U.S. Route 20 in New York
U. S. Route 20 is a part of the U. S. Highway System that runs from Oregon, to Boston, Massachusetts. In the U. S. state of New York, US 20 extends 372.32 miles from the Pennsylvania state line at Ripley to the Massachusetts state line in the Berkshire Mountains. US 20 is the longest surface road in New York, it runs near the Lake Erie shore from Ripley to Buffalo and passes through the southern suburbs of Buffalo, the Finger Lakes, the glacial moraines of Central New York, the city of Albany before crossing into Massachusetts. US 20 connects to all three major north–south Interstate Highways in Upstate New York: Interstate 390 near Avon, I-81 south of Syracuse, I-87 in Albany by way of Fuller Road Alternate. With the exception of Albany, it passes directly through no major cities of the state, bypassing Syracuse and Utica by great distances to the south while the New York State Thruway and New York State Route 5, which share its corridor, pass right through or close to them, it is, however, a major artery in many of the outlying areas it passes through in the hilly fringes of the Allegheny Plateau expanding to four lanes with extensive commercial strip development.
One of these sections, the easterly of two concurrencies with NY 5 across the northern Finger Lakes, is the longest concurrency in the state, extending 67 miles from Avon to Auburn. From Oneida County to Albany, the road follows the historic Cherry Valley Turnpike, built at the beginning of the 19th century to connect Albany and, at the time, the important villages of Duanesburg, Cherry Valley and Skaneateles. US 20 itself was assigned in 1926 and was the state's main east–west route from that time until the Thruway was completed in the 1950s. US 20 enters Western New York paralleling the Lake Erie shoreline, the Thruway and NY 5. Passing through the southeastern suburbs of Buffalo, it assumes a due-east heading at Depew, taking it to the NY 5 overlap in Avon; the two roads pass through many of the communities at the north ends of the larger Finger Lakes, splitting in Auburn. Through Central New York and the Central New York Region to its east, US 20 drifts south into the rugged upper reaches of the Allegheny Plateau, distancing itself from the Thruway and NY 5 by as much as 20 miles at some points.
In the Capital District, the three routes all converge again, US 20 goes right through downtown Albany, the largest city along its route in New York. Just before crossing the Hudson River, US 20 is joined again by US 9 for its second-longest concurrency, which ends just before the Thruway's Berkshire section in Schodack Center. From there it drifts southward into the Berkshires, crossing the Massachusetts state line west of Pittsfield. All but 5.60 miles of US 20's 372-mile alignment in New York is maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation. In Cayuga County, the 1.21-mile section of US 20 in Auburn between NY 38A and the eastern city line is maintained by the city of Auburn. To the east in Albany County, the 4.39 miles of US 20 in Albany from the western city line to the north end of the NY 32 overlap is city-maintained. From the state line to the Buffalo suburbs, US 20 is a two-lane through road on the same northeastern heading it has followed most of the way from Cleveland.
It serves as the main street of the few communities. In the Buffalo area, US 20 begins to head more east, widening to four lanes and becoming a busy regional artery that intersects many other roads of major and minor importance. For the five miles leading into Depew, it runs due north along with NY 78 as part of Transit Road, a busy commercial strip east of the city. At Depew, US 20 begins its journey east across the state; the surrounding countryside returns to farmland by the Genesee County line. US 20 enters New York after passing through State Line, Pennsylvania, it remains on the northeasterly course it has been following as I-90, now the New York State Thruway, veers between it and what is now NY 5 in order to remain on level ground. This section of US 20 hugs the foot of the beach ridge to the south of Lake Erie, sometimes visible from sections of the highway in Chautauqua County. A mile and a half east of the state line, Shortman Road leaves to the left for exit 61, the westernmost interchange on the Thruway.
Shortly afterward, US 20 reaches its first settlement in New York, the hamlet of Ripley, where it intersects NY 76, the first touring route along US 20 in the state. Another eight miles of two-lane rural road, crossed at its midpoint by the onetime New York Central Railroad and now CSX Transportation mainline, brings US 20 into its first incorporated community, the village of Westfield. Here, NY 394 intersects US 20 in the middle of town on its way to the Thruway's next exit and the hamlet of Barcelona, where it encounters NY 5 and the lake. Beyond Westfield, US 20 begins coming further inland as it heads northeast. 16 miles to the east, it reaches the largest village along its route so far. 20 intersects with NY 60 at Reed Corners at the eastern edge of Fredonia, which heads north to the neighboring city of Dunkirk. Two miles east, NY 39 becomes the first state route to end at US 20, it makes a loop of nearly 100 miles through the interior of the state to return to US 20 in the Finger Lakes.
Past this junction, the Thruway and US 20 begin to converge in flatter country until they cross as US 20 veers northward 1 mile south of Silver Creek. US 20 Truck splits off from US 20 in the center of town, rejoins its parent northea
National Bank Act
The National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 were two United States federal banking acts that established a system of national banks, created the United States National Banking System. They encouraged development of a national currency backed by bank holdings of U. S. Treasury securities and established the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency as part of the United States Department of the Treasury and a system of nationally chartered banks; the Act shaped today's national banking system and its support of a uniform U. S. banking policy. At the beginning Second Bank of the United States in 1836, the control of banking regimes devolved to the states. Different states adopted policies including a total ban on banking, a single state-chartered bank, limited chartering of banks, free entry. While the relative success of New York's "free banking" laws led a number of states to adopt a free-entry banking regime, the system remained poorly integrated across state lines. Though all banknotes were uniformly denominated in dollars, notes would circulate at a steep discount in states beyond their issue.
In the end, there were well-publicized frauds arising in states like Michigan, which had adopted free entry regimes but did not require redeemability of bank issues for specie. The perception of dangerous "wildcat" banking, along with the poor integration of the U. S. banking system, led to increasing public support for a uniform national banking regime. The United States Government, on the other hand, still had limited taxation capabilities, so had an interest in the seigniorage potential of a national bank. In 1846, the Polk Administration created a United States Treasury system that moved public funds from private banks to Treasury branches in order to fund the Mexican–American War. However, without a national currency, the revenue generated. One of the first attempts to issue a national currency came in the early days of the Civil War when Congress approved the Legal Tender Act of 1862, allowing the issue of $150 million in national notes known as greenbacks and mandating that paper money be issued and accepted in lieu of gold and silver coins.
The bills were backed only by the national government's promise to redeem them and their value was dependent on public confidence in the government as well as the ability of the government to give out specie in exchange for the bills in the future. Many thought this promise backing the bills was about as good as the green ink printed on one side, hence the name "greenbacks."The Second Legal Tender Act, enacted July 11, 1862, a Joint Resolution of Congress, the Third Legal Tender Act, enacted March 3, 1863, expanded the limit to $450 million. The largest amount of greenbacks outstanding at any one time was calculated as $447,300,203.10. The National Bank Act known as the National Currency Act, was passed in the Senate by a 23–21 vote; the main goal of this act was to create a single national currency and to eradicate the problem of notes from multiple banks circulating simultaneously. The Act established national banks that could issue notes which were backed by the United States Treasury and printed by the government itself.
The quantity of notes that a bank was allowed to issue was proportional to the bank's level of capital deposited with the Comptroller of the Currency at the Treasury. To further control the currency, the Act taxed notes issued by state and local banks pushing non-federally issued paper out of circulation; the National Banking Act of 1863 was superseded by the National Banking Act of 1864 just one year later. The new act established federally-issued bank charters, which took banking out of the hands of state governments. Before the act, charters were granted by state legislatures, they could be influenced by bribes. This problem was resolved to some degree by free banking laws in some states, but it was not until this act was passed that free banking was established on a uniform, national level and charter issuance was taken out of the hands of discriminating and corrupt state legislatures; the first bank to receive a national charter was the First National Bank of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first new national bank to open was The First National Bank of Iowa.
Additionally, the new Act converted more than 1,500 state banks to national banks. The National Bank Act of 1863 was passed on February 25th, 1863, was the first attempt to establish a central bank after the failures of the First and Second Banks of the United States, served as the predecessor to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913; the act allowed the creation of national banks, set out a plan for establishing a national currency backed by government securities held by other banks, gave the federal government the ability to sell war bonds and securities. National banks were chartered by the federal government, were subject to stricter regulation. A high tax on state banks was levied to discourage competition, by 1865 most state banks had either received national charters or collapsed; the 1864 act, based on a New York State law, brought the federal government into active supervision of commercial banks. It established the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency with the responsibility of chartering and supervising all national banks.
On July 13, 1866, the banking Act of 1865 was extended beyond requiring every national banking association, state bank, or state banking association to pay a 10% tax on any note
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865; the amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption, it was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed or states that prohibited slavery. Slavery was implicitly permitted in the original Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 known as the Three-Fifths Compromise, which detailed how each slave state's enslaved population would be factored into its total population count for the purposes of apportioning seats in the United States House of Representatives and direct taxes among the states. Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain.
On April 8, 1864, the Senate passed an amendment to abolish slavery. After one unsuccessful vote and extensive legislative maneuvering by the Lincoln administration, the House followed suit on January 31, 1865; the measure was swiftly ratified by nearly all Northern states, along with a sufficient number of border states up to the death of Lincoln, but approval came with President Andrew Johnson, who encouraged the "reconstructed" Southern states of Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia to agree, which brought the count to 27 states, caused it to be adopted before the end of 1865. Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, white supremacist violence, selective enforcement of statutes continued to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor in the South. In contrast to the other Reconstruction Amendments, the Thirteenth Amendment was cited in case law, but has been used to strike down peonage and some race-based discrimination as "badges and incidents of slavery."
The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors. The Thirteenth Amendment enables Congress to pass laws against sex trafficking and other modern forms of slavery. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Slavery existed in all of the original thirteen British North American colonies. Prior to the Thirteenth Amendment, the United States Constitution did not expressly use the words slave or slavery but included several provisions about unfree persons; the Three-Fifths Compromise, Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, allocated Congressional representation based "on the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons".
This clause was a compromise between Southerners who wished slaves to be counted as'persons' for congressional representation and northerners rejecting these out of concern of too much power for the South, because representation in the new Congress would be based on population in contrast to the one-vote-for-one-state principle in the earlier Continental Congress. Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, "No person held to Service or Labour in one State" would be freed by escaping to another. Article I, Section 9, Clause 1 allowed Congress to pass legislation outlawing the "Importation of Persons", but not until 1808. However, for purposes of the Fifth Amendment—which states that, "No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"—slaves were understood as property. Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis in Dred Scott v. Sandford for treating slaves as property.
Stimulated by the philosophy of the Declaration of Independence, between 1777 and 1804 every Northern state provided for the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery. Most of the slaves involved were household servants. No Southern state did so, the slave population of the South continued to grow, peaking at 4 million people in 1861. An abolitionist movement headed by such figures as William Lloyd Garrison grew in strength in the North, calling for the end of slavery nationwide and exacerbating tensions between North and South; the American Colonization Society, an alliance between abolitionists who felt the races should be kept separated and slaveholders who feared the presence of freed blacks would encourage slave rebellions, called for the emigration and colonization of both free blacks and slaves to Africa. Its views were endorsed by politicians such as Henry Clay, who feared that the main abolitionist movement would provoke a civil war. Proposals to eliminate slavery by constitutional amendment were introduced by Representative Arthur Livermore in 1818 and by John Quincy Adams in 1839, but failed to gain significant traction.
