Damsholte Church, located in the village of Damsholte on the island of Møn in southeastern Denmark, is the only village church in the country built in the Rococo style. It is considered to be one of Denmark's finest Rococo buildings. Damsholte Church, with its pale yellow Rococo facade, is unlike any other parish church in Denmark, its origins, which are comparatively recent, are unusual. At the beginning of the 18th century, the population of Damsholte and its surroundings had grown so much that there was a real need for a local church. That, at any rate, was the opinion of Provost Jæger in nearby Stege, it is said that at a sumptuous reception in honour of a royal visit by Christian VI, he convinced the king that Damsholte should become a parish in its own right. There is no historical record of the incident but, in any event, in 1740 there was a royal decree that the western part of Stege parish should be separated off; the king contributed 3,000 rigsdaler to the cost of building the church.
Each of the other churches on Møn contributed 1,000 rigsdaler while all the other churches in Denmark contributed 1 rigsdaler each. Designed by Philip de Lange, one of the most prominent architects of the day, the church was completed in 1743. A finely proportioned Rococo church thus came into being in the midst of West Møn's pleasant rolling farmland, the only one of its kind in a Danish village; the church consists of a rectangular nave with two pentagonal extensions to west. White pilasters decorate each of the corners. Christian VI's monogram can be seen in the triangular gables topping the outer walls of the nave; the west door and all the windows have rounded arches. The red-tiled roof is divided into three main sections covering the extensions. At the western end of the building, it is crowned with an octagonal onion spire; the bright, yellow-tinted exterior with its onion spire is impressive enough. But those entering the double doors and proceeding through the small inner porch are struck by the rather sombre, well-ordered interior with its pious restraint and dominant altarpiece.
Monumental pillars supporting the gallery stretch down either side of the nave to the lofty altar with its integrated pulpit, set high above the triptych. All built of wood, they are painted in subdued tones of grey; the austerity of Lutheran pietism is ubiquitous. The short benches are designed to keep their occupants awake, and a modern triptych of Jesus' crucifixion with the two robbers on either side decorates the altar. It was completed in 1993 by Sven Havsteen-Mikkelsen. On the northern wall, there is a picture of Christ by Eckersberg while a restored figure of Christ occupies a small niche. To one side, a memorial plaque honours those who fell in the war of 1864. On the south wall, there is a picture of the resurrection by Niels Skovgaard together with a portrait of Damsholte's first pastor, Rasmus Platou. Hanging in the nave, a faithful copy of the warship Prince Christian commemorates the part it played in the Battle of Zealand Point in March 1808; the two brass candlesticks on the altar were donated at the church's consecration.
The wrought iron altar rails display the monograms of Sophia Magdalen. The font enough, is made of wood complete with wooden cover. Despite its austerity, the church bears a clear resemblance to the theatres of the day; the stage is set around the altar with the high-flying pulpit. And the audience is accommodated on the floor of the nave as well as up in the gallery as in contemporary auditoriums. There is therefore a clear contrast between Damsholte Church and many other churches in Denmark with the severe tones of its theatrical backdrop and the interior's dark, monumental elegance. In the churchyard, there is a burial mound for the Tutein family which, for a time, lived in Marienborg Manor which stands behind it. To the north óf the church, a burial vault houses the remains of Antoine de la Calmette, governor of Møn and Nykøbing, his wife Lisa Iselin, for whom he created Liselund, a park adjacent to Møns Klint at the eastern end of the island. Other notable people buried in the graveyard include: Peter Adolph Tutein, politician Elsa Gress, writer Clifford Charles Wright and painter
History of technology
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is one of the categories of the history of humanity. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the 1980s; the term technology comes from the Greek word techne, meaning art and craft, the word logos, meaning word and speech. It was first used to describe applied arts, but it is now used to described advancements and changes which affect the environment around us. New knowledge has enabled people to create new things, conversely, many scientific endeavors are made possible by technologies which assist humans in traveling to places they could not reach, by scientific instruments by which we study nature in more detail than our natural senses allow. Since much of technology is applied science, technical history is connected to the history of science. Since technology uses resources, technical history is connected to economic history.
From those resources, technology produces other resources, including technological artifacts used in everyday life. Technological change affects and is affected by, a society's cultural traditions, it is a force for economic growth and a means to develop and project economic, military power and wealth. Many sociologists and anthropologists have created social theories dealing with social and cultural evolution. Some, like Lewis H. Morgan, Leslie White, Gerhard Lenski have declared technological progress to be the primary factor driving the development of human civilization. Morgan's concept of three major stages of social evolution can be divided by technological milestones, such as fire. White argued. For White, "the primary function of culture" is to "harness and control energy." White differentiates between five stages of human development: In the first, people use the energy of their own muscles. In the second, they use the energy of domesticated animals. In the third, they use the energy of plants.
In the fourth, they learn to use the energy of natural resources: coal, gas. In the fifth, they harness nuclear energy. White introduced a formula P=E*T, where E is a measure of energy consumed, T is the measure of the efficiency of technical factors using the energy. In his own words, "culture evolves as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year is increased, or as the efficiency of the instrumental means of putting the energy to work is increased". Nikolai Kardashev extrapolated his theory, creating the Kardashev scale, which categorizes the energy use of advanced civilizations. Lenski's approach focuses on information; the more information and knowledge a given society has, the more advanced. He identifies four stages of human development, based on advances in the history of communication. In the first stage, information is passed by genes. In the second, when humans gain sentience, they can pass information through experience. In the third, the humans start develop logic. In the fourth, they can develop language and writing.
Advancements in communications technology translate into advancements in the economic system and political system, distribution of wealth, social inequality and other spheres of social life. He differentiates societies based on their level of technology and economy: hunter-gatherer, simple agricultural, advanced agricultural, special. In economics, productivity is a measure of technological progress. Productivity increases. Another indicator of technological progress is the development of new products and services, necessary to offset unemployment that would otherwise result as labor inputs are reduced. In developed countries productivity growth has been slowing since the late 1970s. For example, employment in manufacturing in the United States declined from over 30% in the 1940s to just over 10% 70 years later. Similar changes occurred in other developed countries; this stage is referred to as post-industrial. In the late 1970s sociologists and anthropologists like Alvin Toffler, Daniel Bell and John Naisbitt have approached the theories of post-industrial societies, arguing that the current era of industrial society is coming to an end, services and information are becoming more important than industry and goods.
Some extreme visions of the post-industrial society in fiction, are strikingly similar to the visions of near and post-Singularity societies. The following is a summary of the history of technology by time period and geography: During most of the Paleolithic – the bulk of the Stone Age – all humans had a lifestyle which involved limited tools and few permanent settlements; the first major technologies were tied to survival and food preparation. Stone tools and weapons and clothing were technological developments of major importance during this period. Human ancestors have been using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of Homo sapiens 200,000 years ago; the earliest methods of stone tool making, known as the Oldowan "industry", date back to at least 2.3 million years ago, with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in Ethiopia within the Great Rift Valley, dating back to 2.5 million years ago. This era of stone tool use is called the Paleolithic
Møn is an island in south-eastern Denmark. Until 1 January 2007, it was a municipality in its own right but it is now part of the municipality of Vordingborg, after merging with the former municipalities of Langebæk, Præstø, Vordingborg; this has created a municipality with an area of 615 km2 and a total population of 46,307. It belongs to the Region Sjælland. Møn is one of Denmark's most popular destinations for tourists with its white chalk cliffs, sandy beaches and the market town of Stege. In June 2017, UNESCO designated Møn as Denmark's first biosphere reserve, consisting of "a series of islands and islets in the southern Baltic Sea, over 45,118 hectares, its landscapes include woodlands, meadows, coastal areas and steep hills." Møn is located just off the south-eastern tip of Zealand from which it is separated by the waters of the Hølen strait between Kalvehave and the island of Nyord, at the northern end of Møn. Further south is Stege Bay. At the narrowest point between the two islands, the waters are referred to as Wolf Strait, the primary strait separating Møn from Zealand.
To the southwest is Stubbekøbing on the island of Falster, separated from Møn by the Grønsund. There are a number of islands in the waters off Møn, including Nyord and Bogø, the smaller island of Farø, as well as the islands of Langø, Tærø and Lilleø off the coast of Zealand; the island of Lindholm in Stege Bugt is state-owned, is the location for the State Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. Møn is connected to Zealand at the town of Kalvehave by the Queen Alexandrine Bridge; the bridge opened for traffic on 30 May 1943, is named after Queen Alexandrine, the Queen Consort of King Christian X. The bridge is 746 metres long and considered to be one of Denmark's most attractive bridges. At the south-western corner, Møn disconnects by causeway to the 5 km × 7 km island of Bogø. From Bogø another causeway connects to the small island of Farø, which acts as the centre point for the Farø Bridges carrying the motorway between Zealand and Falster; the north Farø bridge has a span of 1.5 km, the south bridge a span of 1.7 km with a 290-metre-long central span for shipping.
