The 11th Division conducted the Sancheong-Hamyang massacre two days earlier. The general commanding the division was Choe Deok-sin, in March 1951, Shin Chung-mok, a leading assembly lawmaker from Geochang reported the massacre to the National Assembly against South Korean Army cover up. The National Assemblys special investigation team investigated, but was hampered by the South Korean Armys interruption, Shin was arrested and sentenced to death in an Army court martial. In May 1951, the investigation team was dispatched by the National Assembly. After the investigation, Major Han and Colonel Oh Ik-gyun were sentenced to life in prison by a military court, president Syngman Rhee subsequently granted clemency to criminals. This massacre is pointed out as an example of oppression under his rule, in April 2004, the Geochang Massacre Memorial Park was founded in memory of the victims, in Geochang. On 20 February 2006, National Archives and Records Service reported the files about the massacre were found, in 2001, a local court ordered the South Korean government to pay reparations to the victims families.
On 18 May 2004, a court ruled that a charge of massacre against the South Korean governmental was barred by limitation. On 5 June 2008, the South Korean Supreme Court confirmed that the charge was barred by limitation, on September 9,2010, An was fired for disclosing Geochang massacre documents. The National Defense Ministry accused An of disclosing the documents which he had only permitted to view under the condition of nondisclosure
Bodo League massacre
The Bodo League massacre was a massacre and war crime against communists and suspected sympathizers that occurred in the summer of 1950 during the Korean War. Estimates of the death toll vary, according to Prof. Kim Dong-Choon, Commissioner of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, at least 100,000 people were executed on suspicion of supporting communism, others estimate 200,000 deaths. The massacre was blamed on the communists. For four decades the South Korean government concealed this massacre, survivors were forbidden by the government from revealing it, under suspicion of being communist sympathizers. Public revelation carried with it the threat of torture and death, during the 1990s and onwards, several corpses were excavated from mass graves, resulting in public awareness of the massacre. In June 1949 the South Korean government accused independence activists of being members of the Bodo League, the League had been created by Korean jurists who had collaborated with the Japanese. Non-communist sympathizers or political opponents of South Korean President Syngman Rhee were forced into the Bodo League to fill enlistment quotas.
In 1950, just before the outbreak of the Korean War, under the leadership of Kim Il-sung, the Korean Peoples Army attacked from the north on 25 June 1950, starting the Korean War. The first massacre was started one day in Hoengseong, Gangwon-do on 28 June, retreating South Korean forces and anti-communist groups executed the alleged communist prisoners, along with many of the Bodo League members. The executions were performed without any trials or sentencing, Kim Tae Sun, the chief of the Seoul Metropolitan Police, admitted to personally executing at least 12 communists and suspected communists after the outbreak of the war. When Seoul was recaptured in late September 1950, an estimated 30,000 South Koreans were summarily deemed collaborators with the North Koreans, a mass execution of 3,400 South Koreans did indeed take place near Busan that summer. United States official documents show that American officers witnessed and photographed the massacre, in one case a US officer is known to have sanctioned the killing of political prisoners so that they would not fall into enemy hands.
American witnesses reported the scene of the execution of a girl who appeared to be 12 or 13 years old, the massacre was reported to both Washington and Gen. Douglas MacArthur, who described it as an internal matter. According to one witness,40 victims had their backs broken with rifle butts and were shot later, in many seaside villages victims were tied together and thrown into the sea to drown. Retired South Korean Adm. Nam Sang-hui confessed that he authorized 200 victims bodies to be thrown into the sea, There were British and Australian witnesses. During the massacre, the British protected their allies and saved some citizens, after the UN offensive in which South Korea recovered its occupied territories, the police and militia groups executed suspected North Korean sympathizers. In October 1950, the Goyang Geumjeong Cave Massacre occurred, in December, British troops saved civilians lined up to be shot by South Korean officers and seized one execution site outside Seoul to prevent further massacres.
