Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
A college is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, an institution offering vocational education or a secondary school. In the United States, "college" may refer to a constituent part of a university or to a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, but "college" and "university" are used interchangeably, whereas in the United Kingdom, South Asia, Southern Africa and Canada, "college" may refer to a secondary or high school, a college of further education, a training institution that awards trade qualifications, a higher education provider that does not have university status, or a constituent part of a university. In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of people living together under a common set of rules. Aside from the modern educational context - nowadays the most common use of "college" - there are various other meanings derived from the original Latin term, such as Electoral college.
Within higher education, the term can be used to refer to: a constituent part of a collegiate university, for example King's College, Cambridge, or of a federal university, for example King's College London a liberal arts college, an independent institution of higher education focusing on undergraduate education, such as Williams College or Amherst College a liberal arts division of a university whose undergraduate program does not otherwise follow a liberal arts model, such as the Yuanpei College at Peking University an institute providing specialised training, such as a college of further education, for example Belfast Metropolitan College, a teacher training college, or an art college In the United States, college is sometimes but a synonym for a research university, such as Dartmouth College, one of the eight universities in the Ivy League A sixth form college or college of further education is an educational institution in England, Northern Ireland, The Caribbean, Norway, Brunei, or Southern Africa, among others, where students aged 16 to 19 study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A-levels, BTEC, HND or its equivalent and the International Baccalaureate Diploma, or school-level qualifications such as GCSEs.
In Singapore and India, this is known as a junior college. The municipal government of the city of Paris uses the phrase "sixth form college" as the English name for a lycée. In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called "colleges" or have "college" as part of their title. In Australia the term "college" is applied to any private or independent primary and secondary school as distinct from a state school. Melbourne Grammar School, Cranbrook School and The King's School, Parramatta are considered colleges. There has been a recent trend to rename or create government secondary schools as "colleges". In the state of Victoria, some state high schools are referred to as secondary colleges, although the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in Melbourne is still named Melbourne High School. In Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, "college" is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, some older ones. In New South Wales, some high schools multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as "secondary colleges".
In Queensland some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled state college, but state schools offering only secondary education are called "State High School". In Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, "college" refers to the final two years of high school, the institutions which provide this. In this context, "college" is a system independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a shorter version of matriculation college. In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary schools are called "collegiates" or "collegiate institutes", a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual "post-secondary" connotation; this is because these secondary schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational and ability levels. Some private secondary schools choose to use the word "college" in their names nevertheless; some secondary schools elsewhere in the country ones within the separate school system, may use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.
In New Zealand the word "college" refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17 and "college" appears as part of the name of private or integrated schools. "Colleges" most appear in the North Island, whereas "high schools" are more common in the South Island. In South Africa, some secondary schools private schools on the English public school model, have "college" in their title, thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of this category would be St John's College. Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges". In Sri Lanka the word "college" refers to a secondary school, which signifies above the 5th standard. During the British colonial period a limit
Dana College is a defunct baccalaureate college located in Blair, Nebraska. Its rural 150-acre campus is 26 miles northwest of Omaha, overlooks a portion of the Missouri River Valley; the campus was planned to be purchased by Midland University, which expressed its intention to re-open the campus in 2015 or 2016, but dropped plans in early 2016. The name “Dana” is the poetic variant of “Denmark.” The college was founded in 1884 by Danish pioneers. The student body was taught by 45 professors and eight non-doctorate instructors, resulting in an average teacher-student ratio of 1:12; the college offered on-campus housing in five residence halls and contractually maintained off-campus apartments for married or non-traditional students. Campus life fostered by many student organizations. There were no sororities; the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Association in America was formed in 1884 by a group of Danish members who left the Conference of the Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America.
Many Blair Church pastors were supportive of the Inner Mission. The Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America was formed in 1894 when seminary professor P. S. Vig, along with a number of pastor and congregations, left the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America over theological differences. In 1896, two small groups of Danish Lutherans in America - known as the Blair Church and the North Church - came together to form the United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church; this church body was a part of the Danish Lutheran "Inner Mission" movement, which supported a revival of religious practice based on the Bible and orthodox Lutheran teachings. Its members opposed the liberalizing influence of Danish theologian N. F. S. Grundtvig, who had supported the realization of religious expression through sacramental and congregational practices. Led by Peter Sørensen Vig and C. X. Hansen, one of the United Church's first priorities was to establish an educational system. Elk Horn Højskole in Elk Horn, had been founded in 1878 as the first Danish folk school in America.
In 1894, Pastor Kristian Anker owner and principal of the Elk Horn Højskole, sold it to the newly formed Danish Lutheran Church in North America for use as a seminary and college. When the North Church merged with the Blair Church in 1896, the seminary was consolidated with Trinity Seminary in Blair, Nebraska; when the Dana School was founded, part of its purpose was to be a pre-seminary school for those preparing for ministry in the Lutheran church. Many of Dana's early graduates went on to study at Trinity Seminary. For many years and Trinity shared faculty, administrators and presidents; this relationship ended in 1956 when Trinity Seminary merged with Wartburg Theological Seminary in Dubuque, Iowa. The Dana School was begun as preparatory school. By the early 1910s - in cooperation with the University of Nebraska - the Dana School was awarding associate degrees. In the 1930s Dana College became an accredited four-year school and began awarding bachelor's degrees; the institution faced on-going financial challenges in the 2000s.
Dana College reported that its deficit rose from $7,170,000 USD in 2005 to more than $12,550,000 USD in 2009. The Dana College Board of Regents attempted to convince major donors to make contributions to the college, yet Dana College was unable to attract the donations to erase the deficit and fund on-going operations. This lack of financial support for the institution was because of two major problems: The global financial crisis which resulted in the Great Recession of 2008 meant that several prospective donors were unable and/or unwilling to contribute, coupled with a lack of a "big grand vision for what Dana could become", according to one Regent who served during that period. In 2010, the Dana College Board of Regents made a decision to structure an agreement to sell Dana College to an investment group, Dana Education Corporation; the investment group proposed to transform Dana into a for-profit institution with a focus on "doubling enrollment, aggressively marketing the school and building Dana's study abroad program."
However, this proposed change of control was not accepted by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The sale of Dana College to the investment group collapsed. On June 30, 2010, the Dana College Board of Regents elected to cease operations, citing a multimillion-dollar deficit. On July 14, 2010, the Dana College Board of Regents wrote in a letter to alumni and supporters "We are firm in our belief that politics, not substance and reason, drove the ultimate decision." Attempts made by students, staff and other supporters of Dana College to influence the Higher Learning Commission to reverse its decision failed. Students were offered the ability to transfer the University of Nebraska at Omaha and Grand View University in Iowa, through formal teach-out plans. Midland University of Fremont, allowed all former Dana College students to transfer all Dana college credits, honored all Dana academic and need-based scholarships and grants, waived enrollment deposits for Dana students.
Of the 600 Dana students 275 enrolled at Midland in the fall of 2010. In 2013, Midland University, experiencing increasing enrollment and considering expansion, leased the Dana campus with the option of purchasing it. In 2016, Midland announced that it would not re-open the Dana campus, but would concentrate its
Cotner College known as Nebraska Christian University, is a former religious college located in present-day Lincoln, founded in 1889 by the Nebraska Christian Missionary Alliance. In 1886, several local businessmen marketed 300 acres of land as free real estate for a college, hoping that a town would form around the college and increase the property value of their adjacent land holdings. In 1888, the Nebraska Christian Missionary Alliance, an affiliate of the Disciples of Christ, obtained the land and founded Nebraska Christian University in 1889; the following year, in 1890, the institution was renamed Cotner College in honor of Omaha resident Samuel Cotner, a major donor to the college. The town of Bethany Heights formed around the college and was incorporated in 1890. Both the college and the town remained small, Cotner College opened with a class of 30 students in 1889 and by 1900, Bethany Heights had a population of only 360, despite being a suburb of Lincoln which in the same year had 37,000 residents.
Despite its small size, Cotner College was ambitious in its courses, being one of few colleges to offer studies in medicine and dentistry at the time. Cotner College offered courses in religious and biblical studies, education and liberal arts. Bethany Heights was annexed by Lincoln in 1926 and Cotner College closed Bethany Heights location in 1933. However, Cotner College as an institution continued to exist in various forms, such as the Cotner School of Religion which operated two locations, one opened in 1945 across the street from the University of Nebraska--Lincoln's East Campus and the other opened in 1954 across the street from the University of Nebraska--Lincoln's Downtown Campus; these locations allowed UNL students to minor in religious studies through dual enrollment at both Cotner and the University of Nebraska. Upon the closure of its Bethany Heights location, the medical and dental departments were given over to the University of Nebraska, creating the foundation for those departments at the University.
Aylesworth Hall, the main building of Cotner College, was demolished in the early 1950s and the land was sold off as individual residential lots. However, the former dormitory still stands and is used as an apartment building. Cotner Blvd. in Lincoln, Nebraska, is named after the former college. Clarence G. Miles, prominent local attorney and 35th mayor of Lincoln, attended Cotner College. Henry Howard Bagg, calendar artist, taught at Cotner College from 1902 to 1916. Bethany, Nebraska James A. Beattie House History of Lincoln, Nebraska University of Nebraska–Lincoln College View, Nebraska Union College Neighborhoods in Lincoln, Nebraska
Concordia University Nebraska
Concordia University, Nebraska is a private, coeducational university in Seward, established in 1894. It is affiliated with the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod as one of its nine schools in the Concordia University System; the university is organized into three schools: the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Education, the College of Graduate Studies. Degree completion and graduate programs are available online. Founded in 1894 as the Evangelische Lutherische Schulleherer Seminar, the university began as a preparatory teacher's school with its twelve students boarded and taught in the same building by J. George Weller and his wife; the surrounding community was supportive of a school in their midst, did much to help the students with extra foodstuffs and housing. The school granted its first teaching degrees in 1907. During World War I, the school faced anti-German sentiment, which caused the institution to change the language of all its classes to English; the college worked alongside the community to show their patriotism by constructing a 100 ft flagpole.
After the war, the school was accredited as a junior college and became co-ed in 1919. The first bachelor's degrees were awarded in 1940, the school became an accredited four-year institution in the late 1940s. In 1959, Concordia became the first of the LCMS schools to be accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education, which continues to accredit the university. Additional educational and housing facilities were added as the university grew and expanded its programs, including science labs, a large library and multiple residence halls. Business, art and health-related programs were added to the teaching and pre-seminary courses. Graduate programs were added in 1968; the college became part of the newly established Concordia University System in 1995, became a university in 1998. In 1995, the college hosted the first annual Plum Creek Children's Literacy Festival; the festival now brings nearly 10,000 school-aged students to campus. It has included famous authors such as John R. Erickson and John Archambault.
New facilities, including the Thom Leadership Education Center and a track-and-field and stadium complex, have been added in recent years. Jonathan Hall, the newest of its 11 residence halls, opened in 2006; the newest building at its is the Walz Human Performance Complex, dedicated in 2010. The current President of Concordia University, Nebraska is Rev. Dr. Brian L. Friedrich; the main campus is 85 acres in the town of Seward, Nebraska with over 11 academic and administration buildings and 11 residence halls. The newest residence hall—Jonathan Hall—is an apartment-style-living facility. All of the campus's residence halls include internet access and cable telecommunications connections; the university grounds are home to a portion of the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum as well as a number of university-commissioned and student-made sculptures. Brommer Hall was built as a student center but was converted to become a center for the arts; the building now contains studio space, classrooms and a computer lab.
Bulldog Stadium was constructed in 1997 and hosts the athletic events of Concordia's track and soccer teams in addition to intramurals and Seward High School football and soccer games. Founders Hall was built in 1894; as the original campus building, Founders supplied classrooms and living quarters for the first students, along with their teacher and his family. The Theatre Program's set-construction workshop operates in the basement. Janzow Campus Center was renovated and is the hub of campus life. Janzow includes the dining hall and the Doghouse Grill, 10:31 Coffee House, John W. Cattle Conference Room, Student Success Center, game room and lounges, mail room, Student Activities Council Office and the Bookstore. Jesse Hall was built as a dormitory but now functions as office space for the business, communication and social science departments. Several classrooms and a computer lab are present in the building; the Marxhausen Gallery of Art is located in the building with art visiting and archival shows on display.
Jesse Hall is the location for several organization offices including The Sower student newspaper and the Center for Liturgical Art, an outreach program to creates original pieces of ecclesiastical artwork for churches and religious organizations. Link Library houses over 230,000 titles, as well as the Bartels Museum, the Instructional Technology Center and the Academic Resource Center and Writing Center. Music Center is the home for many performing arts studies at Concordia. Offices for the music department are located here as well as a number of practice rooms equipped with pianos and organs. In 2008 a new Casavant Freres organ was installed in the recital hall, Heine Hall, along with a new Steinway piano. A computer lab provides music students with software for composition. A black box theater in the basement of the center serves as a venue for intimate theatrical performances throughout the year; the Osten Observatory houses a Meade LX-200 16” telescope in a Sirius Observatories 10-foot fiberglass dome.
Students and faculty host regular public viewing in the spring and fall, use the Meade DSI CCD imager for photography and research. Science Hall hosts many classes, not just of the sciences; the building includes laboratories for physics and chemistry with all of the necessary equipment. A cadaver lab for the study of human anatomy was added. Thom Leadership Education Center includes many state of the art classrooms along with an auditorium, computer labs and the offices of the education depa
Midland University is a private Lutheran liberal arts university in Fremont, Nebraska. It has an approximate enrollment of 1,400 students on 33-acre campus; the university offers more than thirty undergraduate bachelor's degrees and three graduate master's degrees, including Master of Business Administration, Master of Education in Leadership, Master of Science: Adult and Organizational Learning, Master of Athletic Training. Fielding athletic teams known as the Midland University Warriors and the college is a member of the Great Plains Athletic Conference in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics; the university's official colors are navy orange. The university offers several extracurricular activities, including 31 varsity athletic teams and service groups and organizations, as well as fraternities and sororities. Known as Midland Lutheran College from 1962–2010, the university is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Midland University was founded as an educational institution in 1883, was named Luther Academy.
The original building, located in Wahoo, was dedicated on November 10, 1883, the 400th anniversary of Martin Luther’s birth. The current university is a product of Midland College, an institution founded in 1887 by the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Midland College located in Atchison, moved to the university’s current location in Fremont, Nebraska in 1919. Luther Academy named Luther College, combined with Midland College as Midland Lutheran College in 1962. In 2009, then-Midland Lutheran College held a seven figure financial deficit and the lowest enrollment since WWII at 598. Following the closure of nearby Dana College, Midland Lutheran College allowed former-Dana students to transfer all Dana credits, honored all Dana academic and need-based scholarships and grants and waived enrollment deposits for Dana students. Of the 600 Dana students 275 enrolled at Midland in the fall of 2010. Midland Lutheran College was renamed Midland University in 2010. Along with the name change, the institution changed its official colors from black and orange to navy blue and orange.
In order to attract students, the university began investing in new programs and athletic teams in 2010. In 2010, the institution added five new varsity and club teams, including men's and women's wrestling, men's and women's bowling, competitive cheer/dance, women's lacrosse. In 2011–12, according to government statistics, Midland spent $5.5 million on athletic scholarships and operations and got back $9.5 million in tuition and fees paid by athletes. In 2011, Midland introduced a program guaranteeing that participating students would graduate in four years; the school's freshman enrollment increased by 32% from fall 2011 to fall 2012. In 2012, it added women's shotgun sports. In 2013, the university added women's ice hockey; these additions brought the school's total number of varsity sports programs to 27 as of 2013. From the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2013, Midland’s enrollment more than doubled from a low of 590 in 2009 to 1,288 in 2013. During the same time, Midland went “from a seven-figure deficit to seven-figure surpluses.”
Midland University athletic teams are known as the Warriors. The school is a member of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, competing in the Great Plains Athletic Conference for most sports, it sponsors 31 varsity sports programs, including 13 men's teams, 14 women's teams, co-ed cheer, powerlifting and eSports programs. Men's sports include baseball, bowling, cross country, golf, ice hockey, shotgun sports, swimming, tennis and field, wrestling. Women's sports include basketball, cross country, ice hockey, shotgun sport, softball, tennis and field, wrestling. In addition to featuring most traditional sports, Midland has added women's lacrosse, men's and women's bowling, men's and women's wrestling, shotgun sports, men's and women's hockey, men's and women's swimming, eSports since 2010; the Warriors softball team appeared in two Women's College World Series in 1970 and 1971. Midland University offers bachelor's degrees in more than thirty fields of study as well as three master's degrees.
In 2010, the school claimed to have a graduate placement rate of 100% for nursing students and 90% for education students. In addition to offering Master of Education in Leadership and Master of Professional Accounting degrees, the university announced the offering of an MBA program in 2012. In 2012, the school's accrediting agency, the Higher Learning Commission, placed it "on notice", expressing "concerns related to the University's finances and planning and its processes for assessment and utilization of student learning outcomes"; the HLC called for Midland to file final reports in 2014, demonstrating that these concerns had been resolved. In November 2014, the Higher Learning Commission confirmed that its concerns were resolved by removing the “on notice” sanction. Midland University offers over 45 student clubs and organizations and several intramural sports offerings, including basketball, sand-volleyball, ultimate-frisbee, softball; the university has seven social sororities: Beta Sigma Psi fraternity.