The central span is supported by cables from two 95 m pylons which raise the bridge 26 metres above sea level. The bridge forms part of Euroroute E47 from Copenhagen to Lübeck. At the north-western tip of Møn there is a narrow bridge to the small island of Nyord. Stege, the largest town on the island of Møn, is situated at the centre point of the island at the mouth of Stege Nor, a lake which connects directly to the sea; the population is around 4,000. The town has a great deal of charm with historic buildings, a marina and several restaurants and cafes. Stege Church built in the Romanesque style dates from the early 13th century; the annual "Stege Festival" takes place every Tuesday in July, the first Tuesday in August. Møn is known for its natural environment, sandy beaches, fresco-decorated churches, Stone Age and Bronze Age passage graves and monuments, Møns Klint, the island's most popular attraction; the cliffs, c. 6 km long and up to 128 metres tall, are Denmark's highest, support a unique set of natural habitats.
Access to the narrow beach is via a flight of 500 steps from the parking area set within the beech forest behind the cliffs. The GeoCenter Møns Klint, a geological museum tracing the origins of Denmark and the formation of the cliffs opened there in May 2007; the combination of chalk in the subsoil with a dry local climate, its agricultural use consisting of cattle grazing, has created some of Denmark's richest meadowlands. The chalk was transported to Møn during the fourth, most recent, major ice age. Another attraction close to the cliffs is Liselund, the romantic summer residence erected in the 1790s by French nobleman Antoine de Bosc de la Calmette for his wife, Lise; the miniature thatched palace and grounds were designed by Andreas Kirkerup, one of the foremost landscape architects of the times. A larger house was constructed in the park in 1887 by Baron Fritz Rosenkrantz, now a hotel; the park is open to the public and includes the original thatched manor house, Swiss cottage, Chinese tea house and Norwegian log cabin.
Calmette was responsible for the park at Marienborg, to the west of Stege. At the north-western corner of Møn is a narrow bridge to the island of Nyord; the small village on the island has a number of quaint cottages and farmhouses as well as a unique octagonal church and a small harbour. Nyord is an important habitat for geese and other wading birds. There is a bird-watching tower for the use of visitors. At the south-western corner, Møn connects by causeway to the 5 by 7 km island of Bogø; the island has an old bording school and a summer ferry to Stubbekøbing. Møn has a number of interesting churches decorated with frescos. Fanefjord Church dates back to the 13th century, has a set of restored frescos painted in 1450 by the Elmelunde Master. Frescos can be seen in Elmelunde Church, the oldest church on the island, with parts dating from the start of the 12th century. Keldby Church has a unique altarpiece and is richly decorated with frescos. Another interesting church is the one at Damsholte, it is one of the finest Rococo buildings in Denmark and the only village church built in the Rococo style.
The oldest and most impressive burial mound on Møn is Grønsalen near Fanefjord Church. The 100 m by 10 m ba
Long barrows known as chambered tombs, were a style of monument constructed across Western Europe in the fifth and fourth millennia BCE, during the Early Neolithic period. Constructed from earth and either timber or stone, those using the latter material represent the oldest widespread tradition of stone construction in the world; the long barrows consist of an earthen tumulus, or "barrow", sometimes with a timber or stone chamber in one end. These monuments contained human remains interred within their chambers, as a result, are interpreted as tombs, although there are some examples where this appears not to have happened; the choice of whether to use timber or stone may have had more to do with the availability of local materials than any cultural differences. The earliest examples developed in Iberia and western France during the mid-fifth millennium BCE; the tradition spread northwards, into the British Isles and the Low Countries and Southern Scandinavia. Each area developed its own regional variations of the long barrow tradition exhibiting their own architectural innovations.
The purpose and meaning of such barrows remains an issue of debate among archaeologists. One argument is that they are religious sites erected as part of a system of ancestor veneration or as a religion spread by missionaries or settlers. An alternative explanation views them in economic terms, as territorial markers delineating the areas controlled by different communities as they transitioned toward farming. Around 40,000 chambered long barrows survive today. Many have been excavated by archaeologists. Given their dispersal across Western Europe, long barrows have been given different names in the various different languages of this region; the term "barrow" is a southern English dialect word for an earthen tumulus, was adopted as a scholarly term for such monuments by the 17th century English antiquarian John Aubrey. Synonyms found in other parts of Britain included low in Cheshire and Derbyshire, tump in Gloucestershire and Hereford, howe in Northern England and Scotland, cairn in Scotland.
