Hupmobile was an automobile built from 1909 through 1939 by the Hupp Motor Car Company. The prototype was developed in 1908 and had its first successful run on November 8 with investors aboard for champagne at the Tuller Hotel a few blocks away; the company was incorporated in November of that year. The first Hupmobile model, the Hupp 20, was introduced at the 1909 Detroit automobile show, it was an instant success. In 1909, Bobby Hupp co-founded Hupp Motor Car Company, with Charles Hastings of Oldsmobile, who put up the first US$8500 toward manufacturing Hupp's car, they were joined by investors J. Walter Drake, Joseph Drake, John Baker, Edwin Denby. Drake was elected president. Emil Nelson Nelson of Oldsmobile and Packard, joined the company as chief engineer. Hastings was named assistant general manager. In late 1909 Bobby's brother, Louis Gorham Hupp, left his job with the Michigan Central Railroad in Grand Rapids and joined the company. Hupp Motors obtained US$25,000 in cash deposits at the 1909 automobile show to begin manufacturing the Hupp 20.
The first cars were built in a small building at 345 Bellevue Avenue in Michigan. The company outgrew this space and began construction of a factory a few blocks away at E. Jefferson Avenue and Concord, next to the former Oldsmobile plant; the company produced 500 vehicles by the end of the 1909 model year. Production increased to more than 5,000 in the 1910 model year. Henry Ford paid the Hupp 20 the ultimate compliment. "I recall looking at Bobby Hupp's roadster at the first show where it was exhibited and wondering whether we could build as good a small car for as little money." When Hupp left Hupp Motors in 1913, he informed the company his supplier companies would devote their full capacity to make parts for RCH. Facing the loss of manufactured parts from Hupp Corporation and increasing demand for the Hupmobile, Hupp Motors acquired seven acres for a new factory at Mt. Elliott and Milwaukee, it moved into the new plant in late April 1912. Hupp Motors sold the Jefferson Avenue plant to the King Motor Car Company.
In 1911 Hupp became one of two automakers pioneering the use of all-steel bodies, joining BSA in the U. K. Nelson approached Hale & Kilburn Company in Philadelphia looking for help with developing an all-metal body for the Hupp 32. Hale & Kilburn had pioneered the replacement of cast iron with pressed steel for many parts for the interiors of railway carriages. According to Nelson, “None of the Detroit plants would contract” to make an all-steel body for the Hupp 32. Edward Budd and Joseph Ledwinka were employed at Hale & Kilburn at the time, Budd as the general manager and Ledwinka as engineer. Budd was interested in the project. Hale & Kilburn had built some body panels for King and Paige but Budd had grander aspirations the Hupp project would permit him to pursue. Budd and Ledwinka worked with Nelson to develop means to manufacture Nelson's design for this body, they devised a system where the body's numerous steel stampings were welded together by hand and supported by a crude system of angle iron supports that held the welded subassemblies together.
The disassembled bodies were shipped by rail to Detroit where they were put back together and trimmed in the Hupmobile factory. Both the touring car and a coupe were made by this process and one Hupmobile limousine. In 1911 no one, not Nelson, Ledwinka or Budd, thought to patent the process to manufacture all-steel bodies. While the Hupp 32 bodies were in production and Ledwinka left and formed the Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Company. In 1914, Ledwinka received a patent for the process of making all-steel bodies. However, Budd lost a patent infringement litigation it brought against C. R. Wilson Body Company when the court held. "fter the art had developed... Ledwinka has endeavored to go back and cover by a patent that which had become public property.... E is endeavoring to bring under his patent those things which belong to the public." The court relied on the production of the Hupp 32 in 1911 as a major example of the prior art. The opinion does provide insight as to what was or was not novel about the process to manufacture the Hupp 32's body.
