From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and the Modern Greek language. With the transfer of the Roman imperial court to Byzantium between 324 and 330, the centre of the Roman Empire was moved into an area where Greek was the dominant language. At first, Latin remained the language of both the court and the army and it was used for documents, but its influence soon waned. From the beginning of the 6th century, amendments to the law were written in Greek. Furthermore, parts of the Roman Corpus Iuris Civilis were gradually translated into Greek, under the rule of Emperor Heraclius, who assumed the Greek title Basileus in 629, Greek became the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
This was in spite of the fact that the inhabitants of the empire still considered themselves Romaioi until its end in 1453, the number of those who were able to communicate in Greek may have been far higher. In any case, all cities of the Eastern Roman Empire were strongly influenced by the Greek language, alexandria, a center of Greek culture and language, fell to the Arabs in 642. During the seventh and eighth centuries, Greek was replaced by Arabic as a language in conquered territories such as Egypt. Thus, the use of Greek declined early on in Syria, from the late 11th century onwards, the interior of Anatolia was invaded by Seljuq Turks, who advanced westwards. Language varieties after 1453 are referred to as Modern Greek, as early as in the Hellenistic period, there was a tendency towards a state of diglossia between the Attic literary language and the constantly developing vernacular Koiné. By late antiquity, the gap had become impossible to ignore, written literature reflecting this demotic Greek begins to appear around 1100.
Among the preserved literature in the Attic literary language, various forms of historiography take a prominent place and they comprise chronicles as well as classicist, contemporary works of historiography, theological documents, and saints lives. Poetry can be found in the form of hymns and ecclesiastical poetry, many of the Byzantine emperors were active writers themselves and wrote chronicles or works on the running of the Byzantine state and strategic or philological works. Furthermore, legal texts, and numerous registers and lists in Medieval Greek exist and these are influenced by the vernacular language of their time in choice of words and idiom, but largely follow the models of written Koine in their morphology and syntax
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Modern Greek refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era. Varieties of Modern Greek include several varieties, including Demotic, Pontic, Mariupolitan, Southern Italian, Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences, mainly in phonology and vocabulary. Due to the degree of mutual intelligibility of these varieties, Greek linguists refer to them as idioms of a wider Demotic dialect. Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as dialects, emphasising degrees of variation only when necessary, Demotic Greek varieties are divided into two main groups and Southern. The main distinguishing feature common to Northern variants is a set of standard phonological shifts in unaccented vowel phonemes, becomes and and are dropped. The dropped vowels existence is implicit, and may affect surrounding phonemes, for example, Southern variants do not exhibit these phonological shifts. Examples of Northern dialects are Rumelian, Thessalian, Thracian, Demotic Greek has officially been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982.
Polytonic script remains popular in intellectual circles, Katharevousa is a semi-artificial sociolect promoted in the 19th century at the foundation of the modern Greek state, as a compromise between Classical Greek and modern Demotic. It was the language of modern Greece until 1976. Katharevousa is written in polytonic Greek script, while Demotic Greek contains loanwords from Turkish, Italian and other languages, these have for the most part been purged from Katharevousa. It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region, Pontic evolved as a separate dialect from Demotic Greek as a result of the regions isolation from the Greek mainstream after the Fourth Crusade fragmented the Byzantine Empire into separate kingdoms. Rumeíka or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov in southern Ukraine, the Crimean Greek state continued to exist as the independent Greek Principality of Theodoro.
The Greek-speaking inhabitants of Crimea were invited by Catherine the Great to resettle in the new city of Mariupol after the Russo-Turkish War to escape the Muslim-dominated Crimea, mariupolitans main features have certain similarities with both Pontic and the northern varieties of the core dialects. Southern Italian or Italiot comprises both Calabrian and Griko varieties, spoken by around 15 villages in the regions of Calabria and Apulia, the Southern Italian dialect is the last living trace of Hellenic elements in Southern Italy that once formed Magna Graecia. Its origins can be traced to the Dorian Greek settlers who colonised the area from Sparta and Demotic are mutually intelligible to some extent, but the former shares some common characteristics with Tsakonian. Yevanic is an extinct language of Romaniote Jews. The language was already in decline for centuries until most of its speakers were killed in the Holocaust, the language was mostly kept by remaining Romaniote emigrants to Israel, where it was displaced by modern Hebrew.
Tsakonian evolved directly from Laconian and therefore descends from the Doric branch of the Greek language and it has limited input from Hellenistic Koine and is significantly different from and not mutually intelligible with other Greek varieties
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
History of Greek
This article is an overview of the history of the Greek language. There are several theories about the origins of the Greek language, one theory suggests that it originated with a migration of proto-Greek speakers into the Greek peninsula, which is dated to any period between 3000 BC and 1700 BC. Another theory maintains that the migration into Greece occurred at a stage. The first known script for writing Greek was the Linear B syllabary, Linear B was not deciphered until 1953. Since early classical times, Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet, homers Iliad and Odyssey were written in a kind of literary Ionic with some loan words from the other dialects. Ionic, became the literary language of ancient Greece until the ascendancy of Athens in the late 5th century. Doric was standard for Greek lyric poetry, such as Pindar, Attic Greek, a subdialect of Ionic, was for centuries the language of Athens. Most surviving classical Greek literature appears in Attic Greek, including the extant texts of Plato and Aristotle, for centuries, the Greek language had existed in multiple dialects.
As Greek culture under Alexander the Great and his successors spread from Asia Minor to Egypt, the language was learned by the inhabitants of the regions that Alexander conquered, turning Greek into a world language. The Greek language continued to thrive after Alexander, during the Hellenistic period, during this period the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, appeared. For many centuries Greek was the lingua franca of the half of the Roman Empire. It was during Roman times that the Greek New Testament appeared, Medieval Greek, known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the beginning of the Middle Ages around 600 and the Ottoman conquest of the city of Constantinople in 1453. The latter date marked the end of the Middle Ages in Southeast Europe, from the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This former stage of language is described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments.
It is only after the Eastern Roman-Byzantine culture was subjected to such change in the 7th century that a turning point in language development can be assumed. During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, up to that point, use of Dhimotikí in state affairs was generally frowned upon. Use of the Demotic dialect in speech and paperwork was forbidden
The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos. Other tablets have found at Mycenae itself and Thebes and at Chania. The language is named after Mycenae, one of the centres of Mycenaean Greece. The tablets long remained undeciphered, and many languages were suggested for them, the texts on the tablets are mostly lists and inventories. No prose narrative survives, much less myth or poetry, much may be glimpsed from these records about the people who produced them and about Mycenaean Greece, the period before the so-called Greek Dark Ages. The Mycenaean language is preserved in Linear B writing, which consists of about 200 syllabic signs, since Linear B was derived from Linear A, the script of an undeciphered Minoan language probably unrelated to Greek, it does not reflect fully the phonetics of Mycenaean. In essence, a number of syllabic signs must represent a much greater number of produced syllables.
Orthographic simplifications therefore had to be made, There is no disambiguation for the Greek categories of voice and aspiration except the dentals d, t,
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including of the city of Athens. Of the ancient dialects, it is the most similar to Greek and is the form of the language that is studied in ancient Greek language courses. Attic Greek is sometimes included in the Ionic dialect, together and Ionic are the primary influences on Modern Greek. Greek is the member of the Hellenic branch of the Indo-European language family. In ancient times, Greek had already come to exist in several dialects, mycenaean Greek represents an early form of Eastern Greek, the group to which Attic belongs. Later Greek literature wrote about three main dialects, Aeolic and Ionic, Attic was part of the Ionic dialect group, ruling from Alexandria, Ptolemy launched the Alexandrian period, during which the city of Alexandria and its expatriate Greek-medium scholars flourished. The earliest Greek literature, which is attributed to Homer and is dated to the 8th or 7th centuries BC, is written in Old Ionic rather than Attic.
The first extensive works of literature in Attic are the plays of the dramatists Aeschylus, the military exploits of the Athenians led to some universally read and admired history, as found in the works of Thucydides and Xenophon. Slightly less known because they are technical and legal are the orations by Antiphon, Lysias, Isocrates. The Attic Greek of the philosophers Plato and his student Aristotle dates to the period of transition between Classical Attic and Koine, Attic Greek, like other dialects, was originally written in a local variant of the Greek alphabet. In other respects, Old Attic shares many features with the neighbouring Euboean alphabet, like the latter, it used an L-shaped variant of lambda and an S-shaped variant of sigma. It lacked the consonant symbols xi for /ks/ and psi for /ps/, expressing these sound combinations with ΧΣ, like most other mainland Greek dialects, Attic did not yet use omega and eta for the long vowels /ɔ, / and /ɛ, /. Instead, it expressed the vowel phonemes /o, oː, ɔː/ with the letter Ο and /e, eː, the letter Η was used as heta, with the consonantal value of /h/ rather than the vocalic value of /ɛː/.
In the 5th century, Athenian writing gradually switched from this system to the more widely used Ionic alphabet, native to the eastern Aegean islands. This new system, called the Eucleidian alphabet, after the name of the archon Eucleides, the classical works of Attic literature were subsequently handed down to posterity in the new Ionic spelling, and it is the classical orthography in which they are read today. Proto-Greek long ā → Attic long ē, but ā after e, i, r, ⁓ Ionic ē in all positions. ⁓ Doric and Aeolic ā in all positions, Proto-Greek and Doric mātēr → Attic mētēr mother Attic chōrā ⁓ Ionic chōrē place, country However, Proto-Greek ā → Attic ē after w, deleted by the Classical Period. Proto-Greek korwā → early Attic-Ionic *korwē → Attic korē Proto-Greek ă → Attic ě, Doric Artamis ⁓ Attic Artemis Compensatory lengthening of vowel before cluster of sonorant and s, after deletion of s