The Gracchi brothers and Gaius, were Romans who both served as tribunes of the plebs between 133 and 121 BC. They attempted to redistribute the occupation of the ager publicus—the public land hitherto controlled principally by aristocrats—to the urban poor and veterans, in addition to other social and constitutional reforms. After achieving some early success, both were assassinated by the Optimates, the conservative faction in the senate that opposed these reforms; the brothers were born to a plebeian branch of the noble Sempronia family. Their father was the elderly Tiberius Gracchus the Elder, tribune of the plebs, praetor and censor, their mother Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Africanus, himself considered a hero by the Roman people for his part in the war against Carthage. Their parents had 12 children, but only one daughter—who married Scipio Aemilianus —and two sons and Gaius, survived childhood. After the boys' father died while they were young, responsibility for their education fell to their mother.
Cornelia ensured that the brothers had the best available Greek tutors, teaching them oratory and political science. The brothers were well trained in martial pursuits; the older brother Tiberius was elected an augur at only 16 – according to the historian J. C. Stobart, had he taken the easy path rather than the cause of radical reform, he would have been destined for consulship. Tiberius was the most distinguished young officer in the Third Punic War, Rome's last campaign against Carthage, he was the first to scale Carthage's walls. As the boys grew up, they developed strong connections with the ruling elite. Central to the Gracchi reforms was an attempt to address economic distress and its military consequences. Much public land had been divided among large landholders and speculators who further expanded their estates by driving peasants off their farms. While their old lands were being worked by slaves, the peasants were forced into idleness in Rome where they had to subsist on handouts due to a scarcity of paid work.
They could not join the army because they did not meet the property qualification. The Gracchi aimed to address these problems by reclaiming lands from wealthy members of the senatorial class that could be granted to soldiers. Tiberius was elected to the office of Tribune of the Plebs in 133 BC, he began pushing for a programme of land reform by invoking the 240-year-old Sextian-Licinian law that limited the amount of land that could be owned by a single individual. Using the powers of Lex Hortensia, Tiberius established a commission to oversee the redistribution of land holdings from the rich to the unlanded urban poor; the commission consisted of his father-in-law and his brother Gaius. Liberal senators were agitated by the proposed changes, fearing their own lands would be confiscated. Senators arranged for other tribunes to oppose the reforms. Tiberius appealed to the people, argued that a tribune who opposes the will of the people in favour of the rich is not a true tribune; the senators were left with only one constitutional response – to threaten prosecution after Tiberius's term as a tribune ended.
This meant. The senators obstructed his re-election, they gathered an ad hoc force, with several of them marching to the Forum, had Tiberius and some 300 of his supporters clubbed to death. This was the first open bloodshed in Roman politics for nearly four centuries. Tiberius's land reform commission continued distributing lands, albeit much more than Tiberius had envisaged, as Senators were able to eliminate more of the commission's supporters by legal means. Ten years in 123 BC, Gaius took the same office as his brother, as a Tribune of the Plebs. Gaius was more minded than Tiberius and was considered more dangerous by the senatorial class, he gained support from the agrarian poor by reviving the land reform programme and from the urban poor with various popular measures. He sought support from the second estate, those equestrians who had not ascended to become senators. Many equestrians were publicans, in charge of tax collecting in the Roman province of Asia, of contracting for construction projects.
The equestrian class would get to control a court that tried senators for misconduct in provincial administration. In effect, the equestrians replaced senators serving at the court. Thus, Gaius became an opponent of senatorial influence. Other reforms implemented by Gaius included fixing prices on grain for the urban population and granting improvements in citizenship for Latins and others outside the city of Rome. With this broad coalition of supporters, Gaius held his office for two years and had much of his prepared legislation passed; this included winning an unconstitutional, although not illegal, re-election to the one-year office of Tribune. However Gaius's plans to extend rights to non-Roman Italians were vetoed by another Tribune. A substantial proportion of the Roman poor, protective of their privileged Roman citizenship, turned against Gaius. With Gaius's support from the people weakened, the consul Lucius Opimius was able to crush the Grac
Ni Guangjiong is a Chinese physicist and science writer. He began studies in physics about 1950, became a Doctor of Philosophy in 1955, he married Su Qing, a physics professor, in 1960. He published his first book in 1978, he holds a Chair in Physics at Shanghai. He is the head of the Division for Theoretical Physics, he is a specialist in quantum mechanics, field theory, particle physics. His books include Modern Physics, Methods of Mathematical Physics, Levinson Theorem and Phase Transition of Vacuum, Physics Changing the World, Advanced Quantum Mechanics. Ni is studied by several authors in astrophysics and for the theories of the antimatter, that he includes in the cosmological model that he proposes; the theories of Ni about antimatter are used for invariances of scale within the framework as Quantum tunnelling and it is within the framework of this cosmological model that Ni develops an important part of his study with regard to the neutrinos. Ni claimed to prove, he spent most of his career studying this.
This work was cited on many occasions by international teams of scientists and in several anthologies. Ni received scientific awards recognized nationally in China, inter alia: Award of the worker models national in 1979 Progress Award in 1988 for state education delivered by the Commission of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Technology Progress Award delivered by the Ministry for the teaching of sciences and technology for a work on the theorem of Levinson left in 1995 National outstanding commendation award of teaching in 2002 for a work entitled "world Change in physics" National award for the colleges of teaching and universities for a book about quantum Mechanical "advanced" in 2002. Guang-Jiong Ni has been quoted in the field of philosophy and by Siemens. Modern Physics Methods of Mathematical Physics Levinson Theorem and Phase Transition of Vacuum Physics Changing the World Relativity, Cosmology, Contemporary Fundamental Physics, under the direction of Valeri Dvoeglazov Surface Physics and Related Topics: Festschrift for Xide Xie, with Fujia Yang, Xun Wang and Kai-Ming Zhang Advanced Quantum Mechanics, with Su-qing Chen Neutrino Neutrino oscillation Solar neutrino problem Cosmic neutrino background Faster than light Special relativity Speed of light OPERA experiment MINOS Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory
Cosmopterix ananke is a moth of the family Cosmopterigidae. It is known from the Federal District of Brazil. Adults were collected in May. Male. Forewing length 4.1 mm. Head: frons shining pale ochreous-grey with greenish and reddish reflections and neck tufts shining dark bronze brown with greenish and reddish gloss and medially lined white, collar shining dark bronze brown with greenish and reddish gloss. Thorax and tegulae shining dark bronze brown with reddish gloss, thorax medially with a short white posterior line, tegulae narrowly lined white inwardly. Legs: shining dark brown with reddish gloss, femora of midleg and hindleg shining ochreous-grey with golden reflection, foreleg with a white line on tibia and tarsal segments one, base of segment three and segment five, tibia of midleg with white oblique basal and medial lines and a white apical ring, midleg with tarsal segment one with white longitudinal line on outside from base to dorsum at apex, segment two with a white dorsal line in apical half, segments five dorsally white, tibia of hindleg as midleg, tarsal segments one and two with indistinct ochreous dorsal spots, segment three with white dorsal spot, segment four dorsally white and segment five white, spurs dark brown with purplish gloss and with a longitudinal white streak.
Forewing shining dark bronze brown with reddish gloss, three white lines in the basal area, a subcostal from base to one-quarter, bending from costa distally, a short medial above fold, ending beyond apex of subcostal, a subdorsal, shorter than the medial and starting further from base than the latter, a yellow transverse fascia beyond the middle with a short apical protrusion, narrowed towards dorsum, bordered at the inner edge by a tubercular pale golden metallic fascia with greenish and purplish reflections, subcostally on the outside with a blackish spot, bordered at outer edge by two tubercular pale golden metallic costal and dorsal spots with greenish reflection, the dorsal spot about twice as large as the costal and more towards base, both spots irregularly lined dark brown on the inside, the costal spot outwardly edged by a narrow white costal streak, a shining blue apical line from the distal half of the apical area, shining white in the cilia, cilia dark brown, paler towards dorsum.
Hindwing shining dark greyish brown with reddish gloss, cilia brown. Underside: forewing shining dark brown with greenish reflection, the white spot at apex distinctly visible, hindwing shining dark greyish brown. Abdomen dorsally brown, laterally shining pale grey with greenish reflection, ventrally dark greyish brown, segments broadly banded shining yellowish white posteriorly, in middle yellowish white, anal tuft pale brownish grey. Named after Ananke, a moon of Jupiter. To be treated as a noun in apposition; as of this edit, this article uses content from "The genera Cosmopterix Hübner and Pebobs Hodges in the New World with special attention to the Neotropical fauna", licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed