In vertebrate anatomy, hip refers to either an anatomical region or a joint. The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region, inferior to the iliac crest, overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone". In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region; the hip joint, scientifically referred to as the acetabulofemoral joint, is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static and dynamic postures. The hip joints have important roles in retaining balance, for maintaining the pelvic inclination angle. Pain of the hip may be the result of numerous causes, including nervous, infectious, trauma-related, genetic; the proximal femur is covered by muscles and, as a consequence, the greater trochanter is the only palpable bony structure in the hip region. The hip joint is a synovial joint formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cup-like acetabulum of the pelvis.
It forms the primary connection between the bones of the lower limb and the axial skeleton of the trunk and pelvis. Both joint surfaces are covered with a strong but lubricated layer called articular hyaline cartilage; the cuplike acetabulum forms at the union of three pelvic bones — the ilium and ischium. The Y-shaped growth plate that separates them, the triradiate cartilage, is fused definitively at ages 14–16, it is a special type of spheroidal or ball and socket joint where the spherical femoral head is contained within the acetabulum and has an average radius of curvature of 2.5 cm. The acetabulum grasps half the femoral ball, a grip augmented by a ring-shaped fibrocartilaginous lip, the acetabular labrum, which extends the joint beyond the equator; the joint space between the femoral head and the superior acetabulum is between 2 and 7 mm. The head of the femur is attached to the shaft by a thin neck region, prone to fracture in the elderly, due to the degenerative effects of osteoporosis.
The acetabulum is oriented inferiorly and anteriorly, while the femoral neck is directed superiorly and anteriorly. The transverse angle of the acetabular inlet can be determined by measuring the angle between a line passing from the superior to the inferior acetabular rim and the horizontal plane; the sagittal angle of the acetabular inlet is an angle between a line passing from the anterior to the posterior acetabular rim and the sagittal plane. It measures 7° at birth and increases to 17° in adults. Wiberg's centre-edge angle is an angle between a vertical line and a line from the centre of the femoral head to the most lateral part of the acetabulum, as seen on an anteroposterior radiograph; the vertical-centre-anterior margin angle is an angle formed from a vertical line and a line from the centre of the femoral head and the anterior edge of the dense shadow of the subchondral bone posterior to the anterior edge of the acetabulum, with the radiograph being taken from the false angle, that is, a lateral view rotated 25 degrees towards becoming frontal.
The articular cartilage angle is an angle formed parallel to the weight bearing dome, that is, the acetabular sourcil or "roof", the horizontal plane, or a line connecting the corner of the triangular cartilage and the lateral acetabular rim. In normal hips in children aged between 11 and 24 months, it has been estimated to be on average 20°, ranging between 18° to 25°, it becomes progressively lower with age. Suggested cutoff values to classify the angle as abnormally increased include:30° up to 4 months of age. 25° up to 2 years of age. The angle between the longitudinal axes of the femoral neck and shaft, called the caput-collum-diaphyseal angle or CCD angle measures 150° in newborn and 126° in adults. An abnormally small angle is known as an abnormally large angle as coxa valga; because changes in shape of the femur affects the knee, coxa valga is combined with genu varum, while coxa vara leads to genu valgum. Changes in CCD angle is the result of changes in the stress patterns applied to the hip joint.
Such changes, caused for example by a dislocation, changes the trabecular patterns inside the bones. Two continuous trabecular systems emerging on auricular surface of the sacroiliac joint meander and criss-cross each other down through the hip bone, the femoral head and shaft. In the hip bone, one system arises on the upper part of auricular surface to converge onto the posterior surface of the greater sciatic notch, from where its trabeculae are reflected to the inferior part of the acetabulum; the other system emerges on the lower part of the auricular surface, converges at the level of the superior gluteal line, is reflected laterally onto the upper part of the acetabulum. In the femur, the first system lines up with a system arising from the lateral part of the femoral shaft to stretch to the inferior portion of the femoral neck and head; the other system lines up with a system in the femur stretching from the medial part of the femoral shaft to the superior part of the femoral head. On the lateral side of the hip joint the fascia lata is strengthened to
Anterior branch of obturator nerve
The anterior branch of the obturator nerve is a branch of the obturator nerve found in the pelvis and leg. It leaves the pelvis in front of the obturator externus and descends anterior to the adductor brevis, posterior to the pectineus and adductor longus, it descends upon the femoral artery, to which it is distributed. Near the obturator foramen the nerve gives off an articular branch to the hip joint. Behind the pectineus, it distributes branches to the adductor longus and gracilis, to the adductor brevis, in rare cases to the pectineus; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 954 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy medialthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Anatomy photo:12:st-0602 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Medial condyle of femur
The medial condyle is one of the two projections on the lower extremity of femur, the other being the lateral condyle. The medial condyle is larger than the lateral condyle due to more weight bearing caused by the centre of mass being medial to the knee. On the posterior surface of the condyle the linea aspera turns into the medial and lateral supracondylar ridges, respectively; the outermost protrusion on the medial surface of the medial condyle is referred to as the "medial epicondyle" and can be palpated by running fingers medially from the patella with the knee in flexion. It is important to take into consideration the difference in the length of the condyles in a cross section to better understand the geometry of the knee; the medial femoral condyle has an extra segment, the cause for the passive rotation of the knee joint. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 247 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy aplab - BioWeb at University of Wisconsin System
Anatomical terms of location
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates have the same basic body plan – they are bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood; that is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the middle. For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines. For example, differences in terminology remain a problem that, to some extent, still separates the terminology of human anatomy from that used in the study of various other zoological categories. Standardized anatomical and zoological terms of location have been developed based on Latin and Greek words, to enable all biological and medical scientists to delineate and communicate information about animal bodies and their component organs though the meaning of some of the terms is context-sensitive.
The vertebrates and Craniata share a substantial heritage and common structure, so many of the same terms are used for location. To avoid ambiguities this terminology is based on the anatomy of each animal in a standard way. For humans, one type of vertebrate, anatomical terms may differ from other forms of vertebrates. For one reason, this is because humans have a different neuraxis and, unlike animals that rest on four limbs, humans are considered when describing anatomy as being in the standard anatomical position, thus what is on "top" of a human is the head, whereas the "top" of a dog may be its back, the "top" of a flounder could refer to either its left or its right side. For invertebrates, standard application of locational terminology becomes difficult or debatable at best when the differences in morphology are so radical that common concepts are not homologous and do not refer to common concepts. For example, many species are not bilaterally symmetrical. In these species, terminology depends on their type of symmetry.
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, because appendages like limbs and tentacles can change position with respect to the main body, positional descriptive terms need to refer to the animal as in its standard anatomical position. All descriptions are with respect to the organism in its standard anatomical position when the organism in question has appendages in another position; this helps avoid confusion in terminology. In humans, this refers to the body in a standing position with arms at the side and palms facing forward. While the universal vertebrate terminology used in veterinary medicine would work in human medicine, the human terms are thought to be too well established to be worth changing. Many anatomical terms can be combined, either to indicate a position in two axes or to indicate the direction of a movement relative to the body. For example, "anterolateral" indicates a position, both anterior and lateral to the body axis. In radiology, an X-ray image may be said to be "anteroposterior", indicating that the beam of X-rays pass from their source to patient's anterior body wall through the body to exit through posterior body wall.
There is no definite limit to the contexts in which terms may be modified to qualify each other in such combinations. The modifier term is truncated and an "o" or an "i" is added in prefixing it to the qualified term. For example, a view of an animal from an aspect at once dorsal and lateral might be called a "dorsolateral" view. Again, in describing the morphology of an organ or habitus of an animal such as many of the Platyhelminthes, one might speak of it as "dorsiventrally" flattened as opposed to bilaterally flattened animals such as ocean sunfish. Where desirable three or more terms may be agglutinated or concatenated, as in "anteriodorsolateral"; such terms sometimes used to be hyphenated. There is however little basis for any strict rule to interfere with choice of convenience in such usage. Three basic reference planes are used to describe location; the sagittal plane is a plane parallel to the sagittal suture. All other sagittal planes are parallel to it, it is known as a "longitudinal plane".
The plane is perpendicular to the ground. The median plane or midsagittal plane is in the midline of the body, divides the body into left and right portions; this passes through the head, spinal cord, and, in many animals, the tail. The term "median plane" can refer to the midsagittal plane of other structures, such as a digit; the frontal plane or coronal plane divides the body into ventral portions. For post-embryonic humans a coronal plane is vertical and a transverse plane is horizontal, but for embryos and quadrupeds a coronal plane is horizontal and a transverse plane is vertical. A longitudinal plane is any plane perpendicular to the transverse plane; the coronal plane and the sagittal plane are examples of longitudinal planes. A transverse plane known as a cross-section, divides the body into cranial and caudal portions. In human anatomy: A transverse plane is an X-Z plane, parallel to the ground, which s
The fascia lata is the deep fascia of the thigh. It encloses the thigh muscles and forms the outer limit of the fascial compartments of thigh, which are internally separated by intermuscular septa; the fascia lata is thickened at its lateral side where it forms the iliotibial tract, a structure that runs to the tibia and serves as a site of muscle attachment. The fascia lata is an investment for the whole of the thigh, but varies in thickness in different parts, it is thicker in the upper and lateral part of the thigh, where it receives a fibrous expansion from the gluteus maximus, where the tensor fasciae latae is inserted between its layers. The fascia lata surrounds the tensor fasciae latae muscle, it is a fibrous sheath. This encircling of the muscle allows the muscles to be bound together tightly; the fascia lata is attached and behind, to the back of the sacrum and coccyx. From its attachment to the iliac crest it passes down over the gluteus medius to the upper border of the gluteus maximus, where it splits into two layers, one passing superficial to and the other beneath this muscle.