Another term to have achieved international usage has been "dolmen", a Breton word meaning "table-stone". The historian Ronald Hutton suggested that such sites could be termed "tomb-shrines" to reflect the fact that they appear to have been used both to house the remains of the dead and to have been used in ritualised activities; the decision as to whether a long barrow used wood or stone appears to have been based on the availability of resources. Some of the long barrows contained stone-lined chambers within them. Early 20th century archaeologists began to call these monuments chambered tombs; the archaeologists Roy and Lesley Adkins referred to these monuments as megalithic long barrows. In most cases, local stone was used; the style of the chamber falls into two categories. One form, known as grottes sepulchrales artificielles in French archaeology, are dug into the earth; the second form, more widespread, are known as cryptes dolmeniques in French archaeology and involved the chamber being erected above ground.
Many chambered long barrows contained side chambers within them producing a cruciform shape. Others had no such side alcoves; the term earthen long barrow was coined by the British archaeologist Stuart Piggott. These long barrows might have used timber; the construction of long barrows in the Early Neolithic would have required the co-operation of a number of different individuals and would have represented an important investment in time and resources. Many were restyled over their long period of use. Ascertaining at what date a chambered long barrow was constructed is difficult for archaeologists as a result of the various modifications that were made to the monument during the Early Neolithic. Both modifications and damage can make it difficult to determine the nature of the original long barrow design. Enviro-archaeological studies have demonstrated that many of the long barrows were erected in wooded landscapes. In Britain, these chambered long barrows are located on prominent hills and slopes, in particular being located above rivers and inlets and overlooking valleys.
In Britain, long barrows were often constructed near to causewayed enclosures, a form of earthen monument. Across Europe, about 40,000 long barrows are known to survive from the Early Neolithic, they are found across much of Western Europe. The long barrows are not the world's oldest known structures using stone—they are predated by Göbekli Tepe in modern Turkey—but they do represent the oldest widespread tradition of using stone in construction; the archaeologist Frances Lynch has described them as "the oldest built structures in Europe" to survive. Although found across this large area, they can be subdivided into clear regionalised traditions based on architectural differences. Excavation has revealed that some of the long barrows in the area of modern Spain and western France were erected in the mid-fifth millennium BCE, making these older than those long barrows further north. Although the general area in which the oldest long barrows were built is therefore known, archaeologists do not know where the tradition started nor which long barrows are the first ones to have been built.
It therefore appears that the architectural tradition developed in this southern area of Western Europe before spreading north
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
Antoine de Bosc de la Calmette
Gérard Pierre Antoine de Bosc de la Calmette referred to as Antoine de la Calmette, was a Danish County Governor and landowner. He is, remembered above all as an artist and landscape architect, contributing to Danish Romanticism in the design of Liselund on the island of Møn with its English garden, thatched summer residence and distributed buildings in various styles. Born in Lisbon, Calmette was the son of the Dutch resident minister of the States-General to Portugal, Charles François de Bosc de la Calmette, a Hugenot who had left France to avoid religious persecution, his mother was Antoinette Elisabeth de Godin. During the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, he was with Charles Louis de Bosc de la Calmette, he came with his parents to Denmark in 1759. About 1770, the Calmette family acquired the 15th century royal farm of Sømarkegård, a swampy area at the northeastern end of Møns Klint; the father acquired Marienborg Manor on Møn which he left to Antoine when he died in 1781. In 1777, Calmette married Anna Catharina Elisabeth Baroness Iselin, the daughter of Reinhard Iselin, a successful Swiss merchant employed by the Danish State.
In 1781, she inherited Rosenfeldt Manor, just west of Vordingborg. In 1769, Calmette held the rank of Cornet. In 1772, he served as captain of a cavalry regiment. In 1774, he was appointed chamberlain, in 1777, he was naturalized as a Danish nobleman. In 1783, he became governor of Møn and in 1794 of Nykøbing. In 1793, he received the Order of the Dannebrog. Calmette took an interest in prehistoric monuments, excavating Møn's Neolithic burial mound, Klekkende Høj, in 1797 while he was governor. In 1803, he was elevated to the position of Geheimrat. Calmette was a figure of his time, inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and by philosophers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, he had taken a specific interest in the gardens and parks of England and France. While he was a competent draftsman and painter, his masterpiece was the layout and landscaping of Sømarkegård, renamed Liselund after his wife. In 1783, together with his wife, he developed a Romantic garden with winding paths and canals, buildings of various styles in accordance with the ideals of the times.