Other student organizations include Phi Beta Lambda – Students in Free Enterprise (PBL-
University of Nebraska–Lincoln
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States. It is the state's oldest university, the largest in the University of Nebraska system; the state legislature chartered the university in 1869 as a land-grant university under the 1862 Morrill Act, two years after Nebraska's statehood into the United States. Around the turn of the 20th century, the university began to expand hiring professors from eastern schools to teach in the newly organized professional colleges while producing groundbreaking research in agricultural sciences; the "Nebraska method" of ecological study developed here during this time pioneered grassland ecology and laid the foundation for research in theoretical ecology for the rest of the 20th century. The university is organized into eight colleges on two campuses in Lincoln with over 100 classroom buildings and research facilities, its athletic program, called the Cornhuskers, is a member of the Big Ten Conference.
The Nebraska football team has won 46 conference championships since 1970 and five national championships. The women's volleyball team has won five national championships along with nine other appearances in the Final Four; the Husker football team plays its home games at Memorial Stadium, selling out every game since 1962. The stadium's capacity is about 92,000 people, larger than the population of Nebraska's third-largest city; the University of Nebraska was created by an act of the Nebraska state legislature in 1869, two years after the State of Nebraska was admitted into the U. S; the law passed in 1869 creating the university described its aims: "The object of such institution shall be to afford to the inhabitants of the state the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of literature and the arts." The school received an initial land grant of about 130,000 acres and the campus construction began with the building of University Hall in its first year. By 1873, the University of Nebraska had offered its first two degrees to its first graduating class.
The school remained small and suffered from a lack of funds until about 20 years after its founding, when its high school programs were taken over by a new state education system. From 1890 to 1895 enrollment rose from 384 to about 1,500. A law school and a graduate school were created at about this time period, making it the first school west of the Mississippi to establish a graduate school. By 1897, the school was 15th in the nation in total enrollment. Through the turn of the 20th century, the school struggled to find an identity as both a pragmatic, frontier establishment and an academic, intellectual institution, it developed a competitive spirit in the form of a debate team, a football team, the arrival of fraternities and sororities. In 1913–14, a fierce debate ensued over whether to keep the University in downtown Lincoln or to move it out of town; the issue was not resolved until a statewide referendum sided with the downtown plan. After purchasing property downtown, the school experienced a building boom, both on the new property and on the farming campus.
The school would not experience another boom until the late 1940s, when the sudden arrival of thousands of soldiers returning from the war for an education forced the school to seek further expansion. In 1908, Nebraska was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of research universities. In recent years, Nebraska had been at or near the bottom of the AAU's statistical criteria for members, a ranking attributed in part to the university's extensive agricultural research funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, not included in the AAU's rankings because it is not awarded by peer-reviewed grants. Nebraska retained its AAU membership after a 2000 challenge; this provided Nebraska with an advantage when the Big Ten was looking to expand in 2010, as all of its members at that time were AAU members. Nebraska Chancellor Harvey Perlman said. "I doubt that our application would've been accepted had we not been a member of the." However, in 2011, after an extended campaign to retain its membership and a close, contentious vote, Nebraska became the only institution to be removed from the AAU membership by a vote of the membership In June 2018, the American Association of University Professors voted to censure the university for violations of academic freedom.
In 2017, an adjunct instructor was filmed by a student as the instructor expressed a political opinion about the student's activist activities. State lawmakers demanded that the university hold the instructor accountable and the university subsequently fired her, a move the AAUP contends was a violation of her academic freedom. University of Nebraska is governed by the Board of Regents; the board consists of eight voting members elected by district for six-year terms, four non-voting student Regents, one from each campus, who serve during their tenure as student body president. The board supervises the general operations of the university, the control and direction of all expenditures; the university today has nine colleges which offers more than 150 undergraduate majors, 20 pre-professional programs, 100 graduate programs and 275 programs of study. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources College of Architecture College of Arts and Sciences College of Business College of Education and Human Sciences College of Engineering Hixson-Lied College of Fine and Performing Arts Co