Grace of Monaco (film)

Grace of Monaco is a 2014 internationally co-produced biographical drama film directed by Olivier Dahan and written by Arash Amel. The film stars Nicole Kidman in the titular role as Grace Kelly, it features a supporting cast of Frank Langella, Parker Posey, Derek Jacobi, Paz Vega, Roger Ashton-Griffiths, Milo Ventimiglia, Tim Roth. First scheduled for release at the end of November 2013, the film was rescheduled for March 14, 2014, until being pulled from the release schedule indefinitely, it opened the 2014 Cannes Film Festival. It was released to cinemas in some countries in 2014, but bypassed a theatrical release in the US and debuted on the Lifetime cable network on May 25, 2015. Grace of Monaco is focused on former Hollywood star Grace Kelly's crisis of marriage and identity, during a dispute between Monaco's Prince Rainier III and France's Charles de Gaulle in 1962, as well as her considering a return to Hollywood to film Alfred Hitchcock's Marnie. In 1962, several years after her departure from Hollywood in 1956, Hitchcock visits Princess Grace in Monaco with an invitation to return to Hollywood to star in his new film Marnie.

The offer comes with a lucrative incentive of a million-dollar contract if she accepts his offer for the starring role. Princess Grace is intrigued by the offer, her role as the wife of a head of state has been limited in scope and dealing with charity work for hospitals and humanitarian efforts. She asks her husband for permission and he appears to be agreeable to her taking the role if she wants the part. In the meantime, tensions between France and Monaco are growing due to the dependence which France associates with the trade favors it has been offering to Monaco throughout the 20th century. France initiates diplomatic measures to get Monaco to accept a position of being a province within France, in the hope that Prince Rainier will give up his sovereign control over Monaco; the Prince is reticent to accept any such offer. This, in turn, provokes France to begin initial steps toward a trade embargo against Monaco; the French government initiates clandestine contact with close members of the prince's family, namely his sister and her husband, to help expedite the prince's capitulation to French demands in exchange for favors.

The tensions created differences in opinions of the prince and his wife, which cause the prince to wish to take back his offer to allow Grace to accept the film offer from Hitchcock. The princess appears to need to re-evaluate her priorities, she decides to increase her concern for her participation in the improvement of local hospitals and Red Cross aid throughout Europe, she organizes a charity ball to take place in October for the purposes of fund raising and improving the prestige of Monaco in the process. Unexpectedly, she receives a report presenting photographic evidence that the prince's sister has been covertly negotiating with France and de Gaulle against the interests of the prince, which she promptly reports to the prince; the prince denounces his sister's conduct and takes steps to have her exiled from Monaco by due process of law. Princess Grace decides that the Hollywood offer is no longer a part of her life and no longer a viable option to her given her new diplomatic and political responsibilities in Monaco.

Her international charity ball for the Red Cross is a grand success and Monaco gains significant international political capital from the event, which allows the prince and princess to preserve the sovereignty of Monaco. The script, written by Arash Amel, was listed in the 2011 Hollywood Black List of the most liked screenplays written in that year and sold to French-based producer Pierre-Ange Le Pogam in a competitive bid. Principal photography began in September 2012 in Menton, France. In October 2012, the production moved to Italy, first to Grimaldi, the village near Ventimiglia, which bears the name of the royal house of Monaco in Mortola, near Ventimiglia at Villa Hanbury; the production was granted permission to close Monaco's main square for 24 hours between October 29–30, 2012, during this time the cast were seen filming outside and around the Monte Carlo Casino. In November 2012 and, again, in January 2013, the production was in Genoa, Italy, on the housed set in the Royal Palace in Via Balbi, where the Hall of Mirrors replicates the residence of the royal court of Monaco.

