Goya or the Hard Way to Enlightenment
Goya or the Hard Way to Enlightenment is a 1971 East German drama film directed by Konrad Wolf. It was entered into the 7th Moscow International Film Festival, it is based on a novel with the same title by Lion Feuchtwanger. Donatas Banionis as Francisco Goya Olivera Katarina as The Duchess of Alba Fred Düren as Esteve Tatyana Lolova as Queen Maria Luisa Rolf Hoppe as Charles IV of Spain Mieczyslaw Voit as Grand Inquisitor Mikhail Kozakov as Gilmarde Arno Wyzniewski as Quintana Lyudmila Chursina as Pepa Veriko Andjaparidze as Mother Ariadna Shengelaya as Josefa Gustaw Holoubek as Bermudez Wolfgang Kieling as Manuel Godoy Goya or the Hard Way to Enlightenment on IMDb
Levin (guitar company)
Levin was a Swedish manufacturer of musical instruments founded by Herman Carlson Levin. Active from 1900 to 1978, the company produced over half a million instruments guitars, but mandolins and lutes, making Levin the largest instrument manufacturer in Scandinavia for many years. Levin is best known for originating Goya acoustic guitars. Herman Carlson Levin was raised in Åsaka, Sweden. At age 18, he attended carpentry school and served an apprenticeship at a furniture maker in Gothenburg. In August 1887, Levin moved to America, working as a carpenter before getting a job in 1888 at a guitar factory. Three years Levin and two partners started small-scale production of instruments in New York City. While on a visit to Sweden 1895, Levin recognized that demand for instruments was high and that manufacturing of instruments in Sweden could be profitable. So with 4,000 kronas to invest, Levin opened Herman Carlssons Instrumentfabrik at Norra Larmgatan in Gothenburg. With a workshop of seventy square meters and a staff of two, Levin started manufacturing guitars and mandolins.
By the end of 1901, 473 instruments had been made, in 1903, with a staff of five, Levin's 1000th instrument was made. The Levin factory was one of the best in Europe, between 1904 and 1912 Levin received many awards, including the gold medal in Madrid for best guitar, as well as the exhibition's Grand Prix. By the mid-1920s the plant had made over 50,000 instruments, in 1925, production of a line of banjos was launched. By 1936, the 100,000th instrument had left the plant and Levin was marketing a successful line of archtop guitars. Shortly before 1940, Levin employed a staff of forty-five in a facility of a 1000 square meters. In the 1950s, Levin launched a line of inexpensive guitars intended for schools and novice guitar players. In 1952, Jerome Hershman, a guitar distributor from America, noticed a Levin guitar at a trade show in Germany and convinced the Levin company to let him market their guitars in America. Hershman believed that the brand name Levin would be hard to market in America, so he suggested the name Goya, inspired by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya, well known for depicting guitars in his paintings.
The Goya product line proved to be successful due to its high quality finish. The use of nylon strings gave the guitar a different tone than guitars that used steel strings, making it popular among folk musicians. In the late 1950s, a line of steel-stringed flat-tops were launched, furnished with adjustable truss rods and bolted necks. In the early 1960s, a line of "folk guitars" were launched with wide flat fretboards similar to those on nylon string guitars but fitted with steel strings; these instruments were developed in collaboration with American folk-singer Oscar Brand. Two 12-stringed flat-top models were launched during the same period. In 1967, a contract was signed between the Levin company and Goya Music for no fewer than 120,000 instruments over a period of ten years. At this time, the Goya export constituted 70% of the company's production, over 30,000 instruments guitars; the contract was broken by Goya Music in 1968 following the acquisition of Goya Music by Avnet Inc, which owned Guild Guitars.
The Goya distribution rights were sold in 1970 to amplifier manufacturer Kustom Electric of Chanute, Kansas. In 1972, Kustom went bankrupt and distribution was taken over by Dude Inc.. It is unclear if Levin delivered any instruments to Dude. In 1976, Dude sold the Goya brand to CF Martin, which had purchased the majority of the Levin Company a few years earlier. CF Martin started importing Japanese and Korean instruments under the Goya name, both the Goya and Levin brands reputation diminished. CF Martin stopped offering Goya instruments during the 1990s. In 1973, when Martin bought Levin, the facility became the European headquarters for Martin Guitars and their Japan import brand Sigma Guitars, as well as producing a run of some two-hundred Martin D-18 acoustic guitars, which were labelled "LD-18 - Made In Gothenburg, Sweden"; some LD 28 Martins stamped. In 1981, the last guitar was built in the Gothenburg facility and parts of the inventory and the brand were bought by Svensk Musik AB, which started producing Levin classical guitars in a factory owned by former guitar neck supplier Hans Persson.
