Cenon is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is a suburb of the city of Bordeaux, is adjacent to it on the east side. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Official website
Artigues-près-Bordeaux is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Bouliac is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Saint-Médard-en-Jalles is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Located west-northwest of the city of Bordeaux, it is the fifth-largest suburb of the city and a member of the metropolitan Urban Community of Bordeaux. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE "St Médard-en-Jalles et son canton", Val TILLET, Editions Alan Sutton, 2006. Official website
Saint-Louis-de-Montferrand is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Pfungstadt is a German town of 25,117 inhabitants, in the district of Darmstadt-Dieburg in the state of Hesse. The town was first mentioned in 785 as property of the Monastery of Lorsch and got its town rights in 1886 due to its railway station, it is situated just west of the Odenwald hills, one of the closest being Frankenstein with its castle ruin of monstrous fame on its summit. It is said, Shelley used the name after asking a sailor on a Rhine trip to tell her the name of "this yonder castle"; the historical town hall is the centre of the old part of the town, which in 1664 was being developed with a view to allowing the river Modau to flow above ground as basis for a promenade. Pfungstadt is most famous today for Pfungstädter, which can be found all over Germany; the Brewery has a long history. Other aspects of the town: the swimming pool was known far and wide, with a modern wave generation feature, loved by young and old; the city had to close the pool due to a lack of funds required for major maintenance projects.
In 1973, the town hosted the 13th Hessentag state festival. Pfungstadt is notable as being the birthplace of the great Anglo-Jewish synagogue composer Julius Mombach. Regional service of Pfungstadt Railway to Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof was reactivated at the beginning of 2012, it is served by the extension of services on the Odenwald Railway from Darmstadt station to Pfungstadt as RB 66. Buses serve Pfungstadt; the Pfungstadt bus station is on Berliner Street. The Bundesautobahn 5 freeway is to the west of town; the main road near the town are to the Bundesautobahn 5 freeway. To the west of town is the Bundesautobahn 67 freeway. Pfungstadt is twinned with the towns of: Bassetlaw, England Figline Valdarno, Italy Gradignan, France Hévíz, Hungary Retford, England Official website interactive city map