On January 4,1951, the Ganghwa massacre was committed by South Korean police, according to a South Korean report, South Korea and the U. S. aided right-wing civil organizations, such as the Ganghwa Self-defense Forces, by providing combat equipment and supplies
Namyangju is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. To the east is Gapyeong County, to the west is Guri City, Namyangju historical character, Jeong Yak-yong, Jeong Yag-yong or Dasan, was a leading Korean philosopher during the Joseon Dynasty. He is widely regarded as the greatest of the Silhak thinkers, Jeong Yag-yong and his brothers were among the earliest Korean converts to Roman Catholicism. Jeong was born, and ended his days, in modern-day Namyangju,1995 January 1 Migeum City and Namyangju County were merged. 2006 January 20 Pungyang branch office opened, It has jurisdiction over Onam-eup, Jinjeob-eup, Toegyewon-myeon, Byeolnae-myeon 2006 November 20 In Hwado-eup,2008 October 7 The population reached 500,000. 2009 December 14 Cheonghak branch office closed,2011 September Namyangju Organic Museum opened, worlds first museum of organic agriculture. The Transportation and Construction Committee of the National Assembly has approved that Line 4 will be extended from Danggogae to Jinjeop, the 2012 Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation drama Arang and the Magistrate, starring Lee Joon-gi, Shin Min-ah and Yeon Woo-jin, were filmed on location in Namyangju.
There are 2 campuses of Gyeong Hee graduate school and Gyeong bok college,15 high schools,29 middle schools, Namyangju is rapidly developing a reputation as a regional centre of excellence for organic farming. The Namyangju Organic Museum, the worlds first museum dedicated to the history and development of organic agriculture and it is located west of Seoul and on the shores of the River Han. The museums opening coincided with Namyangju hosting the 17th IFOAM Organic World Congress, the sweet pears are exported to the USA, Canada. Organic vegetables are cultivated with ecofriendly methods, Gorosoei is a special product made in the Namyangju area. It is medicinal water which has abundant minerals, the term Gorosoei comes from Gollisu meaning water for bones. The sap is extracted at Sudong-Myeon, Mountain Jugeum in Mount Chungnyeong Natural Recreation Forest, Mount Cheonma in Palhyeon, Lee Kwang-soo – actor and model. Dartford, United Kingdom Changzhou, China Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Gangjin, South Korea Yeongwol, South Korea Vinh, Vietnam List of cities in South Korea City government website
The Seoul Capital Area houses up to half of the countrys population of 50.22 million people with 678,102 international residents. Situated on the Han River, Seouls history stretches back more than two years when it was founded in 18 BCE by Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. It continued as the capital of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by mountains, the tallest being Mt. Bukhan, in 2015, it was rated Asias most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis. In 2014, the citys GDP per capita of $39,786 was comparable to that of France and Finland. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, Seoul is the worlds most wired city and ranked first in technology readiness by PwCs Cities of Opportunity report. It is served by the KTX high-speed rail and the Seoul Subway, providing 4G LTE, WiFi, Seoul is connected via AREX to Incheon International Airport, rated the worlds best airport nine years in a row by Airports Council International.
Lotte World Tower, a 556-metre supertall skyscraper with 123 floors, has built in Seoul and become the OECDs tallest in 2016. Its Lotte Cinema houses the worlds largest cinema screen, Seouls COEX Mall is the worlds largest underground shopping mall. Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games,1988 Summer Olympics,2002 FIFA World Cup, the Miss Universe 1980 pageant, a UNESCO City of Design, Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. The city has known in the past by the names Wirye-seong, Hanju. During Japans annexation in Korea, Hanseong was renamed to Keijō by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja 漢, in reality, the ancient name of Seoul, originally had the meaning of big or vast. Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning city, which is believed to be derived from the word Seorabeol, which originally referred to Gyeongju. Unlike most place names in Korea, Seoul has no corresponding hanja, on January 18,2005, Seoul government officially changed its official Chinese language name to Shouer from the historic Hancheng, of which use is becoming less common.
Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, Seoul is first recorded as Wiryeseong, the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area date from this time. Pungnaptoseong, a wall just outside Seoul, is widely believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site. As the Three Kingdoms competed for this region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century
The Chosun Ilbo
The Chosun Ilbo is one of the major newspapers in South Korea. With a daily circulation of more than 1,800,000, Chosun Ilbo and its subsidiary company, Digital Chosun, operates the Chosun. com news website, which publishes web versions of the newspaper in English and Japanese. The Chosun Ilbo Establishment Union was created in September 1919, the newspaper was critical of, and sometimes directly opposed to, the actions of the Japanese government during Japanese colonial rule. On August 27,1920, the Chosun Ilbo was suspended after it published an editorial criticizing what it said was the use of force by the Japanese police against Korean citizens. This was the first in a string of suspensions, on September 5,1920, three days after the first suspension was lifted, the newspaper published an editorial, Did the Japanese central governing body shut down our newspaper. Then, Chosun Ilbo was given an indefinite suspension, in June 1923, Chosun Ilbo celebrated its one thousandth issue. It had achieved many milestones, including being the first newspaper in Korea to publish both morning and evening editions, send international correspondents to Russia, and publish cartoons.
