by the Spanish as Chané. Remains of ceramics and weapons have been found in the area, leading researchers to believe they had established settlements in the area. Among the few known facts of these tribes, according to accounts of the first Spanish explorers that came into contact with the Chané, are that they had a formal leader, a cacique, called Grigota for several years but his reign came to an end after one of the several Guarani incursions in the area; the first Europeans to set foot in the area were Spanish conquistadores from the created Governorate of New Andalusia that encompassed the territories of present-day Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia.
In 1549, Captain General Domingo Martinez de Irala became the first Spaniard to explore the region, but it was not until 1558 that Ñuflo de Chaves, who had arrived in Asuncion in 1541 with Alvar Nuñez/Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, led a new expedition with the objective of settling the region. After discovering that a new expedition from Asuncion was underway, he traveled to Lima and persuaded the Viceroy to create a new province and grant him the title of governor on February 15, 1560. Upon returning from Lima, Chaves founded the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra on February 26, 1561, 220 km east of its present-day location, to function as the capital of the newly formed province of Moxos and Chaves; the settlement was named after Chaves's home town in Extremadura, where he grew up before venturing to America. Shortly after the founding, attacks from local tribes became commonplace and Ñuflo de Chaves was killed in 1568 by Itatine natives. After Chaves's death, the conflicts with the local population as well as power struggles in the settlement forced the authorities in Peru to order the new governor, Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa to relocate the city to the west.
Many of the inhabitants, chose to stay behind and continued living in the original location. On September 13, 1590 the city was moved to the banks of the Guapay Empero river and renamed San Lorenzo de la Frontera; the conditions proved to be more severe at the new location forcing the settlers to relocate once again on May 21, 1595. Although this was the final relocation of the city, the name San Lorenzo continued to be used until the early 17th century, when the settlers who remained behind in Santa Cruz de la Sierra were convinced by the colonial authorities to move to San Lorenzo. After they moved the city was consolidated in 1622 and took its original name of Santa Cruz de la Sierra given by Ñuflo de Chaves over 60 years before. Remnants of the original settlement can be visited in Santa Cruz la Vieja, an archaeological site south of San José de Iquitos. Over the next 200 years, several tribes were either incorporated under Spanish control or defeated by force; the city became an important staging point for Jesuit Missions to Chiquitos and Moxos, leading to the conversion of thousands of Guaranies, Moxeños, Chiquitanos and Chiriguanos that became part of the racially mixed population of the modern Santa Cruz, Beni and Tarija departaments of Bolivia.
Another important role the small town played in the region for the Spanish Empire was to contain the incursions of Portuguese Bandeirantes, many of which were repelled by the use of force over the years. The efforts for consolidating the borders of the Empire were not overlooked by the authorities in Lima, who granted the province a great degree of autonomy; the province was ruled by a Captain General based in Santa Cruz, and, in turn, the city government was administered by two mayors and a council of four people. Citizens of Santa Cruz were exempt from all imperial taxes and the mita system used in the rest of the Viceroyalty of Peru was not practiced. However, in spite of its strategic importance, the city did not grow much in colonial times. Most of the economic activity was centered in the mining centers of the west and the main source of income of the city was agriculture. Animosity towards imperial author
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was a Spanish explorer of the New World, one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition. During eight years of traveling across the US Southwest, he became a trader and faith healer to various Native American tribes before reconnecting with Spanish civilization in Mexico in 1536. After returning to Spain in 1537, he wrote an account, first published in 1542 as La relación y comentarios, which in editions was retitled Naufragios. Cabeza de Vaca is sometimes considered a proto-anthropologist for his detailed accounts of the many tribes of Native Americans that he encountered. In 1540, Cabeza de Vaca was appointed adelantado of what is now Argentina, where he was governor and captain general of New Andalusia, he worked to build up the population of Buenos Aires, where settlement had declined due to poor administration. Cabeza de Vaca was transported to Spain for trial in 1545. Although his sentence was commuted, he never returned to the Americas, he died in Seville.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was born around 1490 into a hidalgo family, the son of Francisco Núñez de Vera and Teresa Cabeza de Vaca y de Zurita, in the town of Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain. Despite the family's status as minor nobility, they possessed modest economic resources. In 16th-century documents, his name appears as "Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca". Álvar Núñez's maternal surname, Cabeza de Vaca was said to be associated with a maternal ancestor, Martín Alhaja. He had shown the Spanish king a secret mountain pass, marked by a cow’s skull, enabling the king to win the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa against the Muslim Moors in 1212; some sources indicate that after his parents died when he was young, the boy Álvar was taken in by relatives. Evidence suggests that he had a moderately comfortable early life, he was appointed chamberlain for the house of a noble family in his teen years participated in the conquest of the Canary Islands where he was appointed a governor. In 1511, he enlisted in the Spanish army, serving in Italy and Navarre.