Laterally, the fascia lata receives the greater part of the tendon of insertion of the gluteus maximus, becomes proportionately thickened. The portion of the fascia lata attached to the front part of the iliac crest, corresponding to the origin of the tensor fasciae latae, extends down the lateral side of the thigh as two layers, one superficial to and the other beneath this muscle; this band is continued downward under the name of the iliotibial band and is attached to the lateral condyle of the tibia. The part of the iliotibial band which lies beneath the tensor fasciae latae is prolonged upward to join the lateral part of the capsule of the hip joint. Below, the fascia lata is attached to all the prominent points around the knee joint, viz. the condyles of the femur and tibia, the head of the fibula. On either side of the kneecap it is strengthened by transverse fibers from the lower parts of the vasti muscles which are attached to and support this bone. Of these the lateral are the stronger, are continuous with the iliotibial band.
The deep surface of the fascia lata gives off two strong intermuscular septa, which are attached to the whole length of the linea aspera and its prolongations above and below. Besides these there are numerous smaller septa, separating the individual muscles, enclosing each in a distinct sheath; the deep fascia of the lower leg is a continuation of the fascia lata. Since the 1920s fasciae latae from deceased donors have been used in reconstructive surgery. In 1999 preserved mashed fasciae latae became FDA-approved as a tissue product designed to replace areas of lost fascia or collagen; the fascia lata performs the function of encircling and tightening the muscles in the thigh. Because of this function, it has been used as grafts for patients with facial paralysis; the fascia lata offers supports to the muscles that make up the face and this support increases the recovery of the facial muscles. The surgeons use the fascia lata as a sort of facial sling to support up the paralyzed face and loops the fascia lata around the center of the lower lip, the corner of the mouth and the center of the upper lip.
It is named from its great extent. "Latus" give the superlative "Latissimus" meaning widest. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 468 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb; the single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is thick and strong, forms a ball and socket joint at the hip, a modified hinge joint at the knee; the femur is the only bone in the thigh and serves for an attachment site for all muscles in the thigh. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee. By most measures the femur is the strongest bone in the body; the femur is the longest bone in the body. The femur is categorised as a long bone and comprises a diaphysis, the shaft and two epiphysis or extremities that articulate with adjacent bones in the hip and knee. In cross-section, the thigh is divided up into three separate compartments, divided by fascia, each containing muscles; these compartments use the femur as an axis, are separated by tough connective tissue membranes.
Each of these compartments has its own blood and nerve supply, contains a different group of muscles. Medial fascial compartment of thigh, adductor Posterior fascial compartment of thigh, hamstring Anterior fascial compartment of thigh, extensionAnterior compartment muscles of the thigh include sartorius, the four muscles that comprise the quadriceps muscles- rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Posterior compartment muscles of the thigh are the hamstring muscles, which include semimembranosus and biceps femoris. Medial compartment muscles are pectineus, adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis, gracilis; because the major muscles of the thigh are the largest muscles of the body, resistance exercises of them stimulate blood flow more than any other localized activity. The arterial supply is by the obturator artery; the lymphatic drainage follows the arterial supply and drains to the lumbar lymphatic trunks on the corresponding side, which in turn drains to the cisterna chyli.
The deep venous system of the thigh consists of the femoral vein, the proximal part of the popliteal vein, various smaller vessels. The venae perfortantes connect the deep and the superficial system, which consists of the saphenous veins. Thigh weakness can result in a positive Gowers' sign on physical examination; the thigh meat of some animals such as chicken and cow is consumed as a food in many parts of the world
The semitendinosus is a long superficial muscle in the back of the thigh. It is so named because it has a long tendon of insertion, it lies posteromedially in the thigh, superficial to the semimembranosus. The semitendinosus, remarkable for the great length of its tendon of insertion, is situated at the posterior and medial aspect of the thigh, it arises from the lower and medial impression on the upper part of the tuberosity of the ischium, by a tendon common to it and the long head of the biceps femoris. The muscle is fusiform and ends a little below the middle of the thigh in a long round tendon which lies along the medial side of the popliteal fossa; the semitendinosus is more superficial than the semimembranosus. However, because the semimembranosus is wider and flatter than the semitendinosus, it is still possible to palpate the semimembranosus directly. At its insertion it gives off from its lower border a prolongation to the deep fascia of the leg and lies behind the tendon of the sartorius, below that of the gracilis, to which it is united.
These three tendons form what is known as the pes anserinus, so named because it looks like the foot of a goose. A lower motor neuron exits to the sacral plexus exiting through the spinal levels L5-S2. From the sacral plexus, the lower motor neuron travels down the sciatic nerve; the sciatic nerve branches into the deep fibular nerve and the tibial nerve. The tibial nerve innervates the semitendinosus as well as the other hamstring muscles, the semimembranosus and biceps femoris; the semitendinosus muscle is one of three hamstring muscles that are located at the back of the thigh. The other two are the biceps femoris; the semitendinosus muscle lies between the other two. These three muscles work collectively to extend the hip; the muscle helps to medially rotate the tibia on the femur when the knee is flexed and medially rotate the femur when the hip is extended. It counteracts forward bending at the hips as well. Semimembranosus Biceps femoris This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 479 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0410 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna knee/surface/surface4 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy PTCentral