Le Puy-en-Velay is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France near the Loire river. Its inhabitants are called Ponots; the city is famous for its cathedral, for a kind of lentil, for its lace-making. Le Puy-en-Velay was a major bishopric in medieval France, founded early, its early history is legendary. According to a martyrology compiled by Ado of Vienne, published in many copies in 858, supplemented in the mid-10th century by Gauzbert of Limoges, a priest named George accompanied a certain Front, the first Bishop of Périgueux, when they were sent to proselytize in Gaul. Front was added to the list of the apostles to Gaul, who in tradition are described as being sent out to reorganize Christians after the persecutions that are associated with Decius, circa 250; as with others of the group, notably Saint Martial of Limoges mythology pushed the activities of Saint Front and the priest George back in time. It tells; the expanding legend of this St. George, according to the Church historian Duchesne is not earlier than the 11th century makes that saint one of the Seventy Apostles of the Gospel of Luke.
It tells that he founded the church of the que dicitur Vetula in pago Vellavorum, the city "called Vetula in the pays of the Vellavi" was how a document of 1004 termed it. This was. Vetula means "the old woman", pagans were still making small images of her as late as the 6th century in Flanders, according to the vita of Saint Eligius; this was the first cathedral at Le Puy. Following St. George the founder medieval local traditions evoke a legendary list of bishops at this chief town of the pays of Le Velay: Macarius, Roricius, Eusebius and Vosy, all of them canonized by local veneration; the Gaulish settlement of Ruessium/Vellavorum was given its Christianizing name, Saint-Paulien, from Bishop Paulianus. A bishop Evodius attended the Council of Valence in 374. In the early 1180s peasants of Le Puy, led by a carpenter named Durandus, formed a conspiratio called the Capucciati, they challenged seigneurial dominance in a short-lived attempt at reformation. The Christianization legends of Mons Anicius relate that at the request of Bishop Martial of Limoges, Bishop Evodius/Vosy ordered an altar to the Virgin Mary to be erected on the pinnacle that surmounts Mont Anis.
Some such beginning of the shrine Christianized the pagan site. This marked one starting-point for the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostela, a walk of some 1600 km, as it still does today; the old town of Le Puy developed around the base of the cathedral. Pilgrims came early to Le Puy, this was the most popular destination in France during the Middle Ages. Charlemagne came twice, in 772 and 800. There is a legend that in 772, he established a foundation at the cathedral for ten poor canons, he chose Le Puy, with Aachen and Saint-Gilles, as a center for the collection of Peter's Pence. Charles the Bald visited Le Puy in 877, count of Paris in 892, Robert II in 1029, Philip Augustus in 1183. Louis IX met James I of Aragon there in 1245, in 1254, when passing through Le Puy on his return from the Holy Land, he gave the cathedral an ebony image of the Blessed Virgin clothed in gold brocade, she is one of the many dozens of venerable "Black Virgins" of France. It was destroyed during the Revolution, but replaced at the Restoration with a copy that continues to be venerated.
After him, Le Puy was visited by Philip the Bold in 1282, by Philip the Fair in 1285, by Charles VI in 1394, by Charles VII in 1420, by Isabelle Romée, the mother of Joan of Arc, in 1429. Louis XI made the pilgrimage in 1436 and 1475, in 1476 halted three leagues from the city and walked barefoot to the cathedral. Charles VIII visited it in 1495, Francis I in 1533; the legendary early shrine on the summit of Mons Anicius, which drew so many, would seem to predate the founding of an early church of Our Lady of Le Puy at Anicium. It was attributed to Bishop Vosy. Crowning the hill was a megalithic dolmen. A local tradition rededicated the curative virtue of the sacred site to Mary, who cured ailments when a person touched the standing stone; when the founding bishop Vosy climbed the hill, he found. The Bishop was apprised in a vision that the angels themselves had dedicated the future cathedral to the Blessed Virgin, whence the epithet "Angelic" given to the cathedral of Le Puy; the great dolmen was left standing in the center of the Christian sanctuary, constructed around it.