Cabeza de Vaca was wounded at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, served as lieutenant in the Italian city of Gaeta, married María Marmolejo, who came from a prominent converso family, supported King Charles during the Revolt of the Comuneros. He became more of a political figure in Spain. In 1527, Núñez joined the Florida expedition of conquistador Pánfilo de Narváez during which he served as treasurer and marshal. In 1527, Pánfilo de Narváez was sent by Spain’s King Charles V to explore the unknown territory which the Spanish called La Florida, including not only present-day Florida but a large, poorly-defined section of what today is the southeastern United States. Cabeza de Vaca was attached to this expedition as the expedition’s treasurer. Records indicate that he had a military role as one of the chief officers on the Narváez expedition, noted as sheriff or marshal. On June 17, 1527, the fleet of five ships set sail towards the province of Pánuco; when they stopped in Hispaniola for supplies, Narváez lost 150 of his men, who chose to stay on the island rather than continue with the expedition.
The expedition continued to Cuba, where Cabeza de Vaca took two ships to recruit more men and buy supplies. Their fleet was battered by a hurricane, resulting in the destruction of both ships and loss of most of Cabeza de Vaca’s men. Narváez arrived days to pick up the survivors. By February 1528, the remaining ships and men resumed their expedition, they anchored near what is now known as the Jungle Prada Site in St. Petersburg, claiming this land as a possession of the Spanish crown. After communicating with the Native Americans, the Spanish heard rumours that a city named Apalachen was full of food and gold. Against the advice of Cabeza de Vaca, Narváez decided to split up his men; some 300 were to go on foot to Apalachen and the other would sail to Pánuco. Apalachen had no gold but had only corn, but the explorers were told a village known as Aute, about 5 or 9 days away, was rich, they harassed by the Native Americans. A few Spanish men were more wounded; when they arrived in Aute, they left.
But the fields had not been harvested, so at least the Spanish scavenged food there. After several months of fighting native inhabitants through wilderness and swamp, the party decided to abandon the interior and try to reach Pánuco. Slaughtering and eating their remaining horses, they gathered the stirrups, spurs and other metal items, they fashioned a bellows from deer hide to make a fire hot enough to forge nails. They used these in making five primitive boats to use to get to Mexico. Cabeza de Vaca commanded one of these vessels. Depleted of food and water, the men followed the coast westward, but when they reached the mouth of the Mississippi River, the powerful current swept them out into the Gulf, where the five rafts were separated by a hurricane. Some lives were lost forever, including that of Narváez. Two crafts with about 40 survivors each, including Cabeza de Vaca, wrecked on or near Galveston Island. Out of the 80 or so survivors, only 15 lived past that winter; the explorers called the Island of Doom.
They tried to repair the rafts, using what remained of their own clothes as o
The Charrúa are an Amerindian, Indigenous People or Indigenous Nation of the Southern Cone in present-day Uruguay and the adjacent areas in Argentina and Brazil. They were a semi-nomadic people who sustained themselves through hunting and gathering. Since resources were not permanent in every region, they would be on the move. Rain and other environmental factors determined their movement. For this reason they are called "nomadas estacionales"; the life of the Charrúas before contact with the Spanish Colonists remains to a large extent a mystery. It is for this reason. Chroniclers such as the Jesuit Pedro Lozano accused the Charrúan people of killing the Spanish explorer Juan Díaz de Solís during his 1515 voyage up the Río de la Plata; this was a crucial moment since it shows that the Charrúas were going to resist the Spanish Invaders. Following the arrival of European settlers, the Charrúa, along with the Chana resisted their territorial invasion. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Charrúa were confronted by cattle exploitation that altered their way of life, causing famine and forcing them to rely on cows and sheep.
However, these were in that epoch privatized. Malones were resisted by settlers who shot any indigenous people who were in their way; this is a descriptive statement by Jose Imbelloni "The skull is bulky and presents a high bone thickness and significant weight in the macrosomatic groups preserved in the south, the cheekbones are powerful and the chin is thick and protruding, the face is elongated and the nasal index leptorrino The construction of the skeleton is massive, at times enormous. Aside to this somewhat coarse macrosomatic canon, we must take into account the reciprocal proportions of the members, which point to a remarkable harmony; the athletic cut and balance of the muscular masses make the pámpido one of the most superb models of the human organism. With regard to physiognomy, there is no sexual dimorphism, men are little different from women. Current color of intense pigmentation, with bronzed reflections. Dark and smooth hair." The drastic demographic reduction of the Charrúa did not occur until the first president of Uruguay Fructuoso Rivera.
Although Rivera maintained good relations with the Charrúa, the increasing dominance of the whites and desires of expansion led to hostilities. He therefore organized a genocide campaign known as La Campaña de Salsipuedes in 1831; this campaign was composed of three different attacks in three different places: "El Paso del Sauce del Queguay", "El Salsipuedes", a passage known as "La cueva del Tigre". Legend has it; the president Fructuoso Rivera knew the tribe leaders, called them to his Barracks by the river named Salsipuedes. He claimed that he needed their help to defend territory and that they should join together, once the Charrúas were drunk and off their guard, the Uruguayan soldiers attacked them; the following two attacks were carried out to eliminate the Charrúas that had escaped or had not been present. It is said that since 11 April 1831, when the Salsipuedes campaign was launched by a group led by Bernabé Rivera, nephew of Fructuoso Rivera, the Charrúa were officially claimed to be extinct.
Four surviving Charrúa were captured at Salsipuedes. The directory of the Oriental School of Montevideo thought a nearly extinct race would spark the interest of French scientists and public, they were a medicine man. All four were taken to France, in 1833, where they were exhibited to the public; the display was not a success and they all soon died in France, including a baby daughter born to Sira and Guyunusa, adopted by Tacuavé. The child was named María Mónica Micaëla Igualdad Libertad by the Charrúa, yet she was filed by the French as Caroliné Tacouavé. A monumental sculpture, Los Últimos Charrúas was built in their memory in Uruguay. Since the 1980s - after Uruguay's last dictatorship - a group of people have been affirming and vindicating their Charruan ancestry. In 1989, they gathered around Adench, by they self-recognized themselves as "descendants". In 2005, another organization was formed - CONACHA - where families came out of clandestinity and self-recognized themselves publicly as Charrúa.
Not much is known about the Charrúa due to their cognitive erasure at an early time in Uruguayan history. The only surviving documents that concern the Charrúa are those of Spanish explorers and anthropologists. A new literature is emerging about their family oral history and activism, it is thought that there are between 160 thousand and 300 thousand individuals in Uruguay and Brazil today, that are descendants from surviving Charrúa. Uruguayans refer to themselves as "charrúa" when in the context of a competition or battle against a foreign contingent. In situations in which Uruguayans display bravery in the face of overwhelming odds, the expression "garra charrúa" is used to refer to victory in the face of certain defeat. After Salsipuedes, the Charrúa were dispossessed of their sovereignty while the new State was affirming its jurisdiction over the whole territory. According to the Argentine census of 2001, there are 676 Charrúa living in the province of Entre Ríos. There is a Charrúa cemetery located in Piriápo
Governorates of the Spanish Empire
After the territorial division of South America between Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas the colonial administration of the continent was divided into Governorates. Governorate of Santo Domingo 1493 to Christopher Columbus Governorate of Cuba 1511 to Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Governorate of New Andalucia-Coquibacoa 1501 to Alonso de Ojeda Governorate of New Andalucia 1510 to Alonso de Ojeda Governorate of Castilla de Oro 1513 to Pedro Arias Dávila Governorate of Louisiana 1762 to Bernardo de Gálvez Four enclaves after Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire: Governorate of New Castile, granted in 1529 to Francisco Pizarro and redefined in 1534, it consisted of the territories from the present Ecuador–Colombia border in the north to Cusco in the south Governorate of New Toledo, granted in 1534 to Diego de Almagro and consisting of the southern half of the former Inca Empire, parts of Southern Brazil, stretching towards current parts of northern Chile. Governorate of New Andalusia, granted in 1534 to Pedro de Mendoza, was defined as stretching 200 leagues along the Pacific coast south of the New Toledo grant and reaching east to the Atlantic, covering the vast territory of current days North and Central Argentina, the totality of Uruguay and Paraguay, parts of Central Chile.
Only small areas of it were colonized along the Paraná River. Governorate of New Léon, granted in 1529 to Simón de Alcazaba y Sotomayor and redefined in 1534, it consisted of the southernmost part of the continent covering the Southern tip of the continent what is today current Patagonia Argentina and Chile, Southern islands towards Antarctica. Governorate of the Río de la Plata, established in 1549, it was simply a renamed New Andalusia until it was reorganized in the 17th century after successful settlement, this territory was granted to Governor Domingo Martínez de Irala and developed around the Silver River this governorate gave origin to the creation of Argentina and Uruguay