The Old Vic
The Old Vic is a theatre located just south-east of Waterloo station in London on the corner of The Cut and Waterloo Road. Established in 1818 as the Royal Coburg Theatre, and renamed in 1833 the Royal Victoria Theatre, in 1871 it was rebuilt and reopened as the Royal Victoria Palace. It was taken over by Emma Cons in 1880 and formally named the Royal Victoria Hall, in 1898, a niece of Cons, Lilian Baylis assumed management and began a series of Shakespeare productions in 1914. The building was damaged in 1940 during air raids and it became a Grade II* listed building in 1951 after it reopened. It was the name of a company that was based at the theatre and formed the core of the National Theatre of Great Britain on its formation in 1963. The National Theatre remained at the Old Vic until new premises were constructed on the South Bank, the Old Vic became the home of Prospect Theatre Company, at that time a highly successful touring company which staged such acclaimed productions as Derek Jacobis Hamlet.
However, with the withdrawal of funding for the company by the Arts Council of Great Britain in 1980 for breaching its touring obligations, the theatre underwent complete refurbishment in 1985. In 2003, Kevin Spacey was appointed as new director of the Old Vic Theatre Company which received considerable media attention. In 2015, Matthew Warchus succeeded Spacey as artistic director, the theatre was a minor theatre and was thus technically forbidden to show serious drama. Nevertheless, when the theatre passed to George Bolwell Davidge in 1824 he succeeded in bringing legendary actor Edmund Kean south of the river to play six Shakespeare plays in six nights. More popular staples in the repertoire were sensational and violent melodramas demonstrating the evils of drink, churned out by the house dramatist, confirmed teetotaller Douglas Jerrold. On 1 July 1833, the theatre was renamed the Royal Victoria Theatre, under the protection and patronage of Victoria, Duchess of Kent, mother to Princess Victoria, the 14-year-old heir presumptive.
The duchess and the princess visited only once, on 28 November of that year, the single visit scarcely justified the Old Vic its billing as Queen Victorias Own Theayter. By 1835, the theatre was advertising itself simply as the Victoria Theatre, in 1841, David Osbaldiston took over as lessee, succeeded on his death in 1850 by his lover and the theatres leading lady, Eliza Vincent, until her death in 1856. Under their management, the theatre remained devoted to melodrama, in 1867, Joseph Arnold Cave took over as lessee. In 1871 he transferred the lease to Romaine Delatorre, who raised funds for the theatre to be rebuilt in the style of the Alhambra Music Hall, jethro Thomas Robinson was engaged as the architect. In September 1871 the old theatre closed, and the new building opened as the Royal Victoria Palace in December of the same year, by 1873, Cave had left and Delatorres venture failed. The penny lectures given in the led to the foundation of Morley College, an adult education college
St John the Divine, Kennington
St John the Divine, Kennington, is an Anglican church in London. The parish of Kennington is within the Anglican Diocese of Southwark, the church was designed by the architect George Edmund Street in the Decorated Gothic style, and was built between 1871 and 1874. Today it is a grade I listed building, the church stands on Vassall Road, Kennington, in Vassall Ward in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is near Oval tube station and the Oval Cricket Ground, the spire can be seen clearly for miles around. The church is regarded as a example of Victorian Gothic. The general construction is of red brick, but all parapets, window openings, the upper part of the spire is entirely of stone. At over 260 feet, it is the tallest spire in south London, the poet John Betjeman remarked that St John the Divine was the most magnificent church in South London. A new organ by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd was installed in 1875, the church suffered severe bomb damage in 1941 during the Blitz, and most of the original interior fittings were lost.
After years of work under the direction of H. S. Goodhart-Rendel. The spire and tower were restored in 1994, and a new set of carved grotesques and gargoyles was added. Many of the carvings are in the form of caricature representations of members of the church congregation, the Queen, Prince Charles, Prince William and Archbishop Michael Ramsey are among the better-known figures depicted. Much of the stained glass was destroyed in the 1941 bombing. Some original stained glass designed by Charles Eamer Kempe has survived, including the west window, the windows at the east end are original. During restoration, new windows designed and crafted by W. T. Carter Shapland were installed in the All Souls Chapel, behind the altar is a set of murals painted by Brian Thomas in 1966. The left-hand panel depicts the Virgin Mary and Jesus in a floral garden, a central panel is decorated with lilies and roses – traditional Marian symbols. The right-hand panel is a pietà, with Mary holding the body of the crucified Christ, above the North door hangs the Korean Icon.
Designed in the style of a Greek Orthodox iconostasis, it depicts various figures from the Christian Gospels and it was dedicated as a memorial to Bishop Charles John Corfe, who founded the Anglican Church of Korea in 1890. On the south side of the stands the Kelham Rood, a life-size bronze sculpture of Christ on the Cross together with free-standing figures of St John
St Matthew's Church, Brixton
St Matthew’s Church is a Church of England church in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is a Grade II* listed building, which occupies a prominent position at the junction of Brixton Road, Brixton Hill and Effra Road. Until the early 19th century, Brixton was part of the parish of St Mary-at-Lambeth, whose ancient parish church stood about 3 miles away, in 1886 the population of the parish amounted to 13,924 and was served by three clergy. The total proportion attending was 12. 4%, in 1901 the population of the parish was 12,029. In the following year, there were two clergymen and the total proportion attending was 11. 2%, in 2002 St Matthew’s parish was united with that of St Judes in East Brixton, whose church building had been sold in 1980 and which had no incumbent since 1991. St Judes was built in 1867-68, based on statistics from the UK census, the Diocese of Southwark estimates the population of the parish was 12,100 in 2001 and 15,500 in 2011. It is not clear whether the figure for 2001 includes people who were living in the former parish of St Judes.
Since 19 October 1951 St Matthew’s church has been designated a Grade II* listed building and it was designed by Charles Ferdinand Porden with the foundation stone laid in 1822 and the church consecrated two years later. The building is a rectangle, with a massive Greek Doric entrance portico at the west end, a tower stands at the east end of the building. The church is built of yellowish brick with dressings of stone. The west portico is tetrastyle in antis and has fluted Doric columns, there are three tall doors which are battered and which have enriched panels, in eared moulded architraves. By the doors are cast iron boot-scrapers, the church has five-bay sides with pilasters of Roman cement and entablature. The church lies on a plinth and has battered windows with eared architraves. On each side there are stairs with side-walls down to an entrance to the crypt, there is a pedimented doorway enclosed by a strong, double wrought iron gate. The east end of the church is stone-faced with a projecting central tower bay.
There are doors in recessed side bays, the tower has a square bell stage with Doric screens, below on octagonal Tower of the Winds which has a low conical top with a crown and cross. At the base of the Tower of the Winds is a clock with gilt numbering. When the building was given Listed Building status in 1951, it was reported that inside the church there was a gallery around three sides and in the west end a Doric organ case
James William Wild
James William Wild was a British architect. Initially working in the Gothic style, he employed round-arched forms and he spent several years in Egypt. He acted as architect to the Great Exhibition of 1851. After a considerable break in his career he worked on designs for the South Kensington Museum and he was curator of the Sir John Soanes Museum from 1878 until his death in 1892. Wild was born in Lincoln, the son of the watercolourist Charles Wild, Wild was articled to the architect George Basevi from 1830. After his apprenticeship, he concentrated on Gothic design, and was entrusted with the design of a country church and he was subsequently engaged on many other church projects, and six churches had been built to his design before 1840. The church was built of brick, unusually for the date, some brick polychrome decoration and it has a tall slim Italian-style campanile, with a small pyramidal spire. Wild showed the design for Christ Church at the Royal Academy in 1840, along with another for a church at Paddington, in a Lombardic style, with western tower and a central cupola.
In July 1841 Wild built a temporary pavilion seating 2,850 at Liverpool for the Grand Dinner of the Royal Agricultural Society and he assisted Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius with his work in Egypt from 1842. While in the country he made a number of drawings of Islamic architecture, now in the collection of the Victoria. In 1845 he produced plans for the Anglican church of St Mark in Alexandria and his design combined features from early Christian and Islamic styles. It was completed – without its planned campanile – in 1854, Wild returned to Britain in 1848. One well-informed obituary, dates this appointment to much later, in 1852 he designed a water tower at Grimsby, a side-project of the Museums director, Henry Cole, modelling it after the tower of the Palazzo Publico in Siena. The works at South Kensington employed a hybrid round-arched style, often referred to by the German term rundbogenstil, in 1869 Wild drew up designs for chancery buildings for the British Embassy at Alexandria and for the British legation at Tehran.
Only the latter was built, completed in 1876, Wild was curator of the Sir John Soanes Museum in London from 1878 to his death in 1892. His extensive manuscripts, including drawings from his travels, are now housed in the Griffith Institute of the University of Oxford, St. John, Chelmsford, Essex Holy Trinity, Blackheath Hill, Greenwich. St Paul, Staplers Road, Newport, Isle of Wight, temporary pavilion at Liverpool for the Royal Agricultural Society. St Marks Anglican church, Egypt, St Martin in the Fields Northern District Schools, Long Acre, London
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
All Saints Church, West Dulwich
All Saints Church is a Grade I listed Gothic Revival church in West Dulwich, South London. It was designed by George Fellowes Prynne and built 1888–97, the parish of All Saints was formed from the western part of the parish of St Lukes, West Norwood and included a detached part of the parish of St Leonards, Streatham. Until West Dulwich railway station was opened in 1863, the area that became All Saints’ parish was largely rural, the decades after were marked by an upsurge in residential development, a large proportion of the new houses being on a substantial scale. In the 1880s, an iron church was erected in Rosendale Road. This was replaced by a permanent structure that was consecrated in 1897, in 1901, the population of the parish amounted to 3,665. In the following year it was served by one clergyman and attendance at its services represented 37. 3% of the parochial population. Based on statistics from the UK census, the Diocese of Southwark estimates the population of All Saints’ parish was 5,700 in 2001 and 6,400 in 2011, the church was designed by George Fellowes Prynne, a pupil of George Edmund Street.
It stands on a site that slopes dramatically down from Lovelace Road to Rosendale Road. The east end of the church is lofty and the church, with the exception of the incomplete west bay, is situated over crypt spaces. The northeast corner of the building has four storeys of accommodation, an enclosed staircase rises to church floor level across the east elevation. The building is vast in scale even though incomplete, the nave was intended to be three bays longer with an apsidal western baptistry. A flèche was intended over the arch, flanked by a tall slender tower. Only the base of the flèche exists and the present bell turret by JBS Comper of 1952 is a modest substitute, the church is brick built with stone dressings and steep-pitched slated roofs. The aisles have individual double-pitched roofs with deep valley gutters alongside the naves clerestory, there is a four-bay nave, the west bay being incomplete with no clerestory and what was intended to be a temporary slated gable end. It is flanked by aisles and porches.
The nave is flanked by the Lady Chapel in the north aisle, the apsidal chancel is enclosed by a narrow ambulatory. To the north the Lady Chapel has its own arcaded chancel with ambulatory, to the south of the chancel the space is occupied by the organ chamber and vestries. In June 1944, a V1 Flying Bomb landed near the church, shattering the glass windows
The museum is currently closed for re-development and will re-open in 2017. St Marys, which was largely a Victorian reconstruction, was deconsecrated in 1972 and it was the first museum in the world dedicated to the history of gardening. The museums main gallery is the body of the church, the collection comprises tools, ephemera and a library. The tool collection includes items purchased at auction and donations from individuals, the ephemera includes items such as prints, bills and brochures, and gives an insight into the social history of gardening as well as the practical aspects of the subject. The museum covers the range of gardening, from royal gardens to allotments. In the early 1980s, a 17th-century style knot garden was created in the churchyard, in 2006, Christopher Woodward, formerly director of the Holburne Museum in Bath, was appointed as the new director of the Garden Museum. In its 25th anniversary year in 2002, the museum launched a campaign to raise at least £600,000 to pay for an overhaul of its facilities.
In 2008, the interior of the museum had a total makeover, in 2008, the interior was transformed into a centre for exhibitions and events by the construction of contemporary gallery spaces. Visitors will see a permanent display of paintings, tools and historic artefacts, the Museum is undertaking a second phase of work to complete the restoration of the ancient structure and its transformation into a Museum. In 2014 the museum was awarded a grant of £3,510,600 from the Heritage Lottery Fund for the development, the redevelopment will re-open in 2017. This will add contemporary galleries and spaces for education and events, at the core of the project is an aspiration to create the country’s first archive of garden and landscape design. The museum is developing ideas on shared activities and programmes with three historic garden charities, the Garden History Society, the Association of Garden Trusts, and Parks, the aim is to celebrate and explore the design and art of gardens. The Garden Museum is housed in the medieval and Victorian church of St Mary’s at Lambeth, the first church on the site was built before the Norman Conquest, and was integral to the religious centre established by the Archbishops of Canterbury in the twelfth century.
The structure was deconsecrated in 1972, and rescued from demolition by the founder of the Museum, the structure of the church was repaired, holding small exhibitions such as The Tradescant Story from 1979. The Museum opened in 1977, as the world’s first museum of garden history, the church is the oldest structure in the Borough of Lambeth, except for the crypt of Lambeth Palace itself, and its burials and monuments are a record of 950 years of a community. But for the Palace, it has perhaps the richest historical story of any building in the borough, in 1062, a wooden church was built on the site by Goda, sister of Edward the Confessor, the Domesday Book records 29 tenancies in her manor. In 1377, the tower was built, it was repaired in 1834-1835. It is described by Museum of London Archaeology Service as an almost complete rebuilding of the old body of the church, the most eye-catching survivals are four of eight corbels in the ceiling of the nave
In addition, Lambeth Palace is home to the Community of Saint Anselm, an Anglican religious order that is under the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Lambeth Palace was acquired by the archbishopric around 1200 AD and has the largest collection of records of the Church in its library. It is bounded by Lambeth Palace Road to the west and Lambeth Road to the south, the garden park is listed and resembles Archbishops Park, a neighbouring public park, however, it was a larger area with a notable orchard until the early 19th century. The former church in front of its entrance has been converted to the Garden Museum, the name Lambeth embodies hithe, a landing on the river, archbishops came and went by water, as did John Wycliff, who was tried here for heresy. In the English peasants revolt of 1381 the Palace was attacked, the oldest remaining part of the palace is the Early English chapel. Lollard’s Tower, which evidence of its use as a prison in the 17th century. The front is an early Tudor brick gatehouse built by Cardinal John Morton, Cardinal Pole lay in state in the palace for 40 days after he died there in 1558.
The fig tree in the courtyard is possibly grown from a slip taken from one of the White Marseille fig trees here for centuries. In 1786, there were three ancient figs, two nailed against the wall and still noted in 1826 as two uncommonly fine, traditionally reported to have been planted by Cardinal Pole, and fixed against that part of the palace believed to have been founded by him. They are of the white Marseilles sort, and still bear delicious fruit. On the south side of the building, in a private garden, is another tree of the same kind. By 1882, their place had taken by several massive offshoots. The notable orchard of the period has somewhat given way to a mirroring public park adjoining and built-up roads of housing. The great hall was completely ransacked, including the building material, after the Restoration, it was completely rebuilt by archbishop William Juxon in 1663 with a late Gothic hammerbeam roof. The choice of a roof was evocative, as it reflected the High-Church Anglican continuity with the Old Faith.
As with some Gothic details on University buildings of the same date, the diarist Samuel Pepys recognised it as a new old-fashioned hall. Among the portraits of the archbishops in the Palace are works by Hans Holbein, Anthony van Dyck, William Hogarth and Sir Joshua Reynolds. New construction was added to the building in 1834 by Edward Blore, the buildings form the home of the Archbishop, who is ex officio a member of the House of Lords and is regarded as the first among equals in the Anglican Communion. It contains a vast collection of material relating to history, including archbishops and bishops archives and papers relating to various Anglican missionary
Robert Clayton (Lord Mayor)
Sir Robert Clayton was a British merchant banker and Lord Mayor of London. Robert Clayton was born in Northamptonshire, England and he became an apprentice to his uncle, a London scrivener, where he met a fellow apprentice, Alderman John Morris. They became successful businessmen and established the bank, Clayton & Morris Co, Clayton entered politics, representing London and Bletchingley alternately as a Whig between 1679 and his death in 1707. In 1697 he lent the king £30,000 to pay for the army, in the mid-1650s Clayton purchased Brownsea Island and its castle. He was president of the St Thomas Hospital in London next to the River Thames opposite the Houses of Parliament and he employed Thomas Cartwright to rebuild the hospital and St Thomas Church nearby. A statue of Clayton now stands at the North Entrance to Ward Block of North Wing at St Thomas Hospital and is Grade I listed, Smith, Elder & Co. Robert Clayton information from AIM25. Catalogue record for the papers of Clayton and Morris Co.
at the Archives Division of the London School of Economics, sir Robert Clayton and the Origins of English Deposit Banking, 1658–1685, Cambridge,1986. Archival material relating to Robert Clayton