However, in same month, it was given its third. In 1927, the Chosun Ilbos editor and publisher were arrested, the editor was the chief staff writer. The alleged offense in this case was an editorial describing the mistreatment of prisoners by the colonial government. In May of the year, in response to an editorial criticizing the deployment of troops into Shandong. The publisher and chief writer, An Jae-hong, were again imprisoned. After these events, the Chosun Ilbo remained at the forefront of events, trying to improve general public life and this was a turbulent period, within the space of three years, the president was replaced three times. On December 21,1935, in opposition to compulsory Japanese education and plans to assimilate the Korean people and language, the Chosun Ilbo published 100,000 Korean-language textbooks nationwide. Over the years, the Chosun Ilbo company published additional titles, including a monthly current affairs magazine, Youth Chosun. Others included its sister publication, Jogwang, in the summer of 1940, following issue 6,923, the paper was declared officially discontinued by the Japanese ruling government.
In the twenty years since its founding, the paper had been suspended by the Japanese government four times, when Korea gained independence in 1945, the Chosun Ilbo came back into publication after a five-year, three-month hiatus. Besides the daily newspaper, the company publishes the weekly Jugan Chosun
The Hankyoreh is a daily newspaper in South Korea. When it opened, it claimed to be the first newspaper in the truly independent of political power. As of 2016, it has been voted as the most trusted news organization by Korean journalists for nine consecutive years, the newspaper was originally established as Hankyoreh Shinmun on May 15,1988 by ex-journalists from the Dong-a Ilbo and Chosun Ilbo. At the time, government censors were in every newsroom, newspaper content was dictated by the Ministry of Culture & Information. It was the first newspaper in Korea to be printed horizontally instead of vertically. S or Japan, where the Hankyoreh has criticized the Bush administrations foreign policies on numerous occasions, it has tended to be favorable on the Obama administrations foreign policies on North Korea. On the domestic front, Hankyoreh has been characterized as opposed to big business, Hankyoreh runs a Hankyoreh Foundation for Reunification and Culture as a forum for advocacy of peace and reunification on the Korean peninsula.
The newspaper currently has more than 60,000 citizen shareholders, core shareholders include students, lawyers, dissidents, progressive urban industrial workers, and leftwing farmers. The company remains intentionally unlisted to avoid hostile takeover, it has never shown three consecutive years of profit, one of the requirements for listing. Readership of the newspaper is distributed between provinces and the major metropolitan areas, of which 63. 2% were in their twenties and thirties. Hankyorehs readership is mostly of low to middle class income, Hankyoreh enjoys high popularity and prestige among graduates seeking employment, with over 8,000 applicants applying for 33 positions as of 2006. To some degree, prestige is its own reward for Hankyorehs employees, after two decades in print, Hankyorehs subscriber base is still comparatively small. Its circulation of about 600,000 readers, puts it at one third the size of any of the three dailies, though still ahead of specialist economic dailies.
It is the fourth largest newspaper in Korea, As in the past, much of Hankyorehs editorial content consists of strident criticism of the three major newspapers. It has endorsed boycott campaigns of companies that advertise in its competitors and it has a web edition in English
The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The AP is owned by its contributing newspapers and radio and television stations in the United States, all of which stories to the AP. Most of the AP staff are members and are represented by the Newspaper Guild, which operates under the Communications Workers of America. As of 2007, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,700 newspapers, in addition to more than 5,000 television, the photograph library of the AP consists of over 10 million images. The AP operates 243 news bureaus in 120 countries and it operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports.
The AP employs the inverted pyramid formula for writing that enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the storys essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, some historians believe that the Tribune joined at this time, documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851, initially known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. The revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, when the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity. The invention of the press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour.
During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921. He embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity, the cooperative grew rapidly under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East. He introduced the telegraph typewriter or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914, in 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gave AP a major advantage over other media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco, eventually AP had its network across the whole United States, in 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. The decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, AP entered the broadcast field in 1941 when it began distributing news to radio stations, it created its own radio network in 1974
A massacre is a specific incident which involves the killing of people, although not necessarily a crime against humanity. Further origins are dubious, though may be related to Latin macellum provisions store, robert Melsons basic working definition, reads, by massacre we shall mean the intentional killing by political actors of a significant number of relatively defenseless people. The motives for massacre need not be rational in order for the killings to be intentional, Mass killings can be carried out for various reasons, including a response to false rumors. Should be distinguished from criminal or pathological mass killings, as political bodies we of course include the state and its agencies, but nonstate actors. Equally important is that massacres are not carried out by individuals, the use of superior, even overwhelming force. Levene excludes legal, or even some quasi-legal, mass executions and he points out that it is. most often. When the act is outside the normal bounds of the society witnessing it.
List of events named massacres Disaster Ethnic cleansing Genocide Killing spree Mass murder Pogrom Tragedy Tragedy War crime
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The earliest Korean pottery dates to 8000 BC, with three kingdoms flourishing in the 1st century BC and its rich and vibrant culture left 19 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity, the third largest in the world, along with 12 World Heritage Sites. Annexed into Imperial Japan in 1910, Korea was divided after its surrender in 1945, peace has since mostly continued with the two agreeing to work peacefully for reunification and the South solidifying peace as a regional power with the worlds 10th largest defence budget. South Koreas tiger economy soared at an average of 10% for over 30 years in a period of rapid transformation called the Miracle on the Han River. A long legacy of openness and focus on innovation made it successful, today, it is the worlds fifth largest exporter with the G20s largest budget surplus and highest credit rating of any country in East Asia.
It has free trade agreements with 75% of the economy and is the only G20 nation trading freely with China, the US. Since 1988, its constitution guarantees a liberal democracy with high government transparency, high personal freedoms led to the rise of a globally influential pop culture such as K-pop and K-drama, a phenomenon called the Korean Wave, known for its distinctive fashionable and trendy style. Home of the UN Green Climate Fund and GGGI, South Korea is a leader in low carbon growth, committed to helping developing countries as a major DAC. It is the third least ignorant country in the Index of Ignorance, ranking eighth highest for peaceful tolerance. It is the worlds largest spender on R&D per GDP, leading the OECD in graduates in science, the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a form of its name. The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, and thus inherited its name, the modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Companys Hendrick Hamel.
After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the name for the entire territory. The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon, in 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk. The name Daehan, which means great Han literally, derives from Samhan, the name Joseon was still widely used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted, there were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the part of the Korean Peninsula
The victims were massacred because they were suspected communist supporters or collaborators. However, the South Korean government blamed the crime on communist guerrillas for decades, on 26 June 2006, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Korea concluded that the massacre was committed by the South Korean Army. However, a South Korean local court decided that charging the South Korean government with the massacre was barred by statute of limitations, on 10 February 2009, the South Korean high court dismissed the victims family complaint. In June 2011, the Supreme Court of South Korea decided that the South Korean government should compensate victims of the crimes it had committed regardless of the deadline to make the claim. Truth and Reconciliation Commission Bodo League massacre Jeju Uprising List of massacres in South Korea 국가범죄 문경학살사건 항소심서도 패소 판결 CBS 2009-08-06
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. Borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation, hanja-mal or hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although hanja is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese, only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding hanja characters. Today, a working knowledge of Chinese characters is still important for anyone who wishes to study older texts. Learning a certain number of hanja is very helpful for understanding the etymology of Sino-Korean words, hanja are not used to write native Korean words, which are always rendered in hangul, and even words of Chinese origin—hanja-eo —are written with the hangul alphabet most of the time.
A major motivation for the introduction of Chinese characters into Korea was the spread of Buddhism, the major Chinese text that introduced hanja to Koreans, was not a religious text but the Chinese text, Cheonjamun. One way of adapting hanja to write Korean in such systems was to represent native Korean grammatical particles, for example, Gugyeol uses the characters 爲尼 to transcribe the Korean word hăni, in modern Korean, that means does, and so. However, in Chinese, the characters are read as the expression wéi ní. This is an example of Gugyeol words where the radical is read in Korean for its meaning. Hanja was the means of writing Korean until King Sejong the Great promoted the invention of hangul in the 15th century. However, even after the invention of hangul, most Korean scholars continued to write in hanmun and it was not until the 20th century that hangul truly replaced hanja. Officially, hanja has not been used in North Korea since June 1949, many words borrowed from Chinese have been replaced in the North with native Korean words.
However, there are a number of Chinese-borrowed words in widespread usage in the North. The replacement has been less total in South Korea where, although usage has declined over time, some remains in common usage in some contexts. Each hanja is composed of one of 214 radicals plus in most cases one or more additional elements, the vast majority of hanja use the additional elements to indicate the sound of the character, but a few hanja are purely pictographic, and some were formed in other ways. This dual meaning-sound reading of a character is called eumhun, the word or words used to denote the meaning are often—though hardly always—words of native Korean origin, and are sometimes archaic words no longer commonly used. South Korean primary schools abandoned the teaching of hanja in 1971 and it is taught in separate courses in South Korean high schools, separately from the normal Korean-language curriculum