By the 8th century, the stone, popularly known as the "stone of visions", was taken down and broken up. Its pieces were incorporated into the floor of a particular section of the church that came to be called the Chambre Angélique, or the "angels' chamber." It is impossible to say whether this St. Evodius is the same person who signed the decrees of the Council of Valence in 374. Neither can it be affirmed that St. Benignus, who in the 7th century founded a hospital at the gates of the basilica, St. Agrevius, the 7th-century martyr from whom the town of Saint-Agrève Chiniacum took its name, were bishops. Duchesne thinks that the chronology of these early bishops rests on littl
Association Sportive de Saint-Étienne Loire is a French association football club based in Saint-Étienne. The club was founded in 1919 and plays in Ligue 1, the top division of French football. Saint-Étienne plays; the team is managed by Jean-Louis Gasset and captained by Loïc Perrin, who started his career at the club in 1996. Saint-Étienne is known as Les Verts meaning "the Greens" due to its home colours. Saint-Étienne have won a record ten Ligue 1 titles, as well as six Coupe de France titles, a Coupe de la Ligue title and five Trophée des Champions. Saint-Étienne has won the Ligue 2 championship on three occasions; the club achieved most of its honours in the 1960s and 1970s when the club was led by managers Jean Snella, Albert Batteux, Robert Herbin. The club's primary rivals are Olympique Lyonnais, based in nearby Lyon, with whom they contest the Derby Rhône-Alpes. In 2009, the club added a female section. AS Saint-Étienne was founded in 1919 by employees of the Saint-Étienne-based grocery store chain Groupe Casino under the name Amicale des Employés de la Société des Magasins Casino.
The club adopted green as its primary color due to it being the principal colour of Groupe Casino. In 1920, due to the French Football Federation prohibiting the use of trademarks in sports club, the club dropped "Casino" from its name and changed its name to Amical Sporting Club to retain the ASC acronym. In 1927, Pierre Guichard took over as president of the club and, after merging with local club Stade Forézien Universitaire, changed its name to Association sportive Stéphanoise. In July 1930, the National Council of the FFF voted 128–20 in support of professionalism in French football. In 1933, Stéphanoise changed its name to its current version; the club was inserted into the second division and became inaugural members of the league after finishing runner-up in the South Group. Saint-Étienne remained in Division 2 for four more seasons before earning promotion to Division 1 for the 1938–39 season under the leadership of the Englishman Teddy Duckworth. However, the team's debut appearance in the first division was short-lived due to the onset of World War II.
Saint-Étienne returned to the first division after the war under the Austrian-born Frenchman Ignace Tax and surprised many by finishing runner-up to Lille in the first season after the war. The club failed to improve upon that finish in following seasons under Tax and, ahead of the 1950–51 season, Tax was let go and replaced by former Saint-Étienne player Jean Snella. Under Snella, Saint-Étienne achieved its first honour after winning the Coupe Charles Drago in 1955. Two seasons the club won its first domestic league title. Led by goalkeeper Claude Abbes, defender Robert Herbin, as well as midfielders René Ferrier and Kees Rijvers and striker Georges Peyroche, Saint-Étienne won the league by four points over Lens. In 1958, Saint-Étienne won the Coupe Drago for the second time. After the following season, in which the club finished sixth, Snella departed the club, he was replaced by René Vernier. In the team's first season under Vernier, Saint-Étienne finished 12th, the club's worst finish since finishing 11th eight seasons ago.
In the following season, François Wicart joined the coaching staff. In 1961, Roger Rocher became president of the club and became one of the club's chief investors. After two seasons under Wicart, Saint-Étienne were relegated after finishing 17th in the 1961–62 season. However, Wicart did lead the club to its first Coupe de France title in 1962, alongside co-manager Henri Guérin with the team defeating FC Nancy 1–0 in the final, he led the club back to Division 1 after one season in the second division, but after the season, Wicart was replaced by Snella, who returned as manager after a successful stint in Switzerland with Servette. In Snella's first season back, Saint-Étienne won its second league title and, three seasons captured its third. Snella's third and final title with the club coincided with the arrival of Georges Bereta, Bernard Bosquier, Gérard Farison and Hervé Revelli to the team. After the season, Snella returned to Servette and former Stade de Reims manager Albert Batteux replaced him.
In Batteux's first season in 1967–68, Saint-Étienne captured the double after winning the league and the Coupe de France. In the next season, Batteux won the league and, in the ensuing season, won the double again; the club's fast rise into French football led to a high-level of confidence from the club's ownership and supporters and, following two seasons without a trophy, Batteux was let go and replaced by former Saint-Étienne player Robert Herbin. In Herbin's first season in charge, Saint-Étienne finished fourth in the league and reached the semi-finals of the Coupe de France. In the next two seasons, the club won the double, its seventh and eighth career league title and its third and fourth Coupe de France title. In 1976, Saint-Étienne became the first French club since Reims in 1959 to reach the final of the European Cup. In the match, played at Hampden Park in Scotland, Saint-Étienne faced German club Bayern Munich, who were the reigning champions and arguably the world's best team at the time.
The match was hotly contested with Saint-Étienne failing to score after numerous chances by Jacques Santini, Dominique Bathenay and Osvaldo Piazza, among others. A single goal by Franz Roth decided the outcome and Saint-Étienne supporters departed Scotland in tears, not without nicknaming the goalposts "les poteaux carrés". Saint-Étienne did earn a consolation prize by winning
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Hugo Hadrien Dominique Lloris is a French professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper and is the captain of both English club Tottenham Hotspur and the French national team. Lloris is described as a goalkeeper who "boasts lightning reflexes and good decision-making" and is "a formidable opponent in one-on-one situations". Lloris "commands his box well", his playing style, in particular his speed when coming off his line to anticipate opponents and clear the ball, has led him to be described as a sweeper-keeper in the media. He is a three-time winner of the National Union of Professional Footballers Ligue 1 Goalkeeper of the Year award. Lloris began his career with hometown club OGC Nice, made his debut as a teenager in October 2005 and started in goal during the team's run to the 2006 Coupe de la Ligue Final. After excelling at the club for three seasons, Lloris moved to seven-time Ligue 1 champions Olympique Lyonnais, amid interest from several other clubs, notably Milan. Lloris won several domestic awards in his first season with Lyon and, in his second season, earned award nominations at European level for his performances in the UEFA Champions League, which saw Lyon reach the semi-finals for the first time.
Lloris is a French international having represented his nation at under-18, under-19, under-21 level. Prior to playing at senior level, he played on the under-19 team that won the 2005 European Under-19 Football Championship. Lloris made his senior international debut in November 2008 in a friendly against Uruguay, he helped France qualify for the 2010 FIFA World Cup and was applauded by the media for his performance over two legs against the Republic of Ireland in the qualifying playoffs. He captained the national team for the first time in 2010, became first-choice captain on 28 February 2012, leading France into the quarter-finals of both Euro 2012 and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, runners-up at Euro 2016, winners at the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Lloris was born on 26 December 1986 in the Mediterranean city of Nice to an upper-class family, his mother was a lawyer and his father is a Monte Carlo-based banker of Spanish descent. He has a younger brother, who plays as a central defender for his older brother's former club OGC Nice.
In 2008, while Lloris was playing for Nice, his mother died. Just two days after her death, he gained national respect for his refusal of a bereavement leave offer from manager Frédéric Antonetti, instead opting to play in a league match for Nice. Lloris performed admirably in the match despite the circumstances; as a youth, like his international and club teammate Yoann Gourcuff, Lloris excelled at tennis and played the sport up until the age of 13. He was among the top players in his age group, ranking high in the country's national standings before opting to focus on football. On 10 August 2010, Lloris was named, alongside international teammate Karim Benzema, to appear on the cover of the French version of FIFA 11. On 23 September 2010, he announced the birth of his daughter. On 24 August 2018, Lloris was charged with drink-driving after being stopped by police in west London. Lloris pleaded guilty at Westminster Magistrates' Court and admitted to being more than twice the drink-drive limit.
He was banned from driving for 20 months. Lloris began his football career at age six playing at CEDAC, a local cultural center based in the neighborhood of Cimiez, Nice; the centre offered a variety of activities. Lloris played a variety of positions at the centre, such as in the attack, before switching to the goalkeeper position after coaches noticed that he possessed impressive goalkeeping qualities, such as ball-handling and catching skills. Lloris excelled at the position and caught the attention of former OGC Nice goalkeeper and French international Dominique Baratelli, who recommended that the player join his former club. At the age of ten, Lloris joined Nice's youth academy, he spent several years in the club's youth academy and was the starting goalkeeper for the club's under-17 team that won the 2003–04 edition of the Championnat Nationaux des 18 ans, a country-wide domestic league competition for players under the age of 18. After success with the club's under-18 team, Lloris was promoted to the club's reserve team in the Championnat de France amateur, the fourth level of French football, for the 2004–05 season.
He alternated the starting goalkeeper spot with Hilaire Munoz. Lloris was promoted to the first team squad ahead of the 2005–06 season and assigned the number 1 shirt, he was designated by manager Frédéric Antonetti as the team's starting goalkeeper for the club's Coupe de la Ligue campaign ahead of fan-favourite Damien Gregorini, relied more upon in league play. Lloris made his professional debut on 25 October 2005, at the age of 18, recording a clean sheet in Nice's 2–0 Coupe de la Ligue win over Châteauroux, he recorded another clean sheet the following round against Sedan and helped Nice upset favorites Bordeaux and Derby de la Côte d'Azur rivals Monaco in the quarter-finals and semi-finals meaning the club had reached its first-ever Coupe de la Ligue final. In the final, Lloris played the entire match in the club's 2–1 defeat against Nancy. Lloris made his league debut on 18 March 2006 against Nancy picking up a clean sheet in a 1–0 victory, he made four more league appearances that season.
The following season, Lloris was given the starting job permanently ahead of Gregorini, who subsequently departed the club for Nancy. Lloris appeared in all but one league match recording 13 clean sheets as Nice finished in 16th place. Despite the disappointing finish, the c
Petr Čech is a Czech professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Premier League club Arsenal. Born in Plzeň, Čech began his senior career at Chmel Blšany in 1999, where he played sporadically for two seasons prior to relocating to domestic superpower Sparta Prague in 2001. At age 19, Čech became a first team regular, his single campaign with the club was fruitful, as he registered a league record of not conceding a goal in 903 competitive minutes; this garnered him his first move abroad, when he relocated to France to join Ligue 1 side Rennes for a fee of €5.5 million in 2002. In France, Čech starred in an under-performing team, soon moved to Premier League side Chelsea for a fee of £7 million in 2004, a club record transfer for a goalkeeper. During his eleven year stay at the club, Čech registered 494 senior appearances, making him the club's highest overseas appearance maker, sixth all-time, he helped the club win four Premier League titles, four FA Cups, three League Cups, one UEFA Europa League title, one UEFA Champions League title.
He holds the club all-time record for clean sheets, with 220. Čech departed Chelsea in 2015 to join city rivals Arsenal for a fee of £10 million, where he won another FA Cup. A Czech international, Čech made his debut with the Czech Republic in 2002, is the most capped player in the history of the Czech national team, with 124 caps, he represented his country at the 2006 World Cup, as well as the 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 European Championships. He was voted into the Euro 2004 All-Star team after helping the Czechs reach the semi-finals, served as the team's captain, prior to retiring from international competition in 2016. Čech holds the record for the most Czech Footballer of the Year and Czech Golden Ball wins. Considered one of the best goalkeepers of all time, Čech holds a number of goalkeeping records, including the Premier League record for fewest appearances required to reach 100 clean sheets, having done so in 180 appearances, the most number of clean sheets in a season, as well as the record for the most clean sheets in Premier League history.