While travelling across Europe in 1790, he had been attracted by the style of the romantic English landscape garden, a favourite with the nobility of the day. Here nature was allowed to thrive in large parks studded with monuments and ornamental buildings. While he entrusted Andreas Kirkerup with the design of the garden's centerpiece, a thatched manor serving as a summer residence, it was Calmette himself who developed the garden, bringing in rare plants and trees, all laid out in accordance with a detailed plan, his knowledge of architecture seems to have contributed to the design of the various buildings around the park. He was inspired to design the Chinese pavilion after visiting Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Park as can be seen from his drawing of the park's Chinese pavilion and bridge. Calmette and his wife spent ten years laying out the garden, completed only four years before his death. Bosc de la Calmette died in Copenhagen. Ulla Kjær, En virkeliggjort drøm: Oplysningstiden illustreret ved Liselund.
Danish text with many excellent illustrations
Rødkilde Højskole is a folk high school just south of Stege on the Danish island of Møn. Founded in 1866, it is one of the older folk high schools in Denmark. Renamed Teaterhøjskolen Rødkilde, it now offers both short and longer courses for those wishing to learn more about the theatre those aspiring to become actors; the main building by Ludvig Fenger, the student wing and the octagonal assembly building were listed on the Danish registry of protected buildings and places by the Danish Heritage Agency on 8 July 1982. The concept of the folk high school originated with Denmark's revered theologian and educator, N. F. S. Grundtvig, inspired by the English boarding schools as well as by the French approach to education for all. In the 19th century, education in Denmark was for the upper and middle classes while farm workers and labourers had to learn their trade from their parents. Grundtvig's focus was on Enlightenment, he aspired to give the peasantry and the lower layers of society a higher educational level through personal development or what he called “the living word”.
The language and history of the country, its constitution and main industries along with folk songs were the guiding principles for education within a Christian framework. While the first folk high school opened in 1844, it was in the 1860s that the schools began to spread. Christen Kold's unorthodox way of teaching provided a broader democratic basis rather than a religious focus. Teaching took place in the winter from November to March as students needed to work on the farms the rest of the year. In the beginning, only young men could attend the courses but in 1861 young women were granted access to courses from May to July; the real breakthrough was the Second war of Schleswig in 1864 when Denmark had to surrender a large part of its territory. This initiated a new feeling for Danish consciousness and nationalism based on the enlightenment of the people. Danish, rather than German or Latin, became the preferred language for folk high school education; the basic principles of the folk high school have continued over the years: there are no demands as to previous education or occupation and there are no examinations.
Much of the teaching consists of dialogue between teachers and students and living together as borders encourages stronger relationships and more respect for other people's ideas. The age of the students is between 17 and 25 although many are much older, given the emphasis on lifelong learning. Rødkilde folk high school was founded by Frede Bojsen, an active politician and influential chairman of the parish council in nearby Stege where his father was the pastor. In order to test out his plans for a high school, on 1 May 1865, Bojsen rented a farmhouse in the village of Tjørnemarke a few kilometres north of Stege. On 26 July, he married Karen Anker, a Norwegian, on 26 October he opened the school with some 30 students from the north of Falster and Møn. Given their initial success and Karen decided to build a proper school. Thanks to Karen's rich family and the dowry she received, they were in a position to go ahead with their project without delay, they opted for the present site with views over Stege Nor, a stretch of inland water, the hills of Møns Klint beyond.
In fact, Karen was never to see the finished buildings. She died during childbirth on 22 September 1866, just a couple of days before the students were due to arrive, her husband never forgot her and always reminded his colleagues that the school was a gift from the Ankers. For this reason, on certain occasions, a Norwegian flag is flown at the school. An imposing statue of Bojsen by Danish sculptor Gunnar Hansen stands on the school grounds. For the first 70 years, the school offered courses to men in the winter months and women in the summer; the emphasis was on agricultural training and crafts. In 1936, there was a complete change in direction as nursing became the centre of interest, supported by the government's decision to encourage folk high schools to give preparatory courses in nursing. Rødkilde was in fact the first to make the change; the school had been owned but as a result of the need for self-ownership in order to qualify for state grants, in 1965 ownership came into the hands of the school itself.
Once more, as a result of the new directions in government policy, the school had to find a new area of interest. Given the increasing interest in nature and the countryside, Møn's special status in this regard, in 1981 the institution became a nature high school for a short period. Nature courses were popular and economically successful but as time went by, with the reduction of state support for folk high schools, yet another direction had to be found; the year 1997 turned out to be a crisis year. The number of students dropped and the school's new status as an efterskole would have required younger students to attend, starting at age 14 rather than 17. Moves were made to prepare for the sale of the school but, in the nick of time, contacts were made with Den nye Dramaskole, interested in introducing drama courses at Rødkilde. A new school board was appointed and the first drama course in the summer of 1999 turned out to be a success; the school first became known as the European Theatre High School in 2003 as the Theatre High School.
The school's debts were paid off and by 2005 there was a waiting list for student registrati