Hans's son Lennart is still producing guitars for "Svenska Levin AB" in his father's workshop outside Mariestad, Sweden. Svenska Levin offers steel string flat tops and a line of archtop jazz guitars based on old Levin models, but they are made in Korea. In 2014, Anakronfilm released the documentary "Levin - ett namn med musik"; the film tells the story of the Levin company. Melodin om Levin 50th anniversary boklet "Levin collectors website". Archived from the original on 2009-02-17. Levin catalogs Inside story on Goya guitars "Official website". Archived from the original on 2009-02-21
Goya was a Norwegian motor freighter. Completed in 1940 for Johan Ludwig Mowinckel Rederi company, she was named after Francisco de Goya. Following the invasion of Norway she was seized by Germany and pressed into service of the Kriegsmarine as a troop transport. Near the end of the Second World War, the ship took part in Operation Hannibal, the evacuation of German military personnel and civilians from German-held pockets along the Baltic Sea. Loaded with thousands of refugees and Wehrmacht soldiers, the ship was sunk on 16 April 1945 by the Soviet submarine L-3. Most of the crew and passengers died; the sinking of Goya was one of the biggest single-incident maritime losses of life of the war, as such one of the largest maritime losses of life in history, with just 183 survivors among 6,700 passengers and crew. Goya was built as a freighter by the Akers Mekaniske Verksted shipyard in Oslo in 1940; the ship was 146 m long and 17.4 m wide, had a capacity of 5,230 GRT, a top speed of 18 knots. Following the German occupation of Norway, the ship was seized by Germany and in 1942 refitted as an auxiliary transport for German U-boats.
In 1943 she was turned into a depot ship, but the following year she was moved to Memel, where she was used as a target ship for torpedo practice by the 24th U-boat Flotilla. In 1945, during Operation Hannibal, Goya was used as both an evacuation ship and Wehrmacht troop transport, moving people from the eastern and southern Baltic to the west, her commanding officer was Captain Plünnecke. Contrary to popular belief, Goya was not a hospital ship but rather an ordinary troop transport. On 16 April 1945, Goya was sailing from Gotenhafen, around the Hel Peninsula and across the Baltic Sea to Kiel in western Germany; the convoy included Goya, as well as two smaller vessels and two minesweepers as convoy escort: M-256 and M-328. In accordance to Operation Hannibal, organised by the Führer and the head of the Kriegsmarine Karl Dönitz, the Goya was one of more than 1,000 ships commissioned to participate in the evacuation; the ship, meant to accommodate only 850 crew members but was overcrowded with more than 7,000 eastern European refugees, including 200 men of the 25th Panzer Regiment.
Four hours after leaving the port, close to the southern tip of Hel Peninsula, the convoy was attacked by Soviet bombers. During the air raids one of the bombs hit Goya. After rounding the Hel Peninsula and leaving Danzig Bay, several miles north of Cape Rixhöft, the convoy was sighted by the Soviet minelayer submarine L-3, which carried torpedoes. While Goya was faster than submarines, the convoy was slowed down by the engine problems of the Kronenfels, which required a 20-minute stop for repairs. At 4 minutes before midnight, the commander of L-3, Captain Vladimir Konovalov, gave the order to fire a spread of four torpedoes. Two of them hit Goya; the impact of the torpedoes was so great that the ship's masts collapsed upon the refugees sleeping on the top deck. Within moments, the ship broke in two and while fire consumed the upper portions of the Goya, it sank in less than four minutes, drowning thousands in their sleep, shortly after midnight. Goya, a freighter without the safety features of a passenger ship or a proper troop transport, sank to a depth of 76 metres.
As the ship sank in under four minutes, most passengers either went down with her or died of hypothermia in the icy waters of the Baltic Sea. The exact death toll is difficult to estimate. Authors cite the total number of passengers as "over 6000", 6700, or 7200, although the exact number might never be known, as the evacuated military personnel and civilians boarded the ships in chaotic circumstances and occupied all available space on ships leaving the German enclaves in East Prussia and occupied Poland. In any case, the death toll exceeded 6000 and most reached 7,000, making the sinking one of the worst maritime disasters by number of casualties, exceeded only by Wilhelm Gustloff; the exact number of survivors is a matter of dispute. Most place it at around 182 people saved. However, other figures are used, notably 172 and 183; the position of the wreck has been known to Polish fishermen for a long time. On 26 August 2002, the wreck was discovered by Polish technical divers Grzegorz Dominik, Michał Porada and Marek Jagodziński, who salvaged the ship's compass.