Čech is the only goalkeeper to have won the Premier League Golden Glove with two separate clubs, has won it a joint record four times. He was voted the IFFHS World's Best Goalkeeper in 2005, received the award of Best Goalkeeper in the 2004–05, 2006–07 and 2007–08 editions of the UEFA Champions League, went 1,025 minutes without conceding a goal in 2004–05, a Premier League record. Born in Plzeň, Czechoslovakia, Čech started playing football aged seven for Škoda Plzeň. In his early days, he played as a striker, although he moved to the goalkeeper position. Čech joined Czech First League team Chmel Blšany in June 1999 and made his league debut at the age of 17 in October 1999, in a 3–1 loss against Sparta.Čech signed a 5 1⁄2-year contract with Sparta Prague at the age of 18 in January 2001, although he remained at Blšany until the end of the 2000–01 season. In November 2001, Čech broke the record held by Theodor Reimann for the longest time elapsed without conceding a goal in the Czech professional league, stretching his run to 855 minutes.
His clean sheet record ended when he was beaten by a goal from Marcel Melecký of Bohemians on 17 November 2001, ending his record at 903 consecutive minutes without conceding. Despite Čech not winning the league title in the spring of 2002 with Sparta, he attracted interest from English clubs including Arsenal due to his international performances. Due to difficulties in obtaining a work permit, however, a proposed deal with the Gunners fell through. In July 2002, Čech moved to French club Rennes, signing a four-year contract for a transfer fee reported as CZK150 million. During his first season in France, he was awarded man of the match against Paris Saint-Germain by L'Équipe. In May 2003, Rennes was at the bottom of the league table, yet escaped relegation with a win over Montpellier in the final matchday. Chelsea made a transfer bid for Čech in January 2004, rejected; however in February Rennes agreed to Čech's move to Chelsea for £7 million. Čech signed a five-year contract, to commence in July 2004, becoming the most expensive goalkeeper in Chelsea's history at that time.
Čech's was one amongst many British club transfers that came under the spotlight in the 2006 football corruption investigation for being in breach of transfer regulations. The Stevens inquiry report, published in June 2007, found no evidence of illegal payments; when Čech arrived at Chelsea, Carlo Cudicini was established as Chelsea's first choice goalkeeper. Cudicini, suffered a pre-season elbow injury that allowed Chelsea manager José Mourinho to promote Čech into the starting spot, where he became the first-choice goalkeeper in his first season, he kept a clean sheet in his Premier League debut in a 1–0 victory over Manchester United. On 5 March 2005, Čech set a new Premier League record of 1,025 minutes without letting in a goal, though his record has since been broken by Manchester United's Edwin van der Sar. Čech conceded to Leon McKenzie of Norwich City, after keeping a clean sheet in the league since 12 December 2004 when Thierry Henry scored for Arsenal. Čech was given a special award by the Premier League for the new record, he was awarded the Premier League Golden Glove at the end of the 2004–05 season for keeping a record 21 clean sheets in the Premier League.
The team, having conceded only 15 league goals in the entire season set a new record. Chelsea retained the Premier League title in the 2005–06 season, with Č
Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club referred to as Paris Saint-Germain, Paris SG, or PSG, is a French professional football club based in Paris. Founded in 1970, the club has traditionally worn blue kits. PSG has played its home matches in the 47,929-capacity Parc des Princes in the 16th arrondissement of Paris since 1974; the club plays in the highest tier of French football, Ligue 1. The Parisian club established itself as a major force in France, one of the major forces of European football in the 2010s. PSG have won a total of 36 major trophies, making it the most successful French club in history by this measure. Paris SG is the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1. Domestically, the Parisians have won seven Ligue 1 titles, a record twelve Coupe de France, a record eight Coupe de la Ligue, a joint record eight Trophée des Champions titles. In European football, they have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; the capital club has won other minor official titles such as one Ligue 2 and one UEFA Intertoto Cup.
