Military history of France
The military history of France encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern France, a variety of regions throughout the world. According to historian Niall Ferguson: "of the 125 major European wars fought since 1495, the French have participated in 50 – more than Austria and England. Out of 168 battles fought since 387 BC, they have won 109, lost 49 and drawn 10", making France the most successful military power in European history; the first major recorded wars in the territory of modern-day France itself revolved around the Gallo-Roman conflict that predominated from 60 BC to 50 BC. The Romans emerged victorious through the campaigns of Julius Caesar. After the decline of the Roman Empire, a Germanic tribe known as the Franks took control of Gaul by defeating competing tribes; the "land of Francia", from which France gets its name, had high points of expansion under kings Clovis I and Charlemagne, who established the nucleus of the future French state.
In the Middle Ages, rivalries with England prompted major conflicts such as the Norman Conquest and the Hundred Years' War. With an centralized monarchy, the first standing army since Roman times, the use of artillery, France expelled the English from its territory and came out of the Middle Ages as the most powerful nation in Europe, only to lose that status to the Holy Roman Empire and Spain following defeat in the Italian Wars; the Wars of Religion crippled France in the late 16th century, but a major victory over Spain in the Thirty Years' War made France the most powerful nation on the continent once more. In parallel, France developed its first colonial empire in Asia, in the Americas. Under Louis XIV France achieved military supremacy over its rivals, but escalating conflicts against powerful enemy coalitions checked French ambitions and left the kingdom bankrupt at the opening of the 18th century. Resurgent French armies secured victories in dynastic conflicts against the Spanish and Austrian crowns.
At the same time, France was fending off attacks on its colonies. As the 18th century advanced, global competition with Great Britain led to the Seven Years' War, where France lost its North American holdings. Consolation came in the form of dominance in Europe and the American Revolutionary War, where extensive French aid in the form of money and arms, the direct participation of its army and navy led to America's independence. Internal political upheaval led to 23 years of nearly continuous conflict in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. France reached the zenith of its power during this period, dominating the European continent in an unprecedented fashion under Napoleon Bonaparte. By 1815, however, it had been restored to the same borders; the rest of the 19th century witnessed the growth of the Second French colonial empire as well as French interventions in Belgium and Mexico. Other major wars were fought against Russia in the Crimea, Austria in Italy, Prussia within France itself.
Following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, Franco–German rivalry erupted again in the First World War. France and its allies were victorious this time. Social and economic upheaval in the wake of the conflict led to the Second World War, in which the Allies were defeated in the Battle of France and the French government signed an armistice with Germany; the Allies, including the Free French Forces led by a government in exile emerged victorious over the Axis Powers. As a result, France secured an occupation zone in Germany and a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council; the imperative of avoiding a third Franco-German conflict on the scale of the first two world wars paved the way for European integration starting in the 1950s. France became a nuclear power and, since the late 20th century, has cooperated with NATO and its European partners. In the last few centuries, French strategic thinking has sometimes been driven by the need to attain or preserve the so-called "natural frontiers," which are the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast, the Rhine River to the east.
Starting with Clovis, 1,500 years of warfare and diplomacy has witnessed the accomplishment of most of these objectives. Warfare with other European powers was not always determined by these considerations, rulers of France extended their continental authority far beyond these barriers, most notably under Charlemagne, Louis XIV, Napoleon; these periods of incessant conflict were characterized by their own standards and conventions, but all required strong central leadership in order to permit the extension of French rule. Important military rivalries in human history have come about as a result of conflict between French peoples and other European powers. Anglo-French rivalry, for prestige in Europe and around the world, continued for centuries, while the more recent Franco-German rivalry required two world wars to stabilize. Starting in the early 16th century, much of France's military efforts were dedicated to securing its overseas possessions and putting down dissent among both French colonists and native populations.
French troops were spread all across its empire to deal with the local population. The French colonial empire disintegrated after the failed attempt to subdue Algerian nationalists in the late 1950s, a failure that led to the collapse of the Fourth Republic. Since World War II, France's efforts have been directed at maintaining its status as a great power and its influence on the UN Security Council. France has been instrumental in attempting to unite the armed forces of Europe for their own defense in ord
Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V, born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death. Pope Eugene made him a cardinal in 1446 after successful trips to Italy and Germany, when Eugene died the next year Parentucelli was elected in his place, he took his name Nicholas in memory of his obligations to Niccolò Albergati. The Pontificate of Nicholas saw the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks and the end of the Hundred Years War, he responded by calling a crusade against the Ottomans. By the Concordat of Vienna he secured the recognition of papal rights over benefices, he brought about the submission of the last of the antipopes, Felix V, the dissolution of the Synod of Basle. A key figure in the Roman Renaissance, Nicholas sought to make Rome the home of art, he strengthened fortifications, restored aqueducts, rebuilt many churches. He ordered design plans for what would be the Basilica of St. Peter, his mother, Andreola Bosi of Fivizzano, married Bartolomeo Parentucelli, a physician who practiced medicine in Sarzana, an important town in Lunigiana.
The Lunigiana region had long been fought over by competing Tuscan and Milanese forces. Tommaso Parentucelli was born in Sarzana in 1397, just three years after the town was taken from the Florentines by the Genoese Republic, his father died. Parentucelli became a tutor, in Florence, to the families of the Strozzi and Albizzi, where he met the leading humanist scholars, he studied at Bologna and Florence, gaining a degree in theology in 1422. Bishop Niccolò Albergati was so awestruck with his capabilities that he took him into his service and gave him the chance to pursue his studies further by sending him on a tour through Germany and England, he was able to collect books. Some of them survive with his marginal annotations, he attended the Council of Florence and in 1444, when his patron died, he was appointed Bishop of Bologna in his place. Civic disorders at Bologna were prolonged, so Pope Eugene IV soon named him as one of the legates sent to Frankfurt, he was to assist in negotiating an understanding between the Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire, regarding undercutting or at least containing the reforming decrees of the Council of Basel.
His successful diplomacy gained him the reward, on his return to Rome, of the title Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna in December 1446. At the papal conclave of 1447 he was elected Pope in succession to Eugene IV on 6 March, he took the name Nicholas in honour of Niccolò Albergati. In only eight years, his pontificate delivered important achievements in the political and literary history of the world. Politically, he needed to repair relationships which had broken down in the pontificate of Eugene IV, he called the congress which produced the Treaty of Lodi, secured peace with Charles VII of France, concluded the Concordat of Vienna or Aschaffenburg with the German King, Frederick III, by which the decrees of the Council of Basel against papal annates and reservations were abrogated so far as Germany was concerned. In the following year he secured a still greater tactical triumph with the resignation of the Antipope Felix V on 7 April and his own recognition by the rump of the Council of Basel that assembled at Lausanne.
In 1450, Nicholas held a Jubilee at Rome, the offerings of the numerous pilgrims who thronged to Rome gave him the means of furthering the cause of culture in Italy, which he had so much at heart. In March 1452 he crowned Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor in St. Peter's, in what was the last imperial coronation held in Rome. Within the city of Rome, Nicholas introduced the fresh spirit of the Renaissance both intellectually and architecturally, his plans were of embellishing the city with new monuments worthy of the capital of the Christian world. It was in recognition of this commitment to building that Leon Battista Alberti dedicated to Nicholas V his treatise De re aedificatoria, his first care was practical, to reinforce the city's fortifications and paving some main streets and restoring the water supply. The end of ancient Rome is sometimes dated from the destruction of its magnificent array of aqueducts by 6th-century invaders. In the Middle Ages Romans depended for water on wells and cisterns, the poor dipped their water from the yellow Tiber.
The Aqua Virgo aqueduct constructed by Agrippa, was restored by Nicholas and emptied into a simple basin that Alberti designed, the predecessor of the Trevi Fountain. He continued restoration of the major Roman basilicas, but of many other Roman churches including Sant' Apostoli, Sant' Eusebio, San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santa Prassede, San Salvatore, Santo Stefano Rotondo, San Teodoro, San Celso, he rebuilt the Ponte Sant' Angelo which had collapsed in 1540, supported the redevelopment of the surrounding area as a prestigious business and residential district. But his major focus was on establishing the Vatican as the official residence of the Papacy, replacing the Lateran Palace, he added a substantial new wing including a private chapel to the Vatican, – according to Giannozzo Manetti, biographer of Nicholas – planned substantial changes to the Borgo district. He laid up 2,522 cartloads of marble from the dilapidated Colosseum for use in the constructions; the Pope's contemporaries criticised his lavish expenditure on building: Manetti drew parallels with the wealth and expenditure of Solomon, suggesting that Papal wealth was acceptable so long as it was expended to the glory of God and the good of the Church.
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Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Marano Lagoon is a huge lagoon in northeastern Italy. It has a surface area of around 160 square kilometres. Marano Lagoon stretches from Lignano Sabbiadoro to the east for nearly 90 km, it is considered the twin of the Venice Lagoon, located a few km to the west. Sometimes it is called Marano-Grado lagoon, but geographically it is divided in two sections: lagoon of Marano and lagoon of Grado; the section called "Grado Lagoon" is an Italian lagoon located in the northern Adriatic sea, which extends from the Fossalon island to the island of Anfora, next to the mouth of the small river Aussa. This lagoon, which covers an area of about 90 square kilometers and has nearly 120 islands, is divided into an eastern sector and a western sector; the origins of this lagoon are recent. Until the fifth century the land covered all the area, as evidenced by several archaeological findings, including a Roman road, now covered by water, which connected Aquileia to its port of Grado. Characteristic of the Grado lagoon is the presence of houses called casoni, simple homes with roofs of straw used by the fishermen of Grado.
The typical boat of the inhabitants of the lagoon is the batèla, that has a flat bottom and is operated by rowing. The batèla is 5 to 10 meters long, is guided by an oarsman standing in the stern; the lagoon, bordered to the west by the section called "Marano Lagoon", is crossed longitudinally by the "Venetian coast waterway", a waterway that connects Venice with the mouth of the Isonzo river. Laguna West The Laguna West has many islands. There are nearly one hundred like the beautiful Martignano island, it is crossed by numerous canals. Among them there it is the small San Pietro d'Orio island, which for centuries was the seat of a monastery, another island called Ravaiarina and Gorgo island, which housed a church and, during World War II, an Italian military area. Going further west from Grado and heading for the Marano Lagoon there are, among other small islands, the island of Morgo, with widespread vegetation and well known in the past for its agricultural production, the island of Beli, which owes its name to the legendary witch Bela who confused sailors.
The westernmost island is Anfora, which acquired strategic importance in 1866, when it marked the boundary between Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it houses the small island-town of Porto Buso. Laguna East The Laguna East is the less deep. After the land reclamation of the Fossalon island, realized in the first half of last century, its surface is halved. Inside this land reclamation now is located the Valle Cavanata Nature Reserve. Compared to the western lagoon, it is less rich in islands. Anyway, between those islands stands out Barbana, home to the 1500 years old Sanctuary of "Mary, mother of Jesus" and is permanently inhabited by a community of Franciscan friars; the island is visited each year during the celebration of the "Perdòn di Barban," a pilgrimage, which runs the first Sunday in July and includes a procession of boats decorated with flags in the lagoon from Grado to Barbana. In the eastern lagoon there it is the island called Schiusa created with fill material, now urbanized and integrated with Grado.
Of course, the island-town of Grado is the biggest of the Grado Lagoon and is located just 20 km from the mouth of the Isonzo river. The section of Marano covers an area of 70 square kilometres and has less islands than the section of Grado. Sometimes the Grado and the Marano lagoons are considered a single huge lagoon called in Italian "Grado-Marano Laguna", stretching from Grado to Lignano Sabbiadoro and called "the twin sister of the Laguna di Venezia"; however the Marano Lagoon is under the administration of the "Comune di Marano Lagunare". The Marano section of the lagoon is crossed longitudinally by the "Venetian coast waterway", a waterway that connects Venice with the mouth of the Isonzo river; this section starts on the southern side with Lignano Sabbiadoro, a resort city developed after World War II. The Marano section goes until the "Palud de Soto" near Porto Buso and the island of Anfora, next to the mouth of the small river Aussa; the mooring complex of Lignano Sabbiadoro is the largest in Italy and among the largest in Europe, having more than 5,000 berths.
The various structures of Aprilia Marittima, the harbour Marina Punta Faro, the docks "Porto Vecchio" are strategically positioned around and near the southern areas of the Marano lagoon. The Nature Reserve of the Marano Lagoon stretches over more than 1,400 hectares, it consists of two smaller reserves, the Reserve of the Stella River Mouth and the Reserve of Canal Nuovo Valley; the environment consists of reed thickets and sandbanks. What is specific to the Marano Lagoon is the variety of water salinity levels; this variety has enabled the development of an impressive biodiversity, both in water. However, bird life is the most prominent in this lagoon, why birdwatchers are likely to get a special satisfaction while visiting the lagoon; the most important of the nearly 120 islands in the M
Patriarch of Grado
This is a list of the Patriarchs of Grado. The patriarchate came into being when the schismatic Patriarch of Aquileia, moved to Grado in the mid 6th century, but in their reunion with Rome in 606, a rival office was set up in Old-Aquileia. Aquileia entered communion with Rome but was able to keep its independence and title from Grado. In 1451 the see of Grado was merged with Castello to form the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice. Paulinus I 557–569 Probinus 569–570 Elia 571–586 Severus 586–606 In 1451 the Patriarchate of Grado was merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Archdiocese of Venice. In 1968 Pope Paul VI reestablished Grado as a titular archbishopric José López Ortiz Crescenzio Sepe Diego Causero Patriarch of Venice Archbishop of Udine
Michael is an archangel in Judaism and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox religions, he is called "Saint Michael the Taxiarch". Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel; the idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is referred to as "the archangel Michael". Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. Michael is mentioned three times in all in the Book of Daniel.
The prophet Daniel experiences a vision after having undergone a period of fasting. Daniel 10:13-21 describes Daniel's vision of an angel who identifies Michael as the protector of Israel. At Daniel 12:1, Daniel is informed that Michael will arise during the "time of the end"; the Book of Revelation describes a war in heaven. After the conflict, Satan is thrown to earth along with the fallen angels, where he still tries to "lead the whole world astray". In the Epistle of Jude 1:9, Michael is referred to as an "archangel". A reference to an "archangel" appears in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians 4:16; this archangel who heralds the second coming of Christ is not named, but is associated with Michael. Michael, is one of the two archangels mentioned alongside Jibrail. In the Quran, Michael is mentioned once only, in Sura 2:98: "Whoever is an enemy to God, His angels and His messengers, Jibrail and Mikhail! God is an enemy to the disbelievers." Some Muslims believe that the reference in Sura 11:69 is Michael, one of the three angels who visited Abraham.
According to rabbinic Jewish tradition, Michael acted as the advocate of Israel, sometimes had to fight with the princes of the other nations and with the angel Samael, Israel's accuser. Michael's enmity with Samael dates from the time. Samael took hold of the wings of Michael. Michael said "May The Lord rebuke you" to Satan for attempting to claim the body of Moses; the idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy: "When a man is in need he must pray directly to God, neither to Michael nor to Gabriel." There were two prayers written beseeching him as the prince of mercy to intercede in favor of Israel: one composed by Eliezer ha-Kalir, the other by Judah ben Samuel he-Hasid. But appeal to Michael seems to have been more common in ancient times, thus Jeremiah is said to have addressed a prayer to him.
The rabbis declare that Michael entered upon his role of defender at the time of the biblical patriarchs. Thus, according to Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob, it was Michael who rescued Abraham from the furnace into which he had been thrown by Nimrod, it was Michael, the "one that had escaped", who told Abraham that Lot had been taken captive, who protected Sarah from being defiled by Abimelech. He announced to Sarah that she would bear a son and he rescued Lot at the destruction of Sodom, it is said that Michael prevented Isaac from being sacrificed by his father by substituting a ram in his place, saved Jacob, while yet in his mother's womb, from being killed by Samael. Michael prevented Laban from harming Jacob.. It was Michael who afterwards blessed him; the midrash Exodus Rabbah holds that Michael exercised his function of advocate of Israel at the time of the Exodus when Satan accused the Israelites of idolatry and declared that they were deserving of death by drowning in the Red Sea. Michael is said to have destroyed the army of Sennacherib.
The early Christians regarded some of the martyrs, such as Saint George and Saint Theodore, as military patrons. The earliest and most famous sanctuary to Michael in the ancient Near East was associated with healing waters, it was the Michaelion built in the early 4th century by Emperor Constantine at Chalcedon, on the site of an earlier Temple called Sosthenion. A painting of the Archangel slaying a serpent became a major art piece at the Michaelion after Constantine defeated Licinius near there in 324 leading to the standard iconography of Archangel Michael as a warrior saint slaying a dragon; the Michaelion was a magnificent church and in time became a model for hundreds of other churches in E
A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa. Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits; the word spa is derived from the name of a town in Belgium. Thomas Guidott set up a medical practice in the English town of Bath in 1668, he became interested in the curative properties of the hot mineral waters there and in 1676 wrote A discourse of Bathe, the hot waters there. Some Enquiries into the Nature of the water; this brought the purported health-giving properties of the waters to the attention of the aristocracy, who started to partake in them soon after. The term spa is used for towns or resorts offering hydrotherapy, which can include cold water or mineral water treatments and geothermal baths. Termas de Rio Hondo Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña Most of the mineral springs in Australia are in the Central Highlands of Victoria, although there are a few springs in South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. Most are within 30 km of Daylesford, Victoria: the Daylesford and Hepburn Springs call themselves'Spa Country' and the'Spa Centre of Australia'.
Chaudfontaine Ostend Spa See: List of spa towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina Banja Vrućica, Teslić Brazil has a growing number of spa towns. The traditional ones are: Águas de Lindoia, Serra Negra, Águas de São Pedro, Caxambu, Poços de Caldas, Caldas Novas, Araxá, São Lourenço. See: List of spa towns in Bulgaria Bulgaria is known for its more than 500 mineral springs, including the hottest spring in the Balkans at Sapareva Banya - 103 °C. Other famous spa towns include Sandanski, Bankya, Kyustendil, Velingard. In Bulgarian, the word for a spa is баня. See: List of spa towns in Canada Harrison Hot Springs is one of the oldest among 18 in British Columbia. See: List of spa towns in Croatia In Croatia, the word Toplice implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Croatia are Šibenik and Sisak. See: Spa towns in the Czech Republic In the Czech Language, the word Lázně implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Czech Republic are Karlovy Vary, Františkovy Lázně and Mariánské Lázně. See: List of spa towns in France In France, the words bains and eaux in city names imply a spa town.
There are more than 50 spa towns in France, including Vichy, Aix-les-Bains, Bagnoles-de-l'Orne and Enghien-les-Bains. Borjomi See: List of spa towns in Germany In Germany, the word Bad implies a spa town. Among the many famous spa towns in Germany are Bad Aachen, Baden-Baden, Bad Brückenau, Bad Ems, Bad Homburg, Bad Honnef, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Muskau, Bad Pyrmont, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Saarow, Bad Schandau, Bad Segeberg, Bad Soden, Bad Tölz, Bad Wildbad, Bad Wimpfen, Bad Wildstein, Binz, Heiligendamm, Kampen, Königstein, Schwangau, St. Blasien, Tegernsee, Travemünde and Zingst. Wiesbaden is the largest spa town in Germany. See: List of spa towns in Greece The most famous spa towns in Greece are Aidipsos and Loutraki. See: List of spa towns in Hungary In Hungary, the word fürdő or the more archaic füred, fürdőváros or fürdőhely implies a spa town. Hungary is rich in thermal waters with health benefits, many spa towns are popular tourist destinations. Budapest has several spas, including Turkish style spas dating back to the 16th century.
Eger has a Turkish spa. Other famous spas include the ones at Hévíz, Harkány, Bük, Hajdúszoboszló, Bogács, Bükkszék, the Cave Bath at Miskolctapolca and the Zsóry-fürdő at Mezőkövesd. Bali Batam See: List of spa towns in Italy In Italy, spa towns, called città termale, are numerous all over the country because of the intense geological activity of the territory; these places were used since the Roman age. Mondorf-les-Bains Druskininkai - is known for mineral springs; the name comes from Lithuanian word druska - salt. Birštonas - is known for mineral springs and curative mud applications. Bad Nieuweschans in the North with "Bad" implying a spa town. Valkenburg near Maastricht, which wants to be a "city of wellness". Rotorua Hanmer Springs Ngawha Springs See: List of spa towns in Poland Most spa towns in Poland are located in the Lesser Poland and Lower Silesian Voivodeships; some of them have an affix "Zdrój" in their name, meaning "water spring", to denote their spa status, but this is not a general rule.
Portugal is well known by famous spa towns throughout of the country. Due to its high quality, as well as the landscape where are located, the most important ones are: Caldas da Rainha Caldas das Taipas Caldas de Monchique Caldas de Vizela Pedras Salgadas Vidago Chaves Sao Pedro do Sul Caldas da Felgueira located in Viseu District, 5km from Nelas town. See: List of spa towns in Romania In Romania, the word Băile implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Romania are Băile Herculane, Băile Felix, Covasna, Călimănești & Borsec. See: List of spa towns in Serbia Serbia is known for its many spa cities; some of the best known springs are the Vrnjačka Banja, Bukovička Banja, Sokobanja and Niška Banja. The hottest spring in Serbia is at Vranjska Banja. See: Spa towns in Slovakia Slovakia is well known by its spa towns; the most famous is Piešťany. The most important spa towns in Slovakia are: Bardejovské Kúpele Dudince Liptovský Ján Lúčky Piešťany Rajecké Teplice Kúpele Sliač Smrdáky Trenčianske Teplice Turčianske Teplice Bojnice Spa towns in Slove