Interiors were shot in Belgium On January 16, 2013, shortly after filming ended, Prince Albert II, Princess Caroline and Princess Stéphanie criticized the subject matter of the approved script, describing it as "needlessly glamorized and inaccurate," and said that "numerous requests for changes" had been ignored, which "had caused much astonishment." The statement continued, "Therefore, the Royal Family wishes to stress that this film in no way constitutes a biopic. It recounts one rewritten, needlessly glamorized page in the history of Monaco and its family with both major historical inaccuracies and a series of purely fictional scenes."In response to these criticisms, Melvyn Stokes from University College London said, "he fact that their statement was issued before the film was edited, let alone released, suggests that they may be opposed to any film about their mother". According to biographer Jeffrey Robinson, Princess Caroline was shown a script before filming, thought it was meant to be a comedy realized it was fiction.

She went through the script with a red pen to correct things that were blatantly wrong, but Dahan was no longer interested and refused to make any changes. Reviewing the film for History Extra, the official website of BBC History Magazine, S

41st New York State Legislature

The 41st New York State Legislature, consisting of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly, met from January 27 to April 21, 1818, during the first year of DeWitt Clinton's governorship, in Albany. Under the provisions of the New York Constitution of 1777, amended by the Constitutional Convention of 1801, 32 Senators were elected on general tickets in the four senatorial districts for four-year terms, they were divided into four classes, every year eight Senate seats came up for election. Assemblymen were elected countywide on general tickets to a one-year term, the whole Assembly being renewed annually. In 1797, Albany was declared the State capital, all subsequent Legislatures have been meeting there since. In 1799, the Legislature enacted that future Legislatures meet on the last Tuesday of January of each year unless called earlier by the governor. On February 24, 1817, Gov. Tompkins resigned, to take office as U. S. Vice President on March 4. On March 25, the Democratic-Republican State Convention nominated Canal Commissioner DeWitt Clinton for Governor, Acting Gov. John Tayler for Lieutenant Governor.

Clinton received 85 votes against 41 for Peter B. Porter; the Federalist Party did not nominate candidates for lieutenant governor. On April 6, 1817, State Senator Chauncey Loomis died. On April 7, 1817, Tompkins County was created from parts of Cayuga and Seneca counties, was apportioned two seats in the Assembly, one each taken from Cayuga and Seneca. At this time the politicians were divided into two opposing political parties: the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans; the Democratic-Republican Party was split into two factions: the Bucktails. The State election was held from April 29 to May 1, 1817. DeWitt Clinton and John Tayler were elected unopposed. Senator Jonathan Dayton was re-elected. Stephen Barnum, Jabez D. Hammond, John Lounsbery, Roger Skinner, Henry Yates Jr. Samuel Young and Assemblyman Isaac Wilson were elected to full terms in the Senate. Assemblyman Jediah Prendergast was elected to fill the vacancy. All nine were Democratic-Republicans; the Legislature met at the Old State Capitol in Albany on January 27, 1818, adjourned on April 21.

David Woods was re-elected Speaker with 97 votes. Assemblyman Ogden Edwards proposed a bill to call a State convention to amend the Constitution concerning the appointment of public officers, his object being the abolition of the Council of Appointment; the bill, opposed by Gov. DeWitt Clinton, was rejected, but the issue was pursued further by the Bucktails, led to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821, a new Constitution. On April 21, 1818, the Legislature enacted that future Legislatures meet on the first Tuesday of January of each year, unless called earlier by the governor; the Southern District consisted of Dutchess, New York, Queens, Rockland and Westchester counties. The Middle District consisted of Albany, Columbia, Greene, Otsego, Schoharie and Ulster counties; the Eastern District consisted of Clinton, Franklin, Jefferson, Montgomery, Rensselaer, St. Lawrence, Schenectady and Washington counties; the Western District consisted of Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Genesee, Niagara, Onondaga, Seneca, Steuben and Tompkins counties.

The asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued in office as members of this Legislature. Jediah Prendergast and Isaac Wilson changed from the Assembly to the Senate. Clerk: John F. Bacon The asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued as members of this Legislature. Clerk: Aaron Clark Sergeant-at-Arms: Caleb Benjamin Doorkeeper: Benjamin Whipple The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough The History of Political Parties in the State of New-York, from the Ratification of the Federal Constitution to 1840 by Jabez D. Hammond Election result Assembly, Albany Co. at project "A New Nation Votes", compiled by Phil Lampi, hosted by Tufts University Digital Library Election result Assembly, Cattaraugus and Niagara Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Partial election result Assembly and Franklin Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Dutchess Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Genesee Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Partial election result Assembly, Greene Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Jefferson Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Montgomery Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Onondaga Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Rensselaer Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Schenectady Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Schoharie Co. at project "A New Nation Votes" Election result Assembly, Tompkins Co. transcribed from Landmarks of Tompkins County, NY by John H. Selkreg (189

Mie scattering

The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere. The solution takes the form of an infinite series of spherical multipole partial waves, it is named after Gustav Mie. The term Mie solution is used for solutions of Maxwell's equations for scattering by stratified spheres or by infinite cylinders, or other geometries where one can write separate equations for the radial and angular dependence of solutions; the term Mie theory is sometimes used for this collection of methods. More broadly, "Mie scattering" suggests situations where the size of the scattering particles is comparable to the wavelength of the light, rather than much smaller or much larger. Mie scattering takes place in the lower 4.5 km of the atmosphere, where there may be many spherical particles present with diameters equal to the size of the wavelength of the incident light. Mie scattering theory has no upper size limitation, converges to the limit of geometric optics for large particles.

A modern formulation of the Mie solution to the scattering problem on a sphere can be found in many books, e.g. J. A. Stratton's Electromagnetic Theory. In this formulation, the incident plane wave, as well as the scattering field, is expanded into radiating spherical vector wave functions; the internal field is expanded into regular spherical vector wave functions. By enforcing the boundary condition on the spherical surface, the expansion coefficients of the scattered field can be computed. For particles much larger or much smaller than the wavelength of the scattered light there are simple and accurate approximations that suffice to describe the behaviour of the system, but for objects whose size is similar to the wavelength, e.g. water droplets in the atmosphere, latex particles in paint, droplets in emulsions, including milk, biological cells and cellular components, a more detailed approach is necessary. The Mie solution is named after German physicist Gustav Mie. Danish physicist Ludvig Lorenz and others independently developed the theory of electromagnetic plane wave scattering by a dielectric sphere.

The formalism allows the calculation of the electric and magnetic fields inside and outside a spherical object and is used to calculate either how much light is scattered, or where it goes. The notable features of these results are the Mie resonances, sizes that scatter strongly or weakly; this is in contrast to Rayleigh scattering for small particles and Rayleigh–Gans–Debye scattering for large particles. The existence of resonances and other features of Mie scattering make it a useful formalism when using scattered light to measure particle size. Mie solutions are implemented in a number of programs written in different computer languages such as Fortran, MATLAB, Mathematica; these solutions solve for an infinite series, provide as output the calculation of the scattering phase function, extinction and absorption efficiencies, other parameters such as asymmetry parameters or radiation torque. Current usage of the term "Mie solution" indicates a series approximation to a solution of Maxwell's equations.

There are several known objects that allow such a solution: spheres, concentric spheres, infinite cylinders, clusters of spheres and clusters of cylinders. There are known series solutions for scattering by ellipsoidal particles. A list of codes implementing these specialized solutions is provided in the following: Codes for electromagnetic scattering by spheres – solutions for a single sphere, coated spheres, multilayer sphere, cluster of spheres. A generalization that allows a treatment of more shaped particles is the T-matrix method, which relies on a series approximation to solutions of Maxwell's equations. Rayleigh scattering describes the elastic scattering of light by spheres that are much smaller than the wavelength of light; the intensity I of the scattered radiation is given by I = I 0 4 2 6, where I0 is the light intensity before the interaction with the particle, R is the distance between the particle and the observer, θ is the scattering angle, n is the refractive index of the particle, d is the diameter of the particle.

It can be seen from the above equation that Rayleigh scattering is dependent upon the size of the particle and the wavelengths. The intensity of the Rayleigh scattered radiation increases as the ratio of particle size to wavelength increases. Furthermore, the intensity of Rayleigh scattered radiati