American School of Classical Studies at Athens
The American School of Classical Studies at Athens is one of 17 foreign archaeological institutes in Athens, Greece. The center is a member of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers. Founded in 1892, the ASCSA is the most significant resource in Greece for American scholars in the fields of ancient and post-classical studies in Greek language, history, archaeology and art; the mission of the School is to advance knowledge of Greece in all periods, as well as other areas of the classical world, by training young scholars and promoting archaeological fieldwork, providing resources for scholarly work, disseminating research. The ASCSA is charged by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism with primary responsibility for all American archaeological research, seeks to support the investigation and presentation of Greece's cultural heritage; the School offers two major research libraries: the Blegen Library, with 94,000 volumes dedicated to the ancient Mediterranean world. The School sponsors excavations and provides centers for advanced research in archaeological and related topics at its excavations in the Athenian Agora and Ancient Corinth, it houses an archaeological laboratory at the main building complex in Athens.
The ASCSA offers graduate students enrolled in member universities an unparalleled immersion into the sites and monuments of Greek civilization. Although there are many activities and programs at the School, its core programs are: The Academic Year or'Regular' Program, which runs from early September to early June, offers advanced graduate students from a variety of fields an intensive survey of the art, archaeology and topography of Greece, from antiquity to the present; the program for Regular Members is an integrated participatory program over nine months. Regular Members are expected to be in attendance for the full nine-month program. Students receive comprehensive training through visits to the principal archaeological sites and museums of Greece as well as in seminars led by resident and visiting scholars, they take part in the training program at the Corinth excavations. The School accepts 15 to 20 students in this program; the Summer Sessions, which run for two six-week periods each, are open to North American graduate and advanced undergraduate students and to high school and college instructors of classics and related fields.
In these sessions, the School condenses its academic year program into an intensive introduction to the sites and monuments of Greece. The Summer programs are open to 20 participants each session; the School welcomes scholars to its libraries year-round for research. In addition, the School is a recognized leader in digital resources, providing an ever-expanding collection of books, photographs, excavation notebooks, personal papers and scientific data sets online. Throughout its existence, the ASCSA has been involved in a large number of archaeological projects, as well as a major programme of primary archaeological publications, it is responsible for two of the most important archaeological sites in Greece, the Athenian Agora and Ancient Corinth. The Corinth Excavations commenced in 1896 and have continued to present day with little interruption, the Athenian Agora excavations first broke ground in 1932. At both sites, the ASCSA operates important museums and extensive facilities for the study of the archaeological record.
Excavation records and artifacts are made available to wider audiences via ASCSA.net Other archaeological projects with ASCSA involvement and present, include surveys in the Southern Argolid, in Messenia and at Vrokastro and excavations at Olynthus, the islet of Mitrou, Isthmia, Nemea, Lerna, Franchthi cave and Halieis, Mt. Lykaion and the Palace of Nestor at Pylos, Haghia Irini, as well as Azoria, Gournia and Kommos on Crete. ASCSA publishes the peer-reviewed journal Hesperia quarterly as well as monographs for final reports of archaeological fieldwork conducted under School auspices, supplements to Hesperia, Gennadeion monographs; these books range in format from large hardbacks to slim paperback guides. William W. Goodwin. Tarbell Bert Hodge Hill John Langdon Caskey Henry S. Robinson Henry R. Immerwahr Stephen G. Miller William D. E. Coulson James D. Muhly Stephen V. Tracy Jack L. Davis James C. Wright Jenifer Neils E. Korka et al.: Foreign Archaeological Schools in Greece, 160 Years, Hellenic Ministry of Culture, 2006, p. 18-29.
