Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation, engaged in the design, development and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, equipment and services. The company is headquartered near Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area, it is the world's largest supplier of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012. As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014 the brand alone was valued at $19 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses; as of 2017, the Nike brand is valued at $29.6 billion. Nike ranked No. 89 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The company was founded on January 25, 1964, as Blue Ribbon Sports, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, became Nike, Inc. on May 30, 1971. The company takes its name from the Greek goddess of victory. Nike markets its products under its own brand, as well as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+, Air Jordan, Nike Blazers, Air Force 1, Nike Dunk, Air Max, Nike Skateboarding, Nike CR7, subsidiaries including Brand Jordan, Hurley International and Converse.
Nike owned Bauer Hockey from 1995 to 2008, owned Cole Haan and Umbro. In addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors many high-profile athletes and sports teams around the world, with the recognized trademarks of "Just Do It" and the Swoosh logo. Nike known as Blue Ribbon Sports, was founded by University of Oregon track athlete Phil Knight and his coach, Bill Bowerman, on January 25, 1964; the company operated in Eugene as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger, making most sales at track meets out of Knight's automobile. According to Otis Davis, a student athlete whom Bowerman coached at the University of Oregon, who went on to win two gold medals at the 1960 Summer Olympics, Bowerman made the first pair of Nike shoes for him, contradicting a claim that they were made for Phil Knight. Says Davis, "I told Tom Brokaw that I was the first. I don't care. Bill Bowerman made the first pair of shoes for me.
People don't believe me. In fact, I didn't like the way. There was no support and they were too tight, but I saw Bowerman make them from the waffle iron, they were mine". In 1964, in its first year in business, BRS sold 1,300 pairs of Japanese running shoes grossing $8,000. By 1965 the fledgling company had acquired a full-time employee, sales had reached $20,000. In 1966, BRS opened its first retail store, located at 3107 Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California next to a beauty salon, so its employees no longer needed to sell inventory from the back of their cars. In 1967, due to increasing sales, BRS expanded retail and distribution operations on the East Coast, in Wellesley, Massachusetts. By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRS prepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the Swoosh newly designed by Carolyn Davidson; the Swoosh was first used by Nike on June 18, 1971, was registered with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office on January 22, 1974.
In 1976, the company hired John Brown and Partners, based in Seattle, as its first advertising agency. The following year, the agency created the first "brand ad" for Nike, called "There is no finish line", in which no Nike product was shown. By 1980, Nike had attained a 50% market share in the U. S. athletic shoe market, the company went public in December of that year. Together and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print and television advertisements, Wieden+Kennedy remains Nike's primary ad agency, it was agency co-founder Dan Wieden who coined the now-famous slogan "Just Do It" for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, chosen by Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century and enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. Walt Stack was featured in Nike's first "Just Do It" advertisement, which debuted on July 1, 1988. Wieden credits the inspiration for the slogan to "Let's do it", the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore before he was executed. Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to encompass many sports and regions throughout the world.
In 1990, Nike moved into its eight-building World Headquarters campus in Oregon. The first Nike retail store, dubbed Niketown, opened in downtown Portland in November of that year. Phil Knight announced in mid-2015 that he would step down as chairman of Nike in 2016, he stepped down from all duties with the company on June 30, 2016. In a company public announcement on March 15, 2018, Parker said Trevor Edwards, a top Nike executive, seen as a potential successor to the chief executive, was relinquishing his position as Nike's brand president and would retire in August. Nike has acquired several apparel and footwear companies over the course of its history, some of which have since been sold, its first acquisition was the upscale footwear company Cole Haan in 1988, followed by the purchase of Bauer Hockey in 1994. In 2002, Nike bought surf apparel company Hurley International from founder Bob Hurley. In 2003, Nike paid US$309 million to acquire Converse, makers of the Chuck Taylor All-Stars line of sneakers.
The company acquired Starter in 2004 and Umbro, known as the manufacturers of the England national football team's kit, in 2008. In order to refocus on its core business lines, Nike began divesting of some of its subsidiaries in the 2000s, it sold Starter in 2007 and Bauer Hockey in 2008. The company sold Umbro in 2012 and Cole Haan in 2013. As
A greenhouse gas is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. Greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect; the primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C, rather than the present average of 15 °C; the atmospheres of Venus and Titan contain greenhouse gases. Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 406 ppm in early 2017; this increase has occurred despite the uptake of more than half of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle. The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal and natural gas, with additional contributions coming from deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion and agriculture.
