The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
The tricky slave is a stock character. He is a lower-class person who brings about the happy ending of a comedy for the lovers, he is more clever than the upper-class people about him, both the lovers and the characters who block their love, also looking out for his own interests. Besides the actual slaves of classical theater, he appears as the scheming valet in Renaissance comedy, called the gracioso in Spanish; the zanni of Commedia dell'arte are tricky slaves, as are Puss-in-Boots in Perrault's fairy tale, Jeeves in P. G. Wodehouse's work and Figaro. In fairy tales, the same function is fulfilled by fairy godmothers, talking animals, like creatures. Northrop Frye identified him as a central portion of the Myth of Spring comedy and a type of eiron character. A female version of the tricky slave would be Morgiana, a clever slave girl from "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" in the One Thousand and One Nights, she is in Cassim's household but on his death she joins his brother Ali Baba and through her quick wittedness she saves Ali's life many times and kills his worst enemy, the leader of the Forty Thieves.
As reward, Ali frees her and Morgiana marries Cassim's son
Miroirs is a five-movement suite for solo piano written by French composer Maurice Ravel between 1904 and 1905. First performed by Ricardo Viñes in 1906, Miroirs contains five movements, each dedicated to a fellow member of the French avant-garde artist group Les Apaches. Around 1900, Maurice Ravel joined a group of innovative young artists, poets and musicians referred to as Les Apaches or "hooligans", a term coined by Ricardo Viñes to refer to his band of "artistic outcasts". To pay tribute to his fellow artists, Ravel began composing Miroirs in 1904 and finished it the following year, it was first published by Eugène Demets in 1906. The third and fourth movements were subsequently orchestrated by Ravel, while the fifth was orchestrated by Percy Grainger, among others. Miroirs has five movements, each dedicated to a member of Les Apaches: "Une barque sur l'océan" and "Alborada del gracioso" were orchestrated by Ravel himself. "La vallée des cloches" has been orchestrated by Ernesto Halffter for triple woodwind, four horns, percussion, two harps and strings.
"Oiseaux tristes" has been scored by Felix Günther for double woodwind plus piccolo, two horns, two trumpets, harp and strings. The earliest known orchestration of "Noctuelles" is by the British pianist Michael Round, an orchestration commissioned by Vladimir Ashkenazy and recorded by him with the NHK Symphony Orchestra – the recording includes Round's scorings of the Fugue and Toccata from Le tombeau de Couperin. In orchestrated form "Noctuelles" is scored for triple woodwind minus one contrabassoon. Performance material is held by publishers BMG. There is a more recent orchestration of "Noctuelles" by American composer Steven Stucky, it is published by Theodore Presser Company and is scored for 3 flutes, 3 oboes, 2 clarinets, 3 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, 2 percussionists, two harps, strings. In 2001 American conductor Leif Bjaland orchestrated "Oiseaux tristes" scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns and strings.
In 2003 the British composer Simon Clarke made an orchestration of the three movements that Ravel did not orchestrate. List of compositions by Maurice Ravel Miroirs: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Recording of Miroirs, performed by Thérèse Dussaut, in MP3 format: "Noctuelles" "Oiseaux tristes" "Une barque sur l'océan" "Alborada del gracioso" "La vallée des cloches" Recording of Miroirs, performed by Felipe Sarro: Archive.org
Life Is a Dream
Life Is a Dream is a Spanish-language play by Pedro Calderón de la Barca. First published in 1635 during the Spanish Baroque period, it is a philosophical allegory regarding the human situation and the mystery of life; the play has been described as "the supreme example of Spanish Golden Age drama". The story focuses on the fictional Segismundo, Prince of Poland, imprisoned in a tower by his father, King Basilio, following a dire prophecy that the prince would bring disaster to the country and death to the King. Basilio frees Segismundo, but when the prince goes on a rampage, the king imprisons him again, persuading him that it was all a dream; the play's central themes are the conflict between free will and fate, as well as restoring one's honor. It remains one of Calderón's most studied works. Other themes include the conflict between father and son; the play has been adapted in film and as a novel. Catholic Spain was the most powerful European nation by the 16th century; the Spanish Armada was defeated by England in 1588, while Spain was trying to defend the northern coast of Africa from the expansion of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, the gold and silver that Spain took from its possessions in the New World were not adequate to sustain its subsequent decades of heavy military expenses.
Spain's power was waning by the time Calderón wrote Life Is a Dream. The age of Calderón was marked by deep religious conviction in Spain; the Catholic church had fostered Spanish pride and identity, to the extent that "speaking Christian" became, remains, synonymous with speaking Spanish. Another current that permeated Spanish thinking was the radical departure from the medieval ideal that royal power resided in God's will, as noted in Machiavelli's The Prince. Francisco Suarez’s treatise On the Defense of Faith stated that political power resided in the people and rejected the divine rights of kings, Juan Mariana's On Kings and Kingship went further by stating that the people had the right to murder despotic kings. Amidst these developments during the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain experienced a cultural blossoming referred to as the Spanish Golden Age; the Spanish Golden Age was brought about by the colonization of Americas, as they took advantage of the newfound resources. It saw the birth of notable works of art: Don Quixote, by Miguel de Cervantes, played with the vague line between reality and perception.
Lope de Vega, in his play Fuente Ovejuna, talks about a village that rebels against authority. Rosaura walks through the mountains of Poland, dressed as a man, she finds a jester, who tries to make her forget how miserably Poland receives visitors. They arrive at a tower, he tells them. Clotaldo, Segismundo's old warden and tutor and orders his guards to disarm and kill the intruders, but he recognizes Rosaura's sword as his own that he had left behind in Muskovy years ago for his child to bear. Suspecting that Rosaura is his child, he takes Clarín with him to court. Fife appears in this play, Rosaura's friend. At the palace, Duke of Muscovy, discusses with his cousin, Princess Estrella, that as they are the nephew and niece of King Basilio of Poland, they would be his successors if they married each other. Estrella is troubled by the locket, with another woman's portrait. Basilio reveals to them that he imprisoned his infant son, due to a prophecy by an oracle that the prince would bring disgrace to Poland and would kill his father, but he wants to grant his son a chance to prove the oracle wrong.
If he finds him evil and unworthy, he will send him back to his cell, making way for Astolfo and Estrella to become the new king and queen. Clotaldo enters with Rosaura, he begs for the king's pardon. The king says he should not worry, for his secret has been revealed. Rosaura tells Clotaldo that she wants revenge against Astolfo. Clotaldo is reluctant to reveal. Clotaldo gives Segismundo a sedative that "robs one in his sleep of his sense and faculties", which puts him in a sleep similar to death. In the Royal Palace of the capital city of Warsaw, Clotaldo has learned; when Segismundo is awakened and arrives at court, Clotaldo tells him that he is the prince of Poland and heir to the throne. He resents Clotaldo for keeping this secret from him for all those years, he is dazzled by Estrella's beauty. When a servant warns him about the princess's betrothal to Astolfo, Segismundo is enraged by the news and throws the servant from the balcony; the king demands an explanation from his son. He tries to reason with him, but Segismundo announces he will fight everyone, for his rights were denied him for a long time.
Basilio warns him that he must behave. Segismundo interrupts a conversation between Clarín. Rosaura wants to leave. Clotaldo steps up to defend his child; as Clotaldo begs for his life, Astolfo challenges Segismundo to a duel. Before they proceed, the king sends him back to his cell. After recriminatin
The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600. The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century. During the 16th century and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with Asia; this era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century. In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli published the first work on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer. In England, the Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world. China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period. Elsewhere in Asia, Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the southern lands of the continent.
His rule influenced arts and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, met with strong resistance, Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova; these events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. Polybius' "The Histories" translated into Italian, English and French. Mississippian culture disappears. Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia, is made, it is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum. 1500: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain was born. 1500: Guru Nanak the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest religion in the world Sikhism. 1500: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas. 1500: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal. 1500: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto.
1501: Michelangelo returns to his native Florence to begin work on the statue David. 1501: Safavid dynasty reunified Iran and ruled over it until 1736. Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam. 1502: First reported African slaves in The New World 1503: Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan 1503: Spain defeats France at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. 1503: Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and completes it three years later. 1503: Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21. 1504: A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain. 1504: Death of Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castille became the Queen. 1505: Zhengde Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty. 1505: Martin Luther enters St. Augustine's Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation. 1505: King Sultan Trenggono built the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called Demak, in Indonesia's of a homelessness of a.
Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of unity. 1506: Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. 1506: King Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming Kongo's state religion. 1506: At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon riot, Portugal. 1506: Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain. 1506: Poland is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate. 1507: The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World on the island of Hispaniola. It devastates the native Taíno population. 1507: Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Hormuz and Muscat, among other bases in the Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf. 1508–1512: Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling. 1509: The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade and the Indian Ocean. 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade.
After receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape. The Javanese fleet is destroyed in Malacca.. 1509–10: The'great plague' in various parts of Tudor England. 1511: Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca in present-day Malaysia. 1512: Copernicus writes Commentar
A clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick or similar types of physical comedy in a mime style. Clowns have a varied tradition with significant variations in performance; the most recognisable modern clown character is the Auguste or "red clown" type, with outlandish costumes featuring distinctive makeup, colourful wigs, exaggerated footwear, colourful clothing. Their entertainment style is designed to entertain large audiences. Modern clowns are associated with the tradition of the circus clown, which developed out of earlier comedic roles in theatre or Varieté shows during the 19th to mid 20th centuries. Many circus clowns are a key circus act in their own right; the first mainstream clown role was portrayed by Joseph Grimaldi. In the early 1800s, he expanded the role of Clown in the harlequinade that formed part of British pantomimes, notably at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and the Sadler's Wells and Covent Garden theatres, he became so dominant on the London comic stage that harlequinade Clowns became known as "Joey", both the nickname and Grimaldi's whiteface make-up design were, still are, used by other types of clowns.
The comedy that clowns perform is in the role of a fool whose everyday actions and tasks become extraordinary—and for whom the ridiculous, for a short while, becomes ordinary. This style of comedy has a long history in many cultures across the world; some writers have argued that due to the widespread use of such comedy and its long history it is a need, part of the human condition. The "fear of clowns," circus clowns in particular as a psychiatric condition has become known by the term coulrophobia; the "clown" character developed out of the zanni "rustic fool" characters of the early modern commedia dell'arte, which were themselves directly based on the "rustic fool" characters of ancient Greek and Roman theatre. Rustic buffoon characters in Classical Greek theater were known as sklêro-paiktês or deikeliktas, besides other generic terms for "rustic" or "peasant". In Roman theater, a term for clown was fossor "digger; the English word clown was first recorded c. 1560 in the generic meaning "rustic, peasant".
The origin of the word is uncertain from a Scandinavian word cognate with clumsy. It is in this sense that "Clown" is used as the name of fool characters in Shakespeare's Othello and The Winter's Tale; the sense of clown as referring to a professional or habitual fool or jester developed soon after 1600, based on Elizabethan "rustic fool" characters such as Shakespeare's. The harlequinade developed in England in the 17th century, it was here. A foil for Harlequin's slyness and adroit nature, Clown was a buffoon or bumpkin fool who resembled less a jester than a comical idiot, he was a lower class character dressed in tattered servants' garb. The now-classical features of the clown character were developed in the early 1800s by Joseph Grimaldi, who played Clown in Charles Dibdin's 1800 pantomime Peter Wilkins: or Harlequin in the Flying World at Sadler's Wells Theatre, where Grimaldi built the character up into the central figure of the harlequinade; the circus clown developed in the 19th century.
The modern circus derives from Philip Astley's London riding school, which opened in 1768. Astley added a clown to his shows to amuse the spectators between equestrian sequences. American comedian George L. Fox became known for his clown role, directly inspired by Grimaldi, in the 1860s. Tom Belling senior developed the "red clown" or "Auguste" character c. 1870, acting as a foil for the more sophisticated "white clown". Belling worked for Circus Renz in Vienna. Belling's costume became the template for the modern stock character of circus or children's clown, based on a lower class or "hobo" character, with red nose, white makeup around the eyes and mouth, oversized clothes and shoes; the clown character as developed by the late 19th century is reflected in Ruggero Leoncavallo's 1892 opera Pagliacci. Belling's Auguste character was further popularized by Nicolai Poliakoff's Coco in the 1920s to 1930s; the English word clown was borrowed, along with the circus clown act, from many other languages, such as French clown, Russian кло́ун, Greek κλόουν, Danish/Norwegian klovn, Romanian clovn etc.
Italian retains Pagliaccio, a Commedia dell'arte zanni character, derivations of the Italian term are found in other Romance languages, such as French Paillasse, Spanish payaso, Catalan/Galician pallasso, Portuguese palhaço, Greek παλιάτσος, Turkish palyaço, German Pajass, Yiddish פּאַיאַץ, Russian пая́ц. In the early 20th century, with the disappearance of the rustic simpleton or village idiot character of everyday experience, North American circuses developed characters such as the tramp or hobo. Examples include Marceline Orbes, who performed at the Hippodrome Theater, Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp, Emmett Kelly's Weary Willie based on hobos of the Depression era. Another influential tramp character was played by Otto Griebling during the 1930s to 1950s. Red Skelton's Dodo the Clown in The Clown, depicts the circus clown as a tragicomic stock character, "a funny man with a drinking problem". In the United States, Bozo the Clown was an influential Auguste character since the late 1950s; the Bozo Show premiered in 1960 and appeared nationally on cable television in 1978.