L. Lord: A History of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens: An Intercollegiate Experiment, 1882-1942. L. Shoe Meritt: A History of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens: 1939-1980. ASCSA website AMBROSIA The Union Catalogue of the Blegen and Gennadius Libraries of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the Libraries of the British School at Athens ASCSA.net Online database of the ASCSA ASCSA Publications The Archivist's Notebook Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, digital reproduction Heidelberg Universi
Dura-Europos spelled Dura-Europus, was a Hellenistic and Roman border city built on an escarpment 90 metres above the right bank of the Euphrates river. It is located in today's Syria. In 113 BC, Parthians conquered the city, held it, with one brief Roman intermission, until 165 AD. Under Parthian rule, it became an important provincial administrative center; the Romans decisively captured Dura-Europos in 165 AD and enlarged it as their easternmost stronghold in Mesopotamia, until it was captured by Sassanians after a siege in 256–57 AD. Its population was deported, after it was abandoned, it was covered by sand and mud and disappeared from sight. Dura-Europos is important for archaeological reasons; as it was abandoned after its conquest in 256–57 AD, nothing was built over it and no building programs obscured the architectonic features of the ancient city. Its location on the edge of empires made for a co-mingling of cultural traditions, much of, preserved under the city's ruins; some remarkable finds have been brought to light, including numerous temples, wall decorations, military equipment and dramatic evidence of the Sassanian siege.
It was looted and destroyed between 2011 and 2014 first by the Free Syrian Army and Al-Nusra Front, by the Islamic State during the Syrian Civil War. A fortress, it was founded in 303 BC with the name Dura by Seleucus I Nicator on the intersection of an east-west trade route and the trade route along the Euphrates. Dura controlled the river crossing on the route between his newly founded cities of Antioch and Seleucia on the Tigris, its rebuilding as a great city built after the Hippodamian model, with rectangular blocks defined by cross-streets ranged round a large central agora, was formally laid out in the 2nd century BC. The traditional view of Dura-Europos as a great caravan city is becoming nuanced by the discoveries of locally made manufactures and traces of close ties with Palmyra. Instead, Dura Europos owed its development to its role as a regional capital. In 113 BC, the Iranian Parthians conquered Dura-Europos, held it, with one brief intermission, until 165 AD, when it was taken by the Romans.
The Parthian period was a phase of expansion at Dura Europos—an expansion favored by abandonment of the town's military function. All the space enclosed by the walls became occupied, the installation of new inhabitants with Semitic and Iranian names alongside descendants of the original Macedonian colonists contributed to an increase in the population, a multicultural one, as inscriptions in Greek, Aramaic, Syriac, Palmyrene, Middle Persian and Safaitic testify. In the 1st century BC, it served as a frontier fortress of the Parthian Empire; the original architecture of Dura Europos was perfected during the Parthian period. This period was characterized by a progressive evolution of Greek concepts toward new formulas in which regional traditions Babylonian ones, played an increasing role; these innovations affected both domestic buildings. Although Iranian influence is difficult to find in the architecture of Dura Europos, in figurative art the influence of Parthian art is evident. In 114 AD, the Emperor Trajan occupied the city for a couple of years: the Third Cyrenaica legion erected a "Triumphal Arch" to the west of the Gate of Palmyra.
Upon the death of Trajan in 117, Rome relinquished Mesopotamia to the Parthians. Dura was retaken by the Roman army of Lucius Verus during the Roman–Parthian War of 161–166; the townspeople however retained considerable freedom as a regional headquarters for the section of the river between the Khabur and modern Abu Kemal. As historian Ross Burns states, in exchange the city's military role was abandoned, its population based on the Greek settler element, were outnumbered by people of Semitic stock and by the first century BC, the city was predominantly eastern in character. The Romans called the city with the name Dura Europus, because the local aristocracy was made of Macedonians descendants. Romans used the city as a starting point for the conquest of the territories of Osroene and as outpost for expeditions against the Parthian empire and their Tigris capital in 198 AD; the city was a border post of the Roman "Kingdom of Palmyra". In A. D. 194, Emperor Septimius Severus divided the province of Syria to limit the power of its rebellious governors.
As a result, Dura became part of the new province of Syria Coele. In its years, it attained the status of a Roman colonia, which, by the third century, was what James calls an “honorary title for an important town.” He suggests that the “Roman authorities wanted to present Dura as an important city of the Roman province.” Dura-Europos: Crossroad of Cultures, by Carly Silver The military importance of the site was confirmed after 209 AD: the northern part of the site was occupied by a Roman camp, isolated by a brick wall. Romans built the palace of the commander of the military region, on the edge of a cliff; the city has several sanctuaries beside the temples dedicated to the Greek gods. In 211 AD the emperor Septimius Severus granted the title of "Colonia" to Dura Europos. In 216 AD, a small amphitheater for soldiers was built in the military area, while the new synagogue, completed in 244 AD, a h
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south; the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; the county is low-lying with few hills, is arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. By the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region; the Angles became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and Wessex. Suffolk was divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two; the eastern division was administered from the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Ipswich were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney; this act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester from Essex. In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee; the Boundary Committee reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities – Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.
In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government. In 2018 it was determined that Forest Heath and St Edmundsbury would be merged to form a new West Suffolk district, while Waveney and Suffolk Coastal would form a new East Suffolk district; these changes took effect on 1 April 2019. West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, arrows, palstaves, daggers, armour, decorative equipment, fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds.
Other finds include traces of barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State and silver bowls, jewellery and a lyre; the majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables; the continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury; the UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms have some processing units in the county Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main development facility at Martlesham Heath. There are several towns in the county with Ipswich being most populous. At the time
Hieratic is a cursive writing system used for Ancient Egyptian, the principal script used to write that language from its development in the 3rd millennium BCE until the rise of Demotic in the mid 1st millennium BCE. It was written in ink with a reed pen on papyrus. In the second century, the term hieratic was first used by Clement of Alexandria, it derives from the Greek for "priestly writing", as at that time, hieratic was used only for religious texts and literature, as had been the case for the previous eight and a half centuries. Hieratic can be an adjective meaning "f or associated with sacred persons or offices. Hieratic developed as a cursive form of hieroglyphic script in the Naqada III period 3200–3000 BCE. Although handwritten printed hieroglyphs continued to be used in some formal situations, such as manuscripts of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, noncursive hieroglyphic script became restricted to monumental inscriptions. Hieratic was used into the Hellenistic period. Around 660 BCE, the more-cursive Demotic script arose in northern Egypt and replaced hieratic and the southern shorthand known as abnormal hieratic for most mundane writing, such as personal letters and mercantile documents.
Hieratic continued to be used by the priestly class for religious texts and literature into the third century BCE. Through most of its long history, hieratic was used for writing administrative documents, legal texts, letters, as well as mathematical, medical and religious texts. During the Græco-Roman period, when Demotic had become the chief administrative script, hieratic was limited to religious texts. In general, hieratic was much more important than hieroglyphs throughout Egypt's history, being the script used in daily life, it was the writing system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training. In fact, it is possible to detect errors in hieroglyphic texts that came about due to a misunderstanding of an original hieratic text. Most hieratic script was written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, stone or pottery ostraca. Thousands of limestone ostraca have been found at the site of Deir al-Madinah, revealing an intimate picture of the lives of common Egyptian workmen.
Besides papyrus, ceramic shards, wood, there are hieratic texts on leather rolls, though few have survived. There are hieratic texts written on cloth on linen used in mummification. There are some hieratic texts inscribed on a variety known as lapidary hieratic. During the late 6th Dynasty, hieratic was sometimes incised into mud tablets with a stylus, similar to cuneiform. About five hundred of these tablets have been discovered in the governor's palace at Ayn Asil, a single example was discovered from the site of Ayn al-Gazzarin, both in the Dakhla Oasis. At the time the tablets were made, Dakhla was located far from centers of papyrus production; these tablets record inventories, name lists and fifty letters. Of the letters, many are internal letters that were circulated within the palace and the local settlement, but others were sent from other villages in the oasis to the governor. Hieratic script, unlike manuscript hieroglyphs, reads from right to left. Hieratic could be written in either columns or horizontal lines, but after the 12th Dynasty, horizontal writing became the standard.
Hieratic is noted for its cursive use of ligatures for a number of characters. Hieratic script uses a much more standardized orthography than hieroglyphs. There are some signs that are unique to hieratic, though Egyptologists have invented equivalent hieroglyphic forms for hieroglyphic transcriptions and typesetting. Several hieratic characters have diacritical additions so that similar signs could be distinguished. Hieratic is present in any given period in two forms, a ligatured, cursive script used for administrative documents, a broad uncial bookhand used for literary and religious texts; these two forms can be different from one another. Letters, in particular, used cursive forms for quick writing with large numbers of abbreviations for formulaic phrases, similar to shorthand. A cursive form of hieratic known as "Abnormal Hieratic" was used in the Theban area from the second half of the 20th dynasty until the beginning of the 26th Dynasty, it derives from the script of Upper Egyptian administrative documents and was used for legal texts, land leases and other texts.
This type of writing was superseded by Demotic—a Lower Egyptian scribal tradition—during the 26th Dynasty, when Demotic was established as a standard administrative script throughout a re-unified Egypt. Hieratic has had influence on a number of other writing systems; the most obvious is that on its direct descendant. Related to this are the Demotic signs of the Meroitic script and the borrowed Demotic characters used in the Coptic alphabet and Old Nubian. Outside of the Nile Valley, many of the signs used in the Byblos syllabary were borrowed from Old Kingdom hieratic signs, it is known that early Hebrew used hieratic numerals. The Unicode standard considers hieratic characters to be font variants of the Egyptian hieroglyphs, the two scripts
Boustrophedon is a type of bi-directional text seen in ancient manuscripts and other inscriptions. Every other line of writing is reversed, with reversed letters. Rather than going left-to-right as in modern European languages, or right-to-left as in Arabic and Hebrew, alternate lines in boustrophedon must be read in opposite directions; the individual characters are reversed, or mirrored. It was a common way of writing in stone in Ancient Greece. Many ancient scripts, such as Safaitic and Sabaean, were or written boustrophedonically, but in Greek it is found most in archaic inscriptions, becoming less and less popular throughout the Hellenistic period. By analogy, the term may be used in other areas to describe this kind of alternation of motion or writing. For example, it is used to describe the print head motion of certain dot matrix printers. In that case, while the print head moves in opposite directions on alternate lines, the printed text is not in boustrophedon format; the Hungarian folklorist Gyula Sebestyén writes that ancient boustrophedon writing resembles how the Hungarian rovás-sticks of Old Hungarian writing were made by shepherds.
The notcher holds the wooden stick in his left hand, cutting the letters with his right hand from right to left. When the first side is complete, he flips the stick over vertically and starts to notch the opposite side in the same manner; when unfolded horizontally, the final result is writing which starts from right to left, continues from left to right in the next row, with letters turned upside down. Sebestyén states that the ancient boustrophedon writings were copied from such wooden sticks with cut letters, applied for epigraphic inscriptions; the wooden boards and other incised artifacts of Rapa Nui bear a boustrophedonic script called Rongorongo, which remains undeciphered. In Rongorongo, the text in alternate lines was rotated 180 degrees rather than mirrored; the Luwian language had hieroglyphic Luwian, that read boustrophedon. The Hieroglyphic Luwian is read boustrophedon, with the direction of any individual line pointing into the front of the animals or body parts constituting certain hieroglyphs.
However, unlike Egyptian hieroglyphs with their numerous ideograms and logograms, which show an easy directionality, the lineal direction of the text in hieroglyphic Luwian is harder to see. A modern example of boustrophedonics is the numbering scheme of sections within survey townships in the United States and Canada. In both countries, survey townships are divided into a 6-by-6 grid of 36 sections. In the U. S. Public Land Survey System, Section 1 of a township is in the northeast corner, the numbering proceeds boustrophedonically until Section 36 is reached in the southeast corner. Canada's Dominion Land Survey uses boustrophedonic numbering, but starts at the southeast corner; the term is used by postmen in the United Kingdom to describe street numbering which proceeds serially in one direction turns back in the other. This is in contrast to the more common method of odd and numbers on opposite sides of the street both increasing in the same direction. Rongorongo of Easter Island was written in reverse boustrophedon.
In art history, it additionally means. Another example is the boustrophedon transform, known in mathematics. Sometimes computer printers with a typewriter-like moving type head print boustrophedon text if set up incorrectly; the IBM 1360 Photo-Digital Storage System records its data boustrophedonically. Additionally, the Indus script, although still undeciphered, can be written boustrophedonically; the Avoiuli script used on Pentecost Island in Vanuatu is written boustrophedonically by design. The constructed language Ithkuil uses a boustrophedon script; the Atlantean language created by Marc Okrand for Disney's 2001 film Atlantis: The Lost Empire is written in boustrophedon to recreate the feeling of flowing water. The code language used in The Montmaray Journals, Kernetin, is written boustrophedonically, it is used for secret communication. Mirror writing Sator square is read boustrophedon in one interpretation Stoichedon A Web-based Boustrophedon text reader A Boustrophedon text reader Boustrophedon Speed-Reader Write out zigzag text from the bottom up Zig Zag Text