Should greenhouse gas emissions continue at their rate in 2017, Earth's surface temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with harmful effects on ecosystems and human livelihoods. At current emission rates temperatures could increase by 2 °C, which the United Nations' IPCC designated as the upper limit to avoid "dangerous" levels, by 2036; the main gases in Earth's atmosphere are: Nitrogen and Argon. The other gases are: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides and ozone, they are trace gases that account for a tenth of 1% of Earth's atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth. In order, the most abundant greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are: Water vapor Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Ozone Chlorofluorocarbons Hydrofluorocarbons Atmospheric concentrations are determined by the balance between sources and sinks; the proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a specified time is the "airborne fraction".
The annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the atmospheric increase in a given year to that year's total emissions. As of 2006 the annual airborne fraction for CO2 was about 0.45. The annual airborne fraction increased at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.21% per year over the period 1959–2006. The major atmospheric constituents, nitrogen and argon, are not greenhouse gases because molecules containing two atoms of the same element such as N2 and O2 have no net change in the distribution of their electrical charges when they vibrate, monatomic gases such as Ar do not have vibrational modes. Hence they are totally unaffected by infrared radiation; some molecules containing just two atoms of different elements, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride, do absorb infrared radiation, but these molecules are short-lived in the atmosphere owing to their reactivity and solubility. Therefore they do not contribute to the greenhouse effect and are omitted when discussing greenhouse gases; some gases have indirect radiative effects.
This happens in two main ways. One way is. For example and carbon monoxide are oxidized to give carbon dioxide. Oxidation of CO to CO2 directly produces an unambiguous increase in radiative forcing although the reason is subtle; the peak of the thermal IR emission from Earth's surface is close to a strong vibrational absorption band of CO2. On the other hand, the single CO vibrational band only absorbs IR at much shorter wavelengths, where the emission of radiant energy from Earth's surface is at least a factor of ten lower. Oxidation of methane to CO2, which requires reactions with the OH radical, produces an instantaneous reduction in radiative absorption and emission since CO2 is a weaker greenhouse gas than methane. However, the oxidations of CO and CH4 are entwined. In any case, the calculation of the total radiative effect includes both direct and indirect forcing. A second type of indirect effect happens when chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving these gases change the concentrations of greenhouse gases.
For example, the destruction of non-methane volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere can produce ozone. The size of the indirect effect can depend on where and when the gas is emitted. Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming CO2; the main chemical that reacts with methane in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical, thus more methane means that the concentration of OH goes down. Methane increases its own atmospheric lifetime and therefore its overall radiative effect; the oxidation of methane can produce both water. CO and NMVOCs produce CO2, they remove OH from the atmosphere, this leads to higher concentrations of methane. The surprising effect of this is that the global warming potential of CO is three times that of CO2; the same process that converts NMVOCs to carbon dioxide can lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone. Halocarbons have an indirect effect because they destroy stratospheric
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
A wind turbine, or alternatively referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of horizontal axis; the smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. One assessment claimed that, as of 2009, wind had the "lowest relative greenhouse gas emissions, the least water consumption demands and... the most favourable social impacts" compared to photovoltaic, geothermal and gas. The windwheel of Hero of Alexandria marks one of the first recorded instances of wind powering a machine in history.
However, the first known practical wind power plants were built in Sistan, an Eastern province of Persia, from the 7th century. These "Panemone" were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical drive shafts with rectangular blades. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. Wind power first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages; the first historical records of their use in England date to the 11th or 12th centuries and there are reports of German crusaders taking their windmill-making skills to Syria around 1190. By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine delta. Advanced wind turbines were described by Croatian inventor Fausto Veranzio. In his book Machinae Novae he described vertical axis wind turbines with V-shaped blades; the first electricity-generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland.
Some months American inventor Charles F. Brush was able to build the first automatically operated wind turbine after consulting local University professors and colleagues Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and getting the blueprints peer-reviewed for electricity production in Cleveland, Ohio. Although Blyth's turbine was considered uneconomical in the United Kingdom, electricity generation by wind turbines was more cost effective in countries with scattered populations. In Denmark by 1900, there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW; the largest machines were on 24-meter towers with four-bladed 23-meter diameter rotors. By 1908, there were 72 wind-driven electric generators operating in the United States from 5 kW to 25 kW. Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year for water-pumping. By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.