Several thousand all steel touring cars were made before Nelson resigned as Chief Engineer in 1912. Hupmobile's commitment to this leading edge approach did not survive his departure; the rest of the Hupp 32 production used conventional body assembly processes. Carl Wickman, a car dealer in Hibbing, used an unsold 7-passenger model as the first vehicle for what became Greyhound. In 1913 Frank E. Watts was hired as a designer. Hupp Motor Car Company continued to grow. Hupp competed against Ford and Chevrolet. DuBois Young became company president in 1924. By 1928 sales had reached over 65,000 units. To increase production and handle sales growth, Hupp purchased the Chandler-Cleveland Motors Corporation for its manufacturing facilities. Sales and production began to fall before the depression in 1930. A strategy to make the Hupmobile a larger, more expensive car began with the 1925 introduction of an 8-cylinder model, followed by the elimination of the 4-cylinder Hupmobile after 1925. While aiming for a more lucrative market segment, Hupp turned its back on its established clientele
Henry J. Kaiser
Henry John Kaiser was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established the Kaiser Shipyards, which built Liberty ships during World War II, after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel. Kaiser organized Kaiser Permanente health care for their families, he led Kaiser-Frazer followed by Kaiser Motors, automobile companies known for the safety of their designs. Kaiser was involved in large construction projects such as civic centers and dams, invested in real estate. With his wealth, he established the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonprofit, non-partisan, charitable organization. Kaiser was born on May 9, 1882, in Sprout Brook, New York, the son of Franz and Anna Marie Kaiser, ethnic German immigrants, his father was a shoemaker. Kaiser's first job was as a cash boy in an Utica, New York, department store at the age of 16, he worked as an apprentice photographer early in life, was running the studio in Lake Placid by the age of 20. He used his savings to move to Washington state on the west coast of the United States in 1906, where he started a construction company that fulfilled government contracts.
Kaiser met his future wife, Bess Fosburgh, the daughter of a Virginia lumberman, when she came into his photographic shop in Lake Placid, New York, to buy some film. Fosburgh's father demanded that Kaiser show that he was financially stable before he would consent to their marriage, they married on April 8, 1907, had two children, Edgar Kaiser, Sr and Henry Kaiser, Jr. In 1914 Kaiser founded a paving company, Henry J. Kaiser Co. Ltd. one of the first to use heavy construction machinery. His firm expanded in 1927 when it received an $18-million contract to build roads in Camagüey Province, Cuba. In 1931 his firm was one of the prime contractors in building the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River, subsequently the Bonneville and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. While doing business among the "Six Companies, Inc.", remotely related to his interest in motor boat racing, he set up shipyards in Seattle and Tacoma, where he began using mass-production techniques, such as using welding instead of rivets.
Henry Kaiser was an early advocate of bringing American aid to those suffering from Nazi aggression in Europe. In 1940, a full year before the then-neutral United States had entered World War II, Kaiser was serving as National Chairman of United Clothing Collection for International War Relief to provide much-needed clothing for the refugees from Hitler's conquests in Europe, while the U. S. was still'isolationist'. Kaiser fought Hitler far more directly with what he is most famous for: the Kaiser Shipyard in Richmond, California; these ships became known as Liberty ships and were supplemented in the mid-war period by improved and faster Victory ships. He became world-renowned; the keel for the 10,500-ton SS Robert E. Peary was laid on Sunday, November 8, 1942, the ship was launched in California from the Richmond Shipyard #2 on Thursday, November 12, four days and 15½ hours later; the previous record had been ten days for the Liberty ship Joseph M. Teal. A visit to a Ford assembly plant by one of his associates led to the decision to use welding instead of riveting for shipbuilding.
Welding was advantageous because it took less strength to do and it was easier to teach to the thousands of employees unskilled laborers and many of them women. Kaiser adopted the use of sub-assemblies in ship construction. Though this practice had been tried on the East Coast and in Britain, Kaiser was able to take full advantage of the process by constructing new shipyards with this in mind. Other Kaiser shipyards were located in Ryan Point on the Columbia River in Washington state and on Swan Island in Portland, Oregon. A smaller vessel was turned out in 71 hours and 40 minutes from the Vancouver yard on November 16, 1942; the Kaiser hulls became America's smaller, more numerous "escort carriers", over one hundred small aircraft carriers employed in both the Pacific and the Atlantic theaters. The concepts he developed for the mass production of commercial and naval ships remain in use today. One problem with welded hulls, unknown at that time, was the issue of brittle fracture; this caused the loss of some Liberty ships in cold seas as the welds failed and the hulls would crack—sometimes in two.