As the country continued to expand, the issue of slavery in its new territories became the dominant national issue. The Southern position was that slaves were property and therefore could be moved to the territories like all other forms of property; the 1820 Missouri Compromise provided for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, preserving the Senate's equality between the regions. In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso was introduced to a war appropriations bill to ban slavery in all territories acquired in the Mexican–Ameri
A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin, upper lip and neck of humans and some non-human animals. In humans only pubescent or adult males are able to grow beards. However, women with hirsutism, a hormonal condition of excessive hairiness, may develop a beard. Throughout the course of history, societal attitudes toward male beards have varied depending on factors such as prevailing cultural-religious traditions and the current era's fashion trends; some religions have considered a full beard to be essential for all males able to grow one, mandate it as part of their official dogma. Other cultures while not mandating it, view a beard as central to a man's virility, exemplifying such virtues as wisdom, sexual prowess and high social status. However, in cultures where facial hair is uncommon, beards may be associated with poor hygiene or a "savage," uncivilized, or dangerous demeanor; the beard develops during puberty. Beard growth is linked to stimulation of hair follicles in the area by dihydrotestosterone, which continues to affect beard growth after puberty.
Dihydrotestostorone promotes balding. Dihydrotestosterone is produced from the levels of which vary with season. Beard growth rate is genetic. Biologists characterize beards as a secondary sexual characteristic because they are unique to one sex, yet do not play a direct role in reproduction. Charles Darwin first suggested possible evolutionary explanation of beards in his work The Descent of Man, which hypothesized that the process of sexual selection may have led to beards. Modern biologists have reaffirmed the role of sexual selection in the evolution of beards, concluding that there is evidence that a majority of women find men with beards more attractive than men without beards. Evolutionary psychology explanations for the existence of beards include signalling sexual maturity and signalling dominance by increasing perceived size of jaws, clean-shaved faces are rated less dominant than bearded; some scholars assert that it is not yet established whether the sexual selection leading to beards is rooted in attractiveness or dominance.
A beard can be explained as an indicator of a male's overall condition. The rate of facial hairiness appears to influence male attractiveness; the presence of a beard makes the male vulnerable in hand to hand fights, costly, so biologists have speculated that there must be other evolutionary benefits that outweigh that drawback. Excess testosterone evidenced by the beard may indicate mild immunosuppression, which may support spermatogenesis; the ancient Semitic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon gave great attention to the hair and beard. Where the beard has a strong resemblance to that affected by the Assyrians, familiar to us from their sculptures, it is arranged in three, four, or five rows of small tight curls, extends from ear to ear around the cheeks and chin. Sometimes, however, in lieu of the many rows, we find one row only, the beard falling in tresses, which are curled at the extremity. There is no indication of the Phoenicians having cultivated mustachios.
Mesopotamian civilizations devoted great care to oiling and dressing their beards, using tongs and curling irons to create elaborate ringlets and tiered patterns. The highest ranking Ancient Egyptians grew hair on their chins, dyed or hennaed and sometimes plaited with interwoven gold thread. A metal false beard, or postiche, a sign of sovereignty, was worn by queens and kings; this was held in place by a ribbon tied over the head and attached to a gold chin strap, a fashion existing from about 3000 to 1580 BC. In ancient India, the beard was allowed to grow a symbol of dignity and of wisdom; the nations in the east treated their beards with great care and veneration, the punishment for licentiousness and adultery was to have the beard of the offending parties publicly cut off. They had such a sacred regard for the preservation of their beards that a man might pledge it for the payment of a debt. Confucius held that the human body was a gift from one's parents to which no alterations should be made.
Aside from abstaining from body modifications such as tattoos, Confucians were discouraged from cutting their hair, finger nails or beards. To what extent people could comply with this ideal depended on their profession. Most of the clay soldiers in the Terracotta Army have mustasches or goatees but shaved cheeks, indicating that this was the fashion of the Qin dynasty; the Iranians were fond of long beards, all the Iranian kings had a beard. In Travels by Adam Olearius, a King of Iran commands his steward's head to be cut off, on its being brought to him, remarks, "what a pity it was, that a man possessing such fine mustachios, should have been executed." Men in the Achaemenid era wore long beards, with warriors adorning theirs with jewelry. Men commonly wore beards during the Safavid and Qajar eras; the ancient Greeks regarded the beard as a sign of virility. It was only shaven as a sign of mourning, though in this case it was instead left untrimmed. A smooth face was regarded as a sign of effem
Julia I. Sand was an American woman who corresponded with the American President Chester A. Arthur, beginning in late August 1881. Arthur saved twenty-three letters, all of which were discovered in 1958 after his grandson, Chester Alan Arthur III, sold his grandfather's papers to the Library of Congress; the last surviving letter is dated September 15, 1883. It is not known whether Arthur wrote back as no letter from him has been found. Sand referred to herself as the President's "little dwarf", an allusion to the idea that in a royal court, only the dwarf would have the courage to tell the truth. Julia Sand was the eighth daughter of a German emigrant named Christian Henry Sand who became President of the Metropolitan Gas Light Company of New York, she lived in Brooklyn. By 1880, they had settled at 46 East 74th Street in New York City. One of her brothers died in the American Civil War, which may have inspired her interest in politics. Sand was educated, read French, enjoyed poetry, travelled to fashionable Saratoga Springs and Newport.