58 years after the sinking of Goya, the wreck was located on 16 April 2003 by an international expedition under the direction of Ulrich Restemeyer with the help of 3D-Sonar scanning. The position records of Goya's accompanying ships were found to be incorrect made during a hasty escape. During the rediscovery another, ship had been seen above the wreck, which at first was thought to carry fishermen, but when Restemeyer's Fritz Reuter came close, the ship carrying divers, left; the wreck lies at a depth of 76 meters below the surface of the Baltic Sea and is in remarkably good condition, though covered with nets. Survivors have mourned the tragedy by laying wreaths at the surface to show condolences to the 7,000 people who were killed here. Shortly after the discovery, the wreck was declared a war grave by the Polish Maritime Office in Gdynia. In 2006 the decision was published in an official government gazette of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and thus it is i
MS Goya was a Norwegian refugee ship that carried hundreds of Eastern European refugees to New Zealand in 1951. Most notably it carried several men who went on to play a significant role in the development of the New Zealand Muslim Association including Mazhar Krasniqi and Nazmi Mehmeti; the vessel as launched by a German company, the Woermann Line, as the Kamerun in May 1938. In May 1945 the Kamerun was ceded to Norway as part of Germany's war reparations. In 1947 it was renamed the Goya. In 1949 Mowinckels secured an IRO contract to transport displaced persons and in 1950 the ship made trips between Italy and Australia; the ship departed Piraeus and arrived in Wellington on 1 May 1951. All the refugees were interned for three months at the former Prisoner of War camp in the small rural settlement of Pahiatua to learn English, New Zealand law and customs. There were over 900 refugees on board ethnic Greeks from Romania but Estonians and other eastern Europeans. 50 were Muslim men including Petrit Alliu, Fadil Katseli, Selahattin Kefali, Ramzi Kosovich, Akif Keskin, Mazhar Krasniqi, Nazmi Mehmeti, Bajram Murati, Omar Alim Pepich, Shaqir Seferi and Samso Yusovich.
That same year there were two more drafts of refugees with smaller numbers on board. The majority of the Muslims were Albanians and Bosnians but there was a Turk, an Azerbaijani, three Bulgarians and two Tartars. According to Mazhar Krasniqi, many of the Muslims observed Ramadan whilst in Pahiatua when it started in the first week of June. Within a few years they were living in Auckland and in close contact through the New Zealand Muslim Association. "Indian Muslims helped them in the process of settling into their new homeland". The effect of this was to increase the number of Muslims in New Zealand and in Auckland in particular. According to the Government census the number of Muslims leapt from a total figure of 67 in 1945 to 205 six years in 1951. In 2001 a modest commemorative function attended by Lianne Dalziel was held at the Santorini Greek Restaurant in Christchurch to mark 50 years. In 2008 John Vakidis published his play Tzigane, a fictionalised account of his parents journey on the ship.
The play was first performed at the Downstage Theatre in Wellington and won five awards at the Chapman Tripp Theatre Awards in 1996. In 1964 the ship was sold to a Greece company and in 1969 it was sent to Taiwan for demolition as scrap metal. Bishop, Martin C.. A History of the Muslim Community in New Zealand to 1980. University of Waikato. Drury, Abdullah. Islam in New Zealand: The First Mosque. Christchurch. ISBN 978-0-473-12249-2. Brooking, T.. Greif, Stuart William, ed. Immigration and National Identity in New Zealand. P. 40. Drury, Abdullah "Once Were Mahometans: Muslims in the South Island of New Zealand, mid-19th to late 20th century, with special reference to Canterbury", Hamilton. L/22/5 The International Refugee Organization Mass Resettlement to New Zealand Nominal Roll of Persons Departing from Piraeus, Greece on M/V GOYA on 31 March 1951. New Zealand Population Census 1951. III - Religious Professions. Wellington. 1953. P. 9. Peter Plowman, Australian Migration Ships 1946-1977, p.36. Matt Stewart, "150 years of news - Pahiatua camp a homage to United Nations' principles", Dominion-Post, 5 October 2015, http://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/news/wairarapa/72592677/150-years-of-news--pahiatua-camp-a-homage-to-united-nations-principles
Lion Feuchtwanger was a German-Jewish novelist and playwright. A prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, he influenced contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht. Feuchtwanger's Judaism and fierce criticism of the Nazi Party, years before it assumed power, ensured that he would be a target of government-sponsored persecution after Adolf Hitler's appointment as chancellor of Germany in January 1933. Following a brief period of internment in France and a harrowing escape from Continental Europe, he found asylum in the United States, where he died in 1958. Feuchtwanger's Jewish ancestors originated from the Middle Franconian city of Feuchtwangen; some of the expellees subsequently settled in Fürth, where they were called the Feuchtwangers, meaning those from Feuchtwangen. Feuchtwanger's grandfather Elkan moved to Munich in the middle of the 19th century, he was born in 1884 to Orthodox Jewish margarine manufacturer Sigmund Feuchtwanger and his wife, Johanna née Bodenheim.
He was the oldest in a family of nine siblings of whom two and Ludwig Feuchtwanger, became authors. Two of his sisters settled in Palestine following the rise of the Nazi Party. One was killed in a concentration camp, another settled in New York. Lion studied philosophy in the universities of Munich and Berlin, he won an award. In 1903 in Munich, he passed his Abitur examinations at Wilhelmsgymnasium, he studied history and German philology in Munich and Berlin. He received his PhD under Francis Muncker, on Heinrich Heine's The Rabbi of Bacharach. After studying a variety of subjects, he became a theatre critic and founded the culture magazine Der Spiegel in 1908; the first issue appeared on 30 April. After 15 issues and six months, Der Spiegel merged with Siegfried Jacobsohn's journal Die Schaubühne for which Feuchtwanger continued to write. In 1912, he married Marta Loeffler, she was pregnant at the wedding. At the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Feuchtwanger served in the German military service but was released early for health reasons.
His experience as a soldier contributed to his leftist writings. In 1916, he published a play based on the story of Joseph Süß Oppenheimer which premiered in 1917, but Feuchtwanger withdrew it a couple years as he was dissatisfied with it. During the German Revolution of 1918 -- 1919, Feuchtwanger was unable to participate. Feuchtwanger soon became a figure in the literary world, he was sought out by the young Bertolt Brecht. Both collaborated on drafts of Brecht's early work, The Life of Edward II of England, in 1923-1924. According to Feuchtwanger's widow, Feuchtwanger was a possible source for the titles of two other Brecht works, including Drums in the Night. After some success as a playwright, Feuchtwanger shifted his emphasis to the historical novel, his most successful work in this genre was Jud Süß, written 1921-1922, published 1925, well-received internationally. His second great success was The Ugly Duchess Margarete Maultasch. For professional reasons, he moved to Berlin in 1925 and to a large villa in Grunewald in 1932.
He published the first part of the trilogy Josephus The Jewish War in 1932. Feuchtwanger was one of the first to produce propaganda against Hitler and the Nazi Party; as early as 1920 he published in the satirical text Conversations with the Wandering Jew: Towers of Hebrew books were burned, bonfires were erected high up in the clouds, people burnt, innumerable priests and voices sang: Gloria in excelsis Deo. Traits of men, children dragged themselves across the square from all sides, they were naked or in rags, they had nothing with them as corpses and the tatters of book rolls of torn, soiled with feces Books roles, and they followed men and women in kaftans and dresses the children in our day, endless. Feuchtwanger was well known throughout Germany in 1925, when his first popular novel, Jud Süß, appeared; the story of Joseph Süß Oppenheimer had been the subject of a number of literary and dramatic treatments over the course of the past century. The most successful literary adaptation was Feuchtwanger's 1925 novel, based on a play he had written in 1916 but withdrew.
Feuchtwanger intended his portrayal of Süß not as an antisemitic slur but as a study of the tragedy caused by the human weaknesses of greed and ambition. The novel was rejected by the major publishing houses and was reluctantly taken on by a small publishing house. However, the novel was so well-received that it went through five printings of 39,000 copies within a year as well as being translated into 17 languages by 1931; the novel's success established Feuchtwanger as a major German author as well as giving him a royalty stream that afforded him a measure of financial independence for the rest of his life. His drama and his hugely successful novel were adapted for the cinema screen in a sympathetic version produced at Denham Studios in Great Britain in 1934 under the direction of fellow German expatriate Lothar Mendes with one of Germany's greatest actors a refugee from Nazi persecution, Conrad Veidt: Jew Süss; the NSDAP party in Germany made their own anti-Semitic version under the same title, to undercut the British film.
