Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Oberschleißheim is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located 13 km north of Munich; as of 2005 it had a population of 11,467. Oberschleißheim is best known for the Schleissheim Palace and the Flugwerft Schleissheim next to the airport housing the airplane department of the German Museum; the airfield is home to one of the five German Federal Police helicopter squadrons. During World War II, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was located here. In the early 20th century, Schleißheim was home to author Waldemar Bonsels, inspired to write his "Biene Maja" by a gnarly tree in the woods nearby. Schleißheim was first mentioned as “Sliusheim” in 785; the small church of St. Martin in Mallertshofen is a Romanesque church. In the Year 1315 the name of the village became “ Sleizheim”. Between 1616 and 1623 Duke Maximilan I. erected the Old Schloss. From 1701 to 1726 the New Schloss was built to the orders of Maximilian II Emanuel, including the Schloss Lustheim. In the Mid 19th Century Oberschleißheim built a railway station with the name “Schleißheim” connecting to the Munich-Landshut railway route.
This railway station was replaced by the “Oberschleißheim” station in 1972 due to the opening of the S-Bahn. Starting in 1912, Oberschleissheim housed the first royal Bavarian airfield, which after World War I was used for civilian aviation and re-militarized in 1933. During the Third Reich, a satellite camp of the Dachau concentration camp was set up on the airfield. After World War II, first the United States Air Forces in Europe used the airfield, transferring it to the US Army in 1947 and abandoned in 1981. Today it serves as a civilian airfield as well as the base for the German Federal Police helicopter division. In 1972 an artificial canoe sprint and rowing venue was created in Oberschleißheim for the Munich Olympic Summer Games; the course is 2 kilometres long and 135 metres wide, is in regular use. The course is accessible through roading network; the stand has capacity for 9,500 spectators. The venue host many events throughout the year including bungee jumping; the airfield and its historic buildings were constructed between 1912 and 1919 by the Königlich-Bayerische Fliegertruppen.
In the early 1990s the historic maintenance hangar was restored and enlarged to accommodate the Deutsches Museum's growing aviation collections. The Museum was opened on September 18, 1992; the Museum has many aerospace exhibits. These include various Airplanes, Helicopters and Turbines. Schleißheim in alten Ansichten Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz Regattastrecke Oberschleißheim Rudolf Witzig
Grünwald Castle is a medieval hill castle in Grünwald, Bavaria. The castle square goes back to a Roman watchtower on the Isar river; the high medieval castle of the 12th century was documented as a possession of the counts of Andechs. In 1293 it came into the possession of the Wittelsbach. Louis II, Duke of Bavaria acquired at that time the possession of the fortress from Ulrich Vellenberg, a ministeriales of the Counts of Andechs; the castle served also as a residence for his consort Matilda of Habsburg. The present building dates from the late 15th century, when the castle was renovated to celebrate the wedding of Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria with Kunigunde of Austria, a daughter of emperor Frederick III; the construction work was carried out 1486–87 under the direction of the foreman Jörg Weikertshausen. Louis X, Duke of Bavaria was born here in 1495. With the Grünwald Conference, which took place in February 1522 at the castle, an event in the Grünwalder history gained European significance. At this conference, the two co-governing dukes, William IV and Ludwig X agreed that Bavaria should continue to belong to the "old faith", but that the church should be reformed.
This decision is today understood as the beginning of the Counter-Reformation in Bavaria, the empire and the Habsburg lands and had effects that should shape the history of Europe over the next centuries. From the 17th century onwards the castle was used as a ducal hunting lodge and powder magazine. In 1872 the castle was sold into private hands. A project for a luxury condominium was prevented by a citizens' initiative which led to the purchase of the castle by the Free State of Bavaria in 1976. Since 1979 the Castle houses the Museum Grünwald, a branch of the Bavarian State Archaeological Collection; the castle can be visited, the main tower offers a worthwhile view. Large parts of the castle were demolished in the 17th and 18th century because the Isar River had undermined the castle hill. At that time the late-Gothic residential quarters of the castle with their rich interior and the chapel of St. George were lost; the early modern state is still delivered on a fresco in the Antiquarium in the Munich Residenz.
Since the partial demolition the fortress is an irregular rectangle plant, protected by a kennel with a round tower and a deep moat and a gate tower with a renewed cycle of coat of arms. In the north-east corner stands a donjon, a high, square tower. In between lies the elongated three-storey east wing; the north west corner is dominated by the embattled so-called little tower. The adjoining west wing consists of three different levels; the deep fountain in the courtyard, lined with tufa stone still goes back to the Middle Ages
Cycling at the 1972 Summer Olympics
The cycling competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich consisted of two road cycling events and five track cycling events, all for men only. 359 cyclists from 54 nations competed. International Olympic Committee results database
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The Isar is a river in Tyrol and Bavaria, Germany. Its source is in the Karwendel range of the Alps in Tyrol. At 295 km in length, it is the fourth largest river in Bavaria, after the Danube and Main, it is Germany's second most important tributary of the Danube after the Inn. One theory is that the name Isar comes from the hypothetical Indo-European root *es or *is, which meant "flowing water" and turned into a word for frozen water in Proto-Germanic. An older theory is that it comes from Celtic words and the name Isar is a construction of the Celtic stems ys "fast, torrential" and ura "water, river". According to another interpretation ys may mean "high" as well as "low", referring to the changing water level in the river Isar. In the ancient settlement area of the Celts several related river names can be found: Jizera Isère Isel IJssel IJzer Eisack / Isarco Isar It may be possible that the ancient name of the lower part of the river Danube, has the same source. Newer interpretations relate it to the Proto-Basque particle *its-, "water" seen in similar but otherwise unexplained river names, such as Vézère, Vizela and Vistula.
The Isar drains a substantial part of the Alps and parts of the Karwendel mountains northeast towards the Danube river and thus towards the Black Sea. The drainage basin contains some 9,000 square kilometers. During the winter most of the precipitation in the Alps falls as snow; this results in an increased water flow during the spring meltdown. It has an average discharge of 175 cubic meters per second; this makes it comparable to other medium-sized rivers in Germany, like Lech or Main. Apart from the larger tributaries Amper and Loisach many smaller rivers empty into the Isar, such as the Leutasch, the Jachen, the Dürrach, the Dorfen, the Sempt, the Pfettrach and the Gleirschbach; the official head of the Isar is located in the Hinterau valley east of the village Scharnitz in the Karwendel mountains in Tyrol, Austria at a height above sea level of 1,160 metres. In 2003 the Isar spring was “developed”, this move has been discussed due to environmental reasons; the Lavatsch, the Isar’s longest headstream, has its source farther to the southeast near a mountain cabin named Hallangerhaus.
It is sometimes called the Isar’s head. Further on the young Isar is supplied water by the Birkkarbach, which has its source at the foot of the highest mountain of the Karwendel, the Birkkarspitze and the Moserkarbach. Between Mittenwald and Krün the Isar is dammed for the first time, its waters are led into the lake Walchensee. To make more energy generation possible and to avoid flooding farther down the river a large reservoir called Sylvensteinsee was created between 1954 and 1959, it is located some 12 km south of Lenggries. It has prevented some bad floods in Munich, for example in 1979, 1999 and most important, in 2005. In that year for the first time water had to be released from the lake because its capacity was exhausted. Flooding was avoided in Munich. After leaving the Bavarian Alps at Bad Tölz, the Isar first flows through the glacial morainic landscape and through the Munich plain, it continues from Freising on through the Tertiary Hills all the way into the Danube valley. Its mouth at the Danube is at 312 metres above sea level, thus the Isar descends some 848 metres from its head to its mouth.
Most of the small islands and gravel banks keep changing size due to the annual floods. Some of the islands within the bigger cities were built up during the 19th century and thus protected against the abrasive powers of the water. Among those are the Museumsinsel, it is quite that the Isar was used as a trade route in prehistoric times, to transport wares from the Alps and Italy towards the Danube with rafts. An existing trade road from the Inn valley across Seefelder Pass into the northern foothills of the alps was built up and called Via Raetia by the Romans; the town of Mittenwald thus became an important trade post in the Werdenfelser Land. At a few places the Romans built wooden bridges across the Isara so they could cross the river with its strong currents more easily. One of these could have been along the Roman road from Salzburg to Augsburg south of contemporary Munich, thus trade traffic could be controlled and income from tolls was frequent and regular. The medieval foundation of the cities of Munich and Landshut are directly connected with the building of bridges and the resulting conflicts concerning power and influence on the economy.
Due to the continuing growth of the cities there was a constant demand for timber and lime, which resulted in an increase of commercial rafting. Beginning in the 17th century wares like Mediterranean fruit, spices and silk from the Venetian Market in Mittenwald were transported down the Isar and Danube all the way to Vienna and Budapest. During the 19th century when commercial rafting was at its peak, some 8,000 rafts arrived in Munich each year. Since the Middle Ages water mills were working at the banks of the Isar by hydro mechanical power. To ensure a more constant flow for the mills the water in Munich was led into small canals; the canals were used to provide freshwater to the population of the cit
Taufkirchen (bei München)
Taufkichen is a small community south of Munich, near Oberhaching and Unterhaching in southern Germany. The Realschule is named after Walter Klingenbeck. In general, the German location of EADS, more called Airbus, is considered to be in the neighbouring community Ottobrunn, but most of the ground area belongs to Taufkirchen. Taufkirchen Guide Freiwillige Feuerwehr Taufkirchen Pfarrei St. Johannes der Täufer