In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, the generators were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931; this was a 100 kW generator on a 30-meter tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 percent, not much different from current wind machines. In the autumn of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont; the Smith–Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1,100 hours before suffering a critical failure. The unit was not repaired, because of a shortage of materials during the war; the first utility grid-connected wind turbine to operate in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1951 in the Orkney Islands. Despite these diverse developments, developments in fossil fuel systems entirely eliminated any wind turbine systems larger than supermicro size. In the early 1970s, anti-nuclear protests in Denmark spurred artisan mechanics to develop microturbines of 22 kW.
Organizing owners into associations and co-operatives lead to the lobbying of the government and utilities and provided incentives for larger turbines throughout the 1980s and later. Local activists in Germany, nascent turbine manufacturers in Spain, large investors in the United States in the early 1990s lobbied for policies that stimulated the industry in those countries. Wind Power Density is a quantitative measure of wind energy available at any location, it is the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, is calculated for different heights above ground. Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of air density. Wind turbines are classified by the wind speed they are designed for, from class I to class III, with A to C referring to the turbulence intensity of the wind. Conservation of mass requires that the amount of air exiting a turbine must be equal. Accordingly, Betz's law gives the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine as 16/27 of the total kinetic energy of the air flowing through the turbine.
The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 16/27 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. If the effective area of the disk is A, the wind velocity v, the maximum theoretical power output P is: P = 16
Heating and air conditioning is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. "Refrigeration" is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation, as HVAC&R or HVACR or "ventilation" is dropped, as in HACR. HVAC is an important part of residential structures such as single family homes, apartment buildings and senior living facilities, medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and hospitals, vehicles such as cars, airplanes and submarines, in marine environments, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors. Ventilating or ventilation is the process of exchanging or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality which involves temperature control, oxygen replenishment, removal of moisture, smoke, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide, other gases.
Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, prevents stagnation of the interior air. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building, it is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into natural types; the three major functions of heating and air conditioning are interrelated with the need to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality within reasonable installation and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can be used in both commercial environments. HVAC systems can provide ventilation, maintain pressure relationships between spaces; the means of air delivery and removal from spaces is known as room air distribution. In modern buildings, the design and control systems of these functions are integrated into one or more HVAC systems. For small buildings, contractors estimate the capacity and type of system needed and design the system, selecting the appropriate refrigerant and various components needed.
For larger buildings, building service designers, mechanical engineers, or building services engineers analyze and specify the HVAC systems. Specialty mechanical contractors fabricate and commission the systems. Building permits and code-compliance inspections of the installations are required for all sizes of building. Although HVAC is executed in individual buildings or other enclosed spaces, the equipment involved is in some cases an extension of a larger district heating or district cooling network, or a combined DHC network. In such cases, the operating and maintenance aspects are simplified and metering becomes necessary to bill for the energy, consumed, in some cases energy, returned to the larger system. For example, at a given time one building may be utilizing chilled water for air conditioning and the warm water it returns may be used in another building for heating, or for the overall heating-portion of the DHC network. Basing HVAC on a larger network helps provide an economy of scale, not possible for individual buildings, for utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar heat, winter's cold, the cooling potential in some places of lakes or seawater for free cooling, the enabling function of seasonal thermal energy storage.
HVAC is based on inventions and discoveries made by Nikolay Lvov, Michael Faraday, Willis Carrier, Edwin Ruud, Reuben Trane, James Joule, William Rankine, Sadi Carnot, many others. Multiple inventions within this time frame preceded the beginnings of first comfort air conditioning system, designed in 1902 by Alfred Wolff for the New York Stock Exchange, while Willis Carrier equipped the Sacketts-Wilhems Printing Company with the process AC unit the same year. Coyne College was the first school to offer HVAC training in 1899; the invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial revolution, new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, system control are being introduced by companies and inventors worldwide. Heaters are appliances; this can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building; the heat can be transferred by conduction, or radiation.
Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels and gases. Another type of heat source is electricity heating ribbons composed of high resistance wire; this principle is used for baseboard heaters and portable heaters. Electrical heaters are used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump systems; the heat pump gained popularity in the 1950s in the United States. Heat pumps can extract heat from various sources, such as environmental air, exhaust air from a building, or from the ground. Heat pump HVAC systems were only used in moderate climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and reduced loads due to more efficient homes, they are increasing in popularity in cooler climates. In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
Jerry Butler, Jr. is an American soul singer-songwriter,producer and retired politician. He is noted as being the original lead singer of the R&B vocal group the Impressions, as well as a 1991 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee. Since leaving The Impressions, Jerry has had over 55 Billboard Pop & R&B Chart Hits as a solo artist, including some 15 Top 40 Pop Hits in the Hot 100, 15 R&B Top 10's, he served as a Commissioner for Cook County, from 1985 to 2018. As a member of this 17-member county board, he chaired the Health and Hospitals Committee, served as Vice Chair of the Construction Committee. Butler was born in Sunflower, Mississippi in 1939; the mid-1950s had a profound effect on Butler's life. He grew up poor. Music and the church provided solace from the poverty of the slums he lived in, difficulties of a predominantly segregated society, he performed in a church choir with Curtis Mayfield. As a teenager, Butler sang in a gospel quartet called Northern Jubilee Gospel Singers, along with Mayfield.
Mayfield, a guitar player, became the lone instrumentalist for the six-member Roosters group, which became The Impressions. Inspired by Sam Cooke and the Soul Stirrers, the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi, the Pilgrim Travelers, getting into the music industry seemed inevitable. Butler's younger brother, Billy Butler had a career in the music industry, including playing guitar with Jerry's band, until his death in 2015. Butler co-wrote the song "For Your Precious Love" and wanted to record a disc. Looking for recording studios, the Impressions, auditioned for Vee-Jay Records; the group signed with Vee-Jay, where they released "For Your Precious Love" in 1958. It became The Impressions' first gold record. Butler was dubbed the "Iceman" by WDAS Philadelphia disc jockey, Georgie Woods, while performing in a Philadelphia theater, he co-wrote, with Otis Redding, the song "I've Been Loving You Too Long" in 1965. Butler's solo career had a string of hits, including the Top 10 successes "He Will Break Your Heart", "Find Another Girl", "I'm A-Telling You", the million selling "Only the Strong Survive", "Moon River", "Need To Belong", "Make It Easy on Yourself", "Let It Be Me", "Brand New Me", "Ain't Understanding Mellow", "Hey, Western Union Man", "Never Give You Up".
His 1969 "Moody Woman" release became a Northern Soul favourite and featured at number 369 in the Northern Soul Top 500. Butler released The Ice Man Cometh and Ice on Ice; the Ice Man Cometh garnered Butler three Grammy nominations. He collaborated on many of his successful recordings with the Philadelphia-based songwriting team and Huff. With Motown, in 1976 and 1977, Butler produced and co-produced two albums: Suite for the Single Girl and It All Comes Out in My Song. Tony Orlando and Dawn revived "He Will Break Your Heart" in 1975, with a new title, "He Don't Love You", it was more successful than Butler's original, going to number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. Subsequently and Wilson produced an album with Dee Dee Sharp-Gamble with Philadelphia International. In 1981 with "Breaking and Entering" / "Easy Money", from Sharp-Gamble's album Dee Dee, Butler/Wilson's production spent four weeks at number one on the Billboard Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart. Butler continued to perform while serving as a Cook County Board Commissioner before retiring from public office in 2018.
As Cook County Commissioner, Butler voted to uphold a historic 2008 Cook County sales tax increase, which remains the highest in the nation. As a result, the Chicago Tribune encouraged people to vote against him in the 2010 elections. Butler, won reelection in March 2014 with over 80 percent of the vote. In recent years, he has served as host of PBS TV music specials such as Doo Wop 50 and 51, Rock Rhythm and Doo Wop, Soul Spectacular: 40 years of R&B, among others, he has served as chairman of the board of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. In 1991, Butler was inducted, along with the other original members of the Impressions, into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; the Hives covered "Find Another Girl" on their 2000 album Veni Vidi Vicious. The Black Keys covered "Never Give You Up" on Brothers, he resides in Chicago with his wife, one of his backup singers on the road. He has two sons and Tony, a grandson, Jeriel. Since his 1991 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Impressions, several music writers and critics have stated that Butler deserves a second induction as a solo artist, based upon his successful career as a recording artist and songwriter after leaving that group.
NB. * no R&B chart published during the chart runs of these singles R&B number-one hits of 1960 R&B number-one hits of 1961 R&B number-one hits of 1968 R&B number-one hits of 1969 List of soul musicians Pruter, Robert. Chicago Soul. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-252-06259-9 Mississippi musicians: Jerry Butler. Erica Covin Jerry Butler Biography on VH1.com Jerry Butler on Philly Soul Classics "The History Makers: Jerry Butler