The Nazi film industry version was made under the direction of Veit Harlan: Jud Süß (1
Goya: A Life in Song
Goya: A Life in Song is a musical theatre work with music and lyrics by American composer Maury Yeston released in 1989 as a concept album. Sony made a Spanish-language version of the musical entitled Goya: Una vida hecha canción in 1992. Both albums starred Spanish tenor Plácido Domingo. A song from Goya, "Till I Loved You," became a hit single. Popular opera singer Plácido Domingo was interested in starring in a stage musical about Spanish painter Francisco de Goya and suggested to producer Alan Carr that Yeston would be the right person to create the vehicle, since Domingo had admired Yeston's work on the musical Nine; because of Domingo's time commitments, the musical was made as a concept album. Domingo sang the role of Goya, with supporting roles sung by Dionne Warwick, Gloria Estefan, Jennifer Rush, Joseph Cerisano aka Joe Cerisano, Richie Havens and Seiko Matsuda; the recording was released by CBS/Sony. Not available for 20 years, Masterworks Broadway released a digitally remastered version of the album on September 28, 2010.
The score featured one break-out song, "Till I Loved You", re-recorded by Domingo with singer Jennifer Rush and became a hit in Europe. Domingo and Gloria Estefan recorded a version of the number entitled "Hasta amarte" on the Spanish-language Goya: Una vida hecha canción, it reached #8 on Billboard's Hot Latin Songs chart. The Brazilian edition of the album included a Portuguese version of "Till I Loved You" by Domingo and Simone Bittencourt de Oliveira, it was subsequently a US Top 40 hit by Don Johnson. The album itself reached No. 36 in the UK albums chart in June 1989. In spite of that commercial success, the musical has not received a major staging. All titles composed by Maury Yeston "Overture/Espana" 4:22 "The Astounding Romantic Adventures of Goya/In the Middle of the 18th Century" 5:34 "Girl With a Smile" 2:05 "Till I Loved You" 4:52 "Picture It" 4:34 "I Will Paint Sounds" 4:48 "Viva Espana" 5:35 "Once a Time" 3:43 "I Stand Alone" 3:34 "Dog in the Quicksand" 3:41 "Moving On" 2:38 "Bon Soir" 2:39 "Finale" 1:42 "Hasta Amarte" 4:50
Goya Foods, Inc. is an American producer of a brand of foods sold in the United States and many Hispanic countries. The company headquarters is in New Jersey, it is the largest Hispanic-owned food company in the United States. It is a third-generation family-owned business. Goya was founded by Prudencio Unanue Ortiz from Valle de Mena, Spain. Unanue emigrated to Puerto Rico, where he met and married Carolina Casal a Spanish immigrant, they moved to New York City. Prudencio believed that his name was too difficult to pronounce for American customers, so he purchased the name of one of his suppliers, a Moroccan sardine company named "Goya"; the company was set up in the Financial District of Manhattan, importing Spanish foods like olives and olive oil. Goya provides Spanish, Puerto Rican, Mexican and Central and South American cuisine. Goya operates a 220,000-square-foot manufacturing facility in San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic, a 100,000-square-foot distribution center in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. Goya's 3,500 employees worldwide produce over 2,200 products that are available in local grocery stores and supermarket chains throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, international markets.
Goya Foods is headquartered in New Jersey. Its manufacturing and distribution centers are located in: Secaucus, New Jersey. Goya's national sponsorships include the National Council of La Raza, the National Puerto Rican Day Parade, the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, the National Hispanic Leadership Institute. Goya is the first Hispanic company to be exhibited at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. In 1992, Goya began to focus promotion efforts towards a culinary market. In 2006, Forbes ranked Goya 355th on its list of the largest private companies in the United States,In 2011, the company unveiled plans to expand with a 500,000-square-foot distribution center in adjacent Jersey City; the groundbreaking ceremony for the new facility occurred on September 5, 2012. In 2012, the company joined; the current headquarters is on a 40-acre lot in New Jersey. Built for $127 million, it has 615,000 square feet of space, with 38,000 square feet of office space and 577,000 square feet of warehouse space.
Unanue family La Costeña Goya Foods Goya Foods, Collection 1960-2000 PR Agency