PSG have a long-standing rivalry with Olympique de Marseille. The duo contest French football's most notorious match, known as Le Classique; the State of Qatar, through its shareholding organization Qatar Sports Investments, has been the club's owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and one of the wealthiest in the world; as of the 2017–18 season, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual turnover of €542m according to Deloitte, are the world's eleventh most valuable football club, worth €825m according to Forbes. Paris Saint-Germain Football Club was founded on 12 August 1970 after the merger of Paris Football Club and Stade Saint-Germain. PSG made an immediate impact, winning promotion to Ligue 1 in their first season after claiming the Ligue 2 title, their momentum was soon checked and the club split in 1972. Paris FC remained in Ligue 1, while Paris Saint-Germain kept their name but were administratively demoted to Division 3.
Two seasons PSG returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, moving into the Parc des Princes that same year. The club's trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the French Cup in 1982, during a decade marked by players such as Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Rocheteau. Four years Paris Saint-Germain claimed its maiden league title, after which they went into decline, but a takeover by television giants Canal+ revitalised the club and PSG entered their golden era. Led by David Ginola, George Weah and Raí, the club won nine trophies during the 1990s. Most notably, the Parisians claimed a second league title in 1994 and their crowning glory, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996. At the start of the 21st century, PSG struggled to rescale the heights despite the magic of Ronaldinho and the goals of Pauleta. Five more trophies arrived in the form of three French Cups, one League Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup, but the club became better known for lurching from one high-profile crisis to another.
Indeed, Paris Saint-Germain spent two seasons staving off relegations that were only narrowly avoided. This changed in 2011 with the arrival of new majority shareholders Qatar Sports Investments. Since the buyout, PSG have spent over €1b on player transfers like Zlatan Ibrahimović, Thiago Silva, Edinson Cavani and Kylian Mbappé, have dominated French football, winning 20 national titles. Despite this, the Champions League has proven to be a trophy beyond their reach. PSG have never made it beyond the Champions League quarterfinals since 2012, exiting the competition at the last-16 round in each of the last three seasons. Since its foundation, PSG have always represented both Saint-Germain-en-Laye; as a result, red and white are the traditional colours of Paris Saint-Germain. The red and blue represent the city of Paris, while the white stands for the nearby royal town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. In the club's crest, the French capital is represented by the Eiffel Tower in red and the blue background.
For its part, the white cradle with the white fleur de lys on top is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and to French royalty. In France, white is the colour of the fleur de lys is a royal symbol; the cradle and the fleur de lys recall that French King Louis XIV was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638. PSG's home shirt has always featured the three colours of the club; the three main home jerseys worn by Paris SG throughout its history have been predominantly red, blue or white. The club's first shirt was red, while the other two were predominantly white. However, all three have included the remaining two colours, as well as with further variations of the home jersey; the newly formed Paris Saint-Germain wore a red shirt during its first three seasons of existence. The jersey featured a blue and white collar to bring together the three colours of the club: the red and blue of Paris, the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. During the 2010–11 season, PSG wore a red home shirt to commemorate its 40th anniversary.
The connection between Paris Saint-Germain and the city's fashion houses is a longstanding one. French fashion designer Daniel Hechter served as the club's president for five years in the 1970s, is regarded as one of the driving forces behind the team's foundation, he became club president in 1973 and designed PSG's traditional look — a red vertical strip
Marc-Vivien Foé was a Cameroonian international footballer, who played as a midfielder for both club and country. Foé had success in France's Division 1 and England's Premier League, before his sudden death during an international competitive match shocked the football community worldwide, he was posthumously decorated with the Commander of the National Order of Valour. Foé was born on 1 May 1975 in Yaoundé, he started as a junior with Second Division Union Garoua. Moving to Canon Yaoundé, one of the biggest clubs in Cameroon, he won the Cameroonian Cup in 1993. Foé began representing Cameroon at under-20s when he was called up to the squad of 18 players for the 1993 FIFA World Youth Championship in Australia, under the management of Jean Manga-Onguéné, he played in all of their three group stage matches, scoring one goal in a 2–3 defeat to Colombia in their second match on 8 March 1993, as Cameroon were eliminated from the competition after finishing third. Foé made his senior debut against Mexico on 22 September 1993 at the Memorial Coliseum, a match which Cameroon lost 0–1.