At the time she began writing to Arthur, she was bedridden due to spinal trouble and deafness. Most of what is known about Sand comes from her surviving letters to President Arthur. "I am a poor little woman who has always been the youngest of her family, who if she lives to be fifty, will always be treated like a child – who would have no comfort in life if she could not scold some big man.". She may have been an artist, since she once asked Arthur for permission to paint him in watercolors; the hours of Garfield's life are numbered – before this meets your eye, you may be President. The people are bowed in grief. What president entered office under circumstances so sad?… The day was shot, the thought rose in a thousand minds that you might be the instigator of the foul act. Is not that a humiliation which cuts deeper than any bullet can pierce? Your kindest opponents say'Arthur will try to do right' – adding gloomily –'He won't succeed though making a man President cannot change him.'…But making a man President can change him!
Great emergencies awaken generous traits. If there is a spark of true nobility in you, now is the occasion to let it shine. Faith in your better nature forces me to write to you – but not to beg you to resign. Do what is more difficult & brave. Reform! It is not proof of highest goodness never to have done wrong, but it is proof of it, sometimes in ones career, to pause & ponder, to recognize the evil, to turn resolutely against it…. Once in awhile there comes a crisis; the great tidal wave of sorrow which has rolled over the country has swept you loose from your old moorings & set you on a mountaintop, alone. Disappoint our fears. Force the nation to have faith in you. Show from the first that you have none but the purest of aims. You can not slink back into obscurity. A hundred years hence, school boys will recite your name in the list of presidents & tell of your administration, and what shall posterity say? It is for you to choose…. Julia Sand wrote her first letter. Dated August 27, 1881, it reached Arthur when he was still U.
S. Vice President. Arthur's predecessor, President James A. Garfield, had been shot by Charles Guiteau. Upon being caught, Guiteau had announced his hope that Arthur would be president and there was a brief investigation into whether Guiteau had been hired by Garfield's enemies. Though this was disproven, there were threats to Arthur's life and he feared making public appearances. Arthur's past was tied to various scandals involving the New York Custom House and it was feared by many that an Arthur presidency would be a disaster; the Republican Party was divided between "Stalwarts" and "Half-Breeds". Sand's letter added that, for five years, she had felt "dead and buried" but the attempt on Garfield's life and America's lack of faith in Arthur had inspired her to attempt to inspire him. Sand's letters contained political advice, although it was interspersed with personal details and concern regarding Arthur's health and personal life; as she had no political ties, all of her information came from newspapers.
Historian and Chester Arthur biographer Thomas C. Reeves suggested. In a letter of January 7, 1882, she remarked that it was rumored that Arthur's visits to New York were because he was engaged. "Do you remember any other President as restless as yourself, rushing home every few weeks? If, as Washington gossip hints, you are engaged and wish to see the lady without having her name dragged before the public – of course the end justifies the means." In the same letter, she remarked on an incident when Arthur had kissed a baby with such discomfort that she "had thought of Pickwick and died laughingly". President Garfield died on September 19, 1881 and Arthur thus became U. S. President. After giving his inaugural address, he received another letter dated September 25, 1881, she counselled him to let the country mourn and that he should show compassion to help the nation heal. Sand wrote to Arthur: "You are a better & nobler man, the manner in which you have borne yourself thr
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa