Education in Singapore
Education in Singapore is managed by the Ministry of Education, which controls the development and administration of state schools receiving taxpayers' funding, but has an advisory and supervisory role in respect of private schools. For both private and state schools, there are variations in the extent of autonomy in their curriculum, scope of taxpayers' aid and funding, tuition burden on the students, admission policy. Education spending makes up about 20 percent of the annual national budget, which subsidises state education and government-assisted private education for Singaporean citizens and funds the Edusave programme. Non-citizens bear higher costs of educating their children in Singapore government and government-aided schools. In 2000 the Compulsory Education Act codified compulsory education for children of primary school age, made it a criminal offence for parents to fail to enroll their children in school and ensure their regular attendance. Exemptions are allowed for homeschooling or full-time religious institutions, but parents must apply for exemption from the Ministry of Education and meet a minimum benchmark.
The education system in Singapore is ranked as one of the highest in the world by the OECD. It is believed that this comes from the style of teaching, implemented in Singapore. Teachers focus on making sure that each of their students move through the syllabus before moving on. By doing this teachers in Singapore teach a deeper type of instruction; the main language of instruction in Singapore is English, designated the first language within the local education system in 1987. English is the first language learned by half the children by the time they reach preschool age and becomes the primary medium of instruction by the time they reach primary school. Although Malay and Tamil are official languages, English is the language of instruction for nearly all subjects except the official Mother Tongue languages and the literatures of those languages. Certain schools, such as secondary schools under the Special Assistance Plan, encourage a richer use of the mother tongue and may teach subjects in Mandarin Chinese.
A few schools have been experimenting with curricula that integrates language subjects with mathematics and the sciences, using both English and a second language. Singapore's education system has been described as "world-leading" and in 2010 was among those picked out for commendation by the Conservative former UK Education Secretary Michael Gove. According to PISA, an influential worldwide study on educational systems, Singapore has the highest performance in international education and tops in global rankings. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded the Singapore Institution in 1823, thereby starting education in Singapore under the British rule. Three main types of schools appeared in Singapore: Malay schools and Tamil schools and English schools. Malay schools were provided free for all students by the British, while English schools, which used English as the main medium of instruction, were set up by missionaries and charged school fees. Chinese and Tamil schools taught their respective mother tongues.
Students from Chinese schools in particular were attuned to developments in China in the rise of Chinese nationalism. During World War Two, many students in Singapore dropped out of school, causing a huge backlog of students after the war. In 1947, the Ten Years Programme for Education Policy in the Colony of Singapore was formulated; this called for a universal education system. During the 1950s and 1960s, when Singapore started to develop its own economy, Singapore adapted a "survival-driven education" system to provide a skilled workforce for Singapore's industrialisation programme as well to as to lower unemployment. Apart from being an economic necessity, education helped to integrate the new nation together; the bilingualism policy in schools was introduced in 1960, making English the official language for both national integration and utilitarian purposes. Universal education for children of all races and background started to take shape, more children started to attend schools. However, the quality of schools set up during this time varied considerably.
The first Junior College was opened in 1969. In the 1980s, Singapore's economy started to prosper, the focus of Singapore's education system shifted from quantity to quality. More differentiation for pupils with different academic abilities were implemented, such as revamping vocational education under the new Institute of Technology and splitting of the Normal stream in secondary schools into Normal and Normal streams; the Gifted Education Programme was set up to cater to more academically inclined students. In 1997, the Singapore education system started to change into an ability-driven one after Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong outlined his "Thinking Schools, Learning Nations" vision. Under this policy, more emphasis was given to national education, creative thinking, collaborative learning as well as ICT literacy. Schools became more diverse and were given greater autonomy in deciding their own curriculum and developing their own niche areas. Differences between the various academic streams became.
The Ministry of Education officially acknowledged that "excellence" will not be measured in terms of academics. The school year is divided into two semesters. The
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland is a federal university system of constituent universities and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, amended by the Universities Act, 1997. The constituent universities are for all essential purposes independent universities, except that the degrees and diplomas are those of the National University of Ireland with its seat in Dublin. In post-nominals, the abbreviation NUI is used for degrees from all the constituent universities of the National University of Ireland. Queen's Colleges at Belfast and Galway were established in 1845. In 1849 teaching commenced and a year they were united under the Queen's University of Ireland; the Catholic University of Ireland was created as an independent university on 3 November 1854 for the education of Catholics. This university did not offer recognised degrees. In 1880 the Royal University of Ireland took over the degree awarding functions of the two former universities and offered recognised degrees to the graduates of the new University College Dublin and St Patrick's College, Maynooth awarded under the Catholic University.
The Catholic University became University College Dublin in 1882 under the direction of the Jesuits. In the 1890s its students achieved more distinctions than their counterparts in Belfast and Galway, established as secular institutions; the 1908 reforms created the National University of Ireland and a separate Queen's University of Belfast. The Royal University was dissolved in 1909, in 1910 Maynooth became a recognised college of the NUI; the National University, unlike the Royal University, did not award degrees for part-time or external students. To the Royal University, the National University was still banned from awarding degrees in Theology. In 1975 the teacher training colleges of Carysfort College, Blackrock, St. Patrick's College Drumcondra and Mary Immaculate College, Limerick became recognised colleges of the NUI. During 1976 and 1977 Thomond College of Education, Limerick was a recognized college of the NUI, also. In 1978 St. Angela's College, Sligo became affiliated to the NUI. In 1996 the National College of Art and Design became a recognised college of the NUI.
The 1997 reforms restructured the National University of Ireland, an additional university at Maynooth was created from certain faculties of the previous recognised college, St Patrick's College, Maynooth. These reforms removed the prohibition on theology, imposed on the National University and its predecessors. Since 1918 the university's graduates have formed a constituency in parliamentary elections. In 1918 it was formed as a constituency for the UK House of Commons. After the first election Eoin MacNeill sat in the first Dáil; the NUI graduates elected four TDs from 1921 until 1934 when the university constituencies were abolished by Fianna Fáil. Under the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, the graduates of the university elect three members of Seanad Éireann. All graduates that are Irish citizens are entitled to vote if on the university's register of electors. An honorary degree does not give the entitlement to vote; the election is conducted by postal vote. The most recent election was in 2016, for the 25th Seanad, returned three independents: Alice Mary Higgins, Michael McDowell and Rónán Mullen.
The governing body of the NUI is styled the Senate under its 1908 charter. Members are called "Members of the Senate" rather than Senators; the NUI Senate meets in the Phelan Room, called after Edward J. Phelan, who funded its refurbishment; the Universities Act 1997 increased the size of the Senate and devolved power from it to the constituent universities. The NUI's Convocation comprises the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the Members of Senate, the Professors and Lecturers, the Graduates of the University. Eight Members of the NUI Senate are elected for terms of five years; the chancellor is the notional head of the university, constituent universities and recognised colleges have their own heads, which exercise most powers in practice. When the university was established in 1908 by Royal Charter, the first chancellor was appointed; the chancellor is elected by graduates and staff. William Joseph Walsh Éamon de Valera T. K. Whitaker Garret FitzGerald Maurice Manning Within the university there is a common faculty structure in operation in the constituent universities.
These ten faculties are: Agriculture. The constituent universities are: University College Cork University College Dublin NUI Galway Maynooth UniversityThe recognised college is: Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland++++++ Since April 2009 the Senate of the NUI decided that medical graduates of RCSI Bahrain will be eligible to receive the NUI degrees of MB BCh BAO. Former recognised colleges, now colleges of constituent universities, are: Institute of Public Administration †† National College of Art and Design †† Shannon College of Hotel Management † St. Angela's College, Sligo †† St Angela's College and Shannon College of Hotel Management are each "A Colleg
National University of Singapore
The National University of Singapore is the first autonomous research university in Singapore. NUS is a comprehensive research university, offering a wide range of disciplines, including the sciences and dentistry, design and environment, law and social sciences, business and music in both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Founded in 1905 as the King Edward VII College of Medicine, NUS is the oldest higher education institution in Singapore. NUS' main campus is located in southwestern part of Singapore adjacent to Kent Ridge, accommodating an area of 150 ha; the Duke-NUS Medical School, a postgraduate medical school in collaboration with Duke University, is located at the Outram campus. Its Bukit Timah campus houses Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy; the Yale-NUS College, a liberal arts college in collaboration with Yale, is located at the University Town. In September 1904, Tan Jiak Kim led a group of representatives of the Chinese and other non-European communities and petitioned the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Sir John Anderson, to establish a medical school in Singapore.
Tan, the first president of the Straits Chinese British Association, managed to raise 87,077 Straits dollars, of which the largest amount of $12,000 came from himself. On 3 July 1905, the medical school was founded and was known as the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States Government Medical School. In 1912, the medical school received an endowment of $120,000 from King Edward VII Memorial Fund, started by Lim Boon Keng. Subsequently, on 18 November 1913, the name of the school was changed to King Edward VII Medical School. In 1921, it was again changed to King Edward VII College of Medicine to reflect its academic status. In 1928, Raffles College was established to promote arts and social sciences at tertiary level for Malayan students. Two decades Raffles College was merged with King Edward VII College of Medicine to form University of Malaya on 8 October 1949; the two institutions were merged to provide for the higher education needs of the Federation of Malaya and Singapore. The growth of University of Malaya was rapid during the first decade of its establishment and resulted in the setting up of two autonomous divisions in 1959, one located in Singapore and the other in Kuala Lumpur.
In 1955, Nanyang University was established on the backdrop of the Chinese community in Singapore. In 1960, the governments of Federation of Malaya and Singapore indicated their desire to change the status of the divisions into that of a national university. Legislation was passed in 1961, establishing the former Kuala Lumpur division as the University of Malaya, while the Singapore division was renamed the University of Singapore on 1 January 1962; the National University of Singapore was formed with the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University in 1980. This was done in part due to the government's desire to pool the two institutions' resources into a single, stronger entity and promote English as Singapore's main language of education; the original crest of Nanyang University with three intertwined rings was incorporated into the new coat-of-arms of NUS. NUS began its entrepreneurial education endeavours in the 1980s, with the setting up of the Centre for Management of Innovation and Technopreneurship in 1988.
In 2001, this was renamed the NUS Entrepreneurship Centre, became a division of NUS Enterprise. NEC is headed by Wong Poh Kam and its activities are organised into four areas, including a business incubator, experiential education, entrepreneurship development and entrepreneurship research. Today, NUS has 16 faculties and schools across three campus locations in Singapore – Kent Ridge, Bukit Timah and Outram – and provides a broad-based curriculum underscored by multi-disciplinary courses and cross-faculty enrichment. NUS has a semester-based modular system for conducting courses, it adopts features such as small group teaching and the American system. Students may transfer between courses within their first two semesters, enrol in cross-faculty modules or take up electives from different faculties. Other cross-disciplinary initiatives study programmes include double-degree undergraduate degrees in Arts & Social Sciences and Engineering. NUS has 16 schools, including a Music Conservatory. NUS is ranked 1st in Singapore & Asia Pacific, 22nd in the world according to the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 11th in the world according to the 2019 QS World University Rankings.
NUS was named the world's 4th most international university. In the QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2018, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, NUS was ranked 30th in the world; the QS World University Rankings 2019 ranked NUS 11th in the world. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018 placed NUS at 22nd in the world and 1st in Asia Pacific, while its 2018 reputation rankings placed it at 24th globally. FASS majors are organized into three divisions – Asian Studies and Social Sciences – under which 15 departments and programmes are grouped, it is home to the Office of Programmes which offers four multidisciplinary programmes and five minor Programmes of study, the Centre for Language Studies which teaches 12 different languages. Undergraduate degrees include the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Arts with Honours and Bachelor of Social Sciences with Honours. NUS Business School was founded as the Department of Business Administration in 1965, it has
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Master of Advanced Studies
A Master of Advanced Studies or Master of Advanced Study is a postgraduate degree awarded in various countries. Master of Advanced Studies programs may be non-consecutive programs tailored for "specific groups of working professionals with well-defined needs for advanced degree work" or advanced research degrees. With the exception of the UK, advanced studies programs tend to be interdisciplinary and tend to be focused toward meeting the needs of professionals rather than academics; the University of Cambridge began offering the Master of Advanced Study in 2010 as a one-year master's degree in Mathematics as a replacement for the "Part III exam in Mathematics". Cambridge offers Master of Advanced Study degrees in four fields of study; the University of Warwick has approved the introduction of a Master of Advanced Study degree in Mathematics for the 2013/2014 year. In the United States, the Master of Advanced Study or the Master of Advanced Studies degree is a post-graduate professional degree issued by numerous academic institutions, but most notably by the University of California.
M. A. S. Programs tend to "concentrate on a set of coordinated coursework with culminating projects or papers rather than emphasizing student research" and are structured as interdisciplinary offerings; the Diplôme d'études approfondies or DEA was a doctoral programme degree delivered in France from 1964 to 2005. It was a postgraduate degree, aimed to prepare for advanced doctoral studies. In order to award a government sanctioned degree for a DEA, the university or institution had to require its students to complete a minimum 90-page thesis with a bibliography based on the students' original research, a thesis defense. In addition to the research thesis, its defense, delivery of the DEA required one-year of classroom study, an internship difficult written exams, an oral exam, it took these students two to three years to receive the diploma. Entrance in DEA programs was permitted only to holders of the maîtrise universitaire, a master's degree aimed to be an initiation to research methods. Given the thesis requirement, the DEA is considered higher level than the North American "All But Dissertation" or ABD status within a doctoral program or a master of philosophy, but lower level than a PhD.