The following year, he was included in the Cameroon squad for the 1994 World Cup, starting all three of their matches. Marred by financial and disciplinary disputes, the 1994 Cameroon squad was a shadow compared to the quarter-finals in 1990. Cameroon mustered just one point from three matches, finished with a 6–1 defeat to Russia. However, Foé's performances prompted interest from European clubs. After turning down Auxerre for a trainee position, he signed for another French club, RC Lens of Ligue 1, his debut on 13 August 1994 was a 2–1 win against Montpellier. In five seasons at Lens, he won the 1998 French league title. In 1998, he was targeted by Manchester United. Further negotiations were curtailed abruptly after he broke a leg at Cameroon's pre-World Cup training camp, missed the 1998 World Cup. Shortly after his recovery, he moved to English Premier League club West Ham United, for a club record £4.2 million in January 1999. He played 38 league matches for scoring one goal against Sheffield Wednesday.
He scored a goal in West Ham's 3–1 win against NK Osijek in the UEFA Cup. In May 2000, he moved back to France, he missed much of the season from malaria. After recovery, he won the Coupe de la Ligue in 2001, the Division 1 league title a year later, he was on the Cameroon squad in the 2002 World Cup. As in 1994, he played in all of Cameroon's matches. Though the team performed better since 1994, they were again eliminated. At the group stage, they drew with Ireland and lost to Germany. Foé returned to the Premier League, loaned to Manchester City in the 2002–03 season for £550,000, his debut on the opening day of the season was a 3–0 loss to Leeds United. Foé was a first team regular for Kevin Keegan's team, starting 38 of 41 matches, his first goal for the club came against Sunderland at the Stadium of Light on 9 December 2002, he scored five more goals in the next month. His second goal in a 3–0 victory against Sunderland on 21 April 2003 was the club's final goal at their Maine Road stadium. Foé was part of the Cameroon squad for the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup, a tournament played between continental champions from six continents, World Cup holder and the next edition host nation.
He played in wins against Brazil and Turkey, was rested for the match against the United States, with Cameroon having qualified. On 26 June 2003, Cameroon faced Colombia in the semi-final, held at the Stade de Gerland in Lyon, France. In the 72nd minute of the match Foé collapsed in the centre circle with no other players near him. After attempts to resuscitate him on the pitch, he was stretchered off the field, where he received mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and oxygen. Medics spent 45 minutes attempting to restart his heart, although he was still alive upon arrival at the stadium's medical centre, he died shortly afterwards. A first autopsy did not determine an exact cause of death, but a second autopsy concluded that Foé's death was heart-related as it discovered evidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a hereditary condition known to increase the risk of sudden death during physical exercise. Foé's widow Marie-Louise stated that he had been ill with gastric problems and dysentery before his final match, but he was adamant to play in his adopted hometown of Lyon.
Manager Winfried Schafer wanted to substitute him minutes before his collapse, observing that the player seemed fatigued, but he signalled that he wanted to continue. Foé gave money to charity. Foé's death caused a profound shock. Numerous tributes to his joyous personality and infectious humour were expressed in the media. Thierry Henry and other players pointed to the sky in tribute to Foé after Henry had opened the scoring against Turkey in France's Confederations Cup semi-final that evening, it was suggested that the Confederations Cup and the Stade Gerland could have been renamed after him, Manchester City manager Kevin Keegan announced that the club would no longer use the number 23 shirt Foé wore during his successful season there. At Manchester City's former ground, Maine Road, there is a small memorial to him in the stadium's memorial garden, on the walls of the players' tunnel are plaques paid for by supporters, with their names, dubbed the Walk of Pride; the first plaque on the wall is for Marc and reads "Marc Vivien Foé – 1975–2003".
His first club Lens gave his name to an avenue near the Stade Félix Bollaert. Foé was given a state funeral in Cameroon. Lens decided to withdraw the number 17 shirt. Lyon decided to withdraw the number 17 shirt that Foé wore a year befor