McDonald's derived Ronald McDonald, from the Bozo character in the 1960s. Willard Scott, who h
Herman Northrop Frye was a Canadian literary critic and literary theorist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century. Frye gained international fame with his first book, Fearful Symmetry, which led to the reinterpretation of the poetry of William Blake, his lasting reputation rests principally on the theory of literary criticism that he developed in Anatomy of Criticism, one of the most important works of literary theory published in the twentieth century. The American critic Harold Bloom commented at the time of its publication that Anatomy established Frye as "the foremost living student of Western literature." Frye's contributions to cultural and social criticism spanned a long career during which he earned widespread recognition and received many honours. Born in Sherbrooke, but raised in Moncton, New Brunswick, Frye was the third child of Herman Edward Frye and of Catherine Maud Howard, his much older brother, died in World War I. His first cousin was the scientist Alma Howard.
Frye went to Toronto to compete in a national typing contest in 1929. He studied for his undergraduate degree in philosophy at Victoria College in the University of Toronto, where he edited the college literary journal, Acta Victoriana, he studied theology at Emmanuel College. After a brief stint as a student minister in Saskatchewan, he was ordained to the ministry of the United Church of Canada, he studied at Merton College, where he was a member and Secretary of the Bodley Club before returning to Victoria College, where he spent the remainder of his professional career. Frye rose to international prominence as a result of his first book, Fearful Symmetry, published in 1947; until the prophetic poetry of William Blake had long been poorly understood, considered by some to be delusional ramblings. Frye found in it a system of metaphor derived from the Bible, his study of Blake's poetry was a major contribution to the subject. Moreover, Frye outlined an innovative manner of studying literature, to influence the study of literature in general.
He was a major influence on Harold Bloom, Margaret Atwood, others. In 1974–1975 Frye was the Norton professor at Harvard University. Northrop Frye did not have a Ph. D; the intelligence service of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police spied on Frye, watching his participation in the anti-Vietnam War movement, an academic forum about China, activism to end South African apartheid. Frye married Helen Kemp, an educator and artist, in 1937, she died in Australia while accompanying Frye on a lecture tour. Two years after her death in 1986, he married Elizabeth Brown, he was interred in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, Ontario. The insights gained from his study of Blake set Frye on his critical path and shaped his contributions to literary criticism and theory, he was the first critic to postulate a systematic theory of criticism, "to work out," in his own words, "a unified commentary on the theory of literary criticism". In so doing, he shaped the discipline of criticism. Inspired by his work on Blake, Frye developed and articulated his unified theory ten years after Fearful Symmetry, in the Anatomy of Criticism.
He described this as an attempt at a "synoptic view of the scope, theory and techniques of literary criticism". He asked, "what if criticism is a science as well as an art?", Frye launched the pursuit, to occupy the rest of his career—that of establishing criticism as a "coherent field of study which trains the imagination quite as systematically and efficiently as the sciences train the reason". As A. C. Hamilton outlines in Northrop Frye: Anatomy of his Criticism, Frye's assumption of coherence for literary criticism carries important implications. Firstly and most fundamentally, it presupposes that literary criticism is a discipline in its own right, independent of literature. Claiming with John Stuart Mill that "the artist... is not heard but overheard," Frye insists that The axiom of criticism must be, not that the poet does not know what he is talking about, but that he cannot talk about what he knows. To defend the right of criticism to exist at all, therefore, is to assume that criticism is a structure of thought and knowledge existing in its own right, with some measure of independence from the art it deals with.
This "declaration of independence" is a measured one for Frye. For coherence requires that the autonomy of criticism, the need to eradicate its conception as "a parasitic form of literary expression... a second-hand imitation of creative power", sits in dynamic tension with the need to establish integrity for it as a discipline. For Frye, this kind of coherent, critical integrity involves claiming a body of knowledge for criticism that, while independent of literature, is yet constrained by it: "If criticism exists," he declares, "it must be an examination of literature in terms of a conceptual framework derivable from an inductive survey of the literary field" itself. In seeking integrity for criticism, Frye rejects, he defines this as the movement of "a scholar with a special interest in geography or economics express... that interest by the rhetorical device of putting his favorite study into a causal relationship with whatever interests him less". By attaching criticism to an external framework rather than locating the framework for criticism within literature, this kind of critic "substitute a critical attitude for criticism."
For Frye criti