Holders of a DEA were considered to have acquired the theoretical technical knowledge equivalent to a PhD, albeit with less practical research experience. As a result, DEA graduates would enter the job market without the need to do a PhD, be offered much more attractive jobs and conditions, compared to Masters degree graduates; the Bologna Process was implemented in France in 2002. In 2005, the DEA and the maîtrise were fused into a lower level two-year degree called "Master". At first, the first year of the Master was in fact a one-year stand-alone research program and the second year an introduction to further research; this was overturned by more Bologna-compliant programs, where the M1 introduces to research methods and M2 culminates in actual research. One can say that the old DEA idea is now extinct in France, having been replaced by a lower level Masters degree; the DEA and Diplôme d'études supérieures spécialisées were offered in many places and may continue to be offered in countries that apply the French university style, sometimes with some minor differences, such as Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain and most Francophone countries.
In the French-speaking universities of Switzerland, the DEA, now master of advanced studies, was equivalent to the master's degree in English-speaking countries, it was a one-to-two-year degree taken after a Licence. It consisted of a number of courses, with examinations and grades, followed by research in a scientific laboratory; the students would write a substantial thesis about the scientific work they did, defend this thesis in front of a committee. The master of advanced studies remains a common post-graduate degree in Switzerland. In Europe, the DEA degrees are progressively subsumed into the Bologna process master's degrees and research-oriented master of advanced studies degrees; the degree of Master of Advanced Studies is awarded in Switzerland and Liechtenstein as a continuing education degree. In Switzerland, the degree is recognized by federal law. A university degree is required for admission, but work experience and non-formal education can be considered in addition to formal education.
A MAS requires 60-120 ECTS. and consists of course work, independent study and a masters thesis. This degree exists in Spain under the name "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados", it confers a higher qualification credential than a Master of Philosophy or Master of Studies but lower than old doctorate prior to European Higher Education Area, however equivalent to new doctoral degree. The so-called "DEA" was achieved in two years: one year of coursework, which included research methods and theoretical approaches of the discipline at stake and one year of research. All the work of the first and second years was defended before a panel; the DEA was a prerequisite for the preparation of the old PhD proposal and the commencement of PhD research in Spain before European Higher Education Area and Bologna process. Students of the College of Europe (an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with its campuses in Bruges and Natolin receive a
Singapore Raffles Music College
Singapore Raffles Music College is a tertiary music institution in Singapore registered with the Council for Private Education. It was awarded the EduTrust Provisional award in 2014, certifying that SRMC has reached high standards in key areas of management and provision of educational services, it enrolled its first students in 2006. The college's campus is located in north Singapore at 6A Woodlands Centre Road, it offers certificate and diploma courses in Western and popular music. Since 2010, SRMC has partnered the University of West London to offer foundation degrees and bachelor's degrees in music. SRMC has three academic faculties, offering a range of degree courses. Certificate and Advanced Diploma in Music Foundation Degree in Music Performance Bachelor's Degrees in Music: Composition, Music Performance & Recording Graduate Diploma in Professional Artiste Bachelor's Degree in Music Management IELTS Preparatory Course Foundation in Artiste Development SRMC students choose from course electives such as Performance Skills, Music Education, Music Production, Music Business Management to prepare for more specialized career paths.
Students study one of the following as their principal study: Chinese Orchestral Instruments Classical Guitar Composition Piano Vocal Studies Western Orchestral Instruments–String, Brass, PercussionStudents gain performing experience with ensembles which include Chinese Ensemble, String Ensemble, Jazz Ensemble, Wind Ensemble and Fusion Ensemble. Students take part in external performances and gigs. Visits are made by international artistes to give masterclasses and specialist support. Zhang Chi, 2nd runner up of the 2012 Sunsilk Academy Fantasia singing competition Tan Chan Boon, established Singaporean composer Dr Samuel Wong, PhD in ethnomusicology and Artistic Director of TENG Ensemble Benjamin Lim Yi, Singaporean composer and recipient of the Singapore National Arts Council Scholarship in 2013. Composer-in-residence at TENG Ensemble Zhu Lin, Erhu II Principal at the Singapore Chinese Orchestra Rueben Lai, Singaporean tenor at the Singapore Lyric Opera William Lim, Singaporean baritone with the Singapore Lyric Opera Bevlyn Khoo, jazz pop singer songwriter based in Singapore