Constance Tipper was one of the first people to discover. Minor changes in design and more rigid welding control implemented in 1947 eliminated Liberty ship losses until 1955. Through his membership in a group called the Six Companies, Kaiser had a major role in the Joshua Hendy Iron Works of Sunnyvale, which built the EC-2 triple expansion steam engines for the Liberty ships. Kaiser and his associates organized the California Shipbuilding Corporation. At Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, Kaiser implemented the pioneering idea of Dr. Sidney Garfield of Kaiser Permanente. Opened on August 10, 1942, Kaiser Richmond Field Hospital for Kaiser Shipyards was financed by the U. S. Maritime Commission, sponsored by Henry J. Kaiser's Permanente Foundation, run by Dr. Garfield. In part due to wartime materials rationing, the Field Hospital was a single-story wood frame structure designed in a simple modernist mode. Intended for use as an emergency facilit
Cord was the brand name of an American luxury automobile company from Connersville, manufactured by the Auburn Automobile Company from 1929 to 1932 and again in 1936 and 1937. The Cord Corporation was founded and run by E. L. Cord as a holding company for his many transportation interests, including Auburn. Cord was noted for streamlined designs. Cord innovations include front-wheel drive on the L-29 and hidden headlamps on the 810 and 812. Hidden headlamps did not become common as a standard feature until the 1960s; the early Oldsmobile Toronados, whose GM stylists stated they were trying to capture the "feel" of the Cord's design featured hidden headlamps. "Servo" shifting was accomplished through a bendix electro-vacuum pre-selector mechanism. This was the first American front-wheel drive car to be offered to the public, beating the Ruxton automobile by several months, in 1929; the brainchild of former Miller engineer Cornelius Van Ranst, its drive system borrowed from the Indianapolis 500-dominating racers, using the same de Dion layout and inboard brakes.
Built in Auburn, the Cord was the first front-wheel-drive car to use constant-velocity joints. While used today in all front-wheel-drive vehicles, their first use was on the 1929 Cord; the lack of rear drivetrain components allowed it to be much lower than competing cars. Both stock cars and special bodies built on the Cord chassis by American and European coachbuilders won prizes in contests worldwide; the L-29 came with full instrumentation, including a temperature gauge, oil pressure gauge, speedometer on the left with a gas gauge, oil level gauge, Ammeter on the right of the steering wheel. It was powered by Auburn's 4,934 cc 125 hp L-head Lycoming inline 8 from the Auburn 120, with the crankshaft pushed out through the front of the block and the flywheel mounted there, driving a three-speed transmission. Gearing in both transmission and front axle was inadequate, the 4,700 lb car was underpowered, limited to a trifle over 80 mph, inadequate at the time, exceeded by the less expensive Auburn.
Still, the styling was lovely, despite the 137.5 in wheelbase and steering demanding four turns lock-to-lock, handling was superb. Priced around US$3,000, it was competitive with Cadillac, Lincoln, Packard and Stutz, it could not outrun the Great Depression, by 1932, it was discontinued, with just 4,400 sold. Wheelbase was 137.5" and the height of the sedan was 61". The Model 810/812 are the best-known of the company's products. Styled by Gordon M. Buehrig, they featured independent front suspension. Powered by a 4,739 cc Lycoming V8 of the same 125 horsepower as the L-29, the 810 had a four-speed electrically-selected semi-automatic transmission, among other innovative features; the car caused a sensation at the New York Auto Show in November 1935. Orders were taken at the show with Cord promising Christmas delivery, expecting production of 1,000 per month. Production delays pushed the expected delivery date to February 1936; this proved optimistic. In all, Cord managed to sell only 1,174 of the new 810 in its first model year.
The car is well known for the flat front nose with a louvered grille design. The front was so similar in look to a coffin, the car was called "Coffin Nose". Early reliability problems, including slipping out of gear and vapor lock, cooled initial enthusiasm, the dealer base shrank rapidly. Unsold left-over and in-process 1936 810s were sold as 1937 812s. In 1937, Auburn ceased production of the Cord. A single 1938 Cord prototype with some changes to the grille and transmission cover was built, it still exists; the Cord empire, amid allegations of financial fraud, was sold to the Aviation Corporation, E. L. Cord moved to Nevada where he earned millions in other enterprises; the Cord 812 design was re-marketed immediately in 1940, as ailing automakers Hupmobile and Graham-Paige tried to save money, revive the companies, by using the same body dies. Except for their similarity to the 810, their four-door sedans, the Hupp Skylark and the Graham Hollywood, were unremarkable. Retractable headlights gave way to plain headlight pods, power came from a standard front-engine/rear-wheel drive design.
While Hupp Motor Company built a few prototypes in 1939 that gained them sales orders for the 1939 model year they did not have the resources to manufacture the car. Graham Paige stepped in offering to build the Hupmobile Skylarks on a per piece contract basis. Graham built a combined 1850 units for sale in the 1940 model year. Hupmobile closed. Of the 1850 cars produced in the 1940 model year by Graham only about 450 were the Hupmobile Skylarks. Graham continued to build the Hollywood late into 1941, they stopped production in November of that year having only built a rumored 400 units. The Hollywood was powered by a supercharged Continental in line six making 124 HP 50 less than the original supercharged Cord; the plot of the David Niven movie Where the Spies Are features a rare Cord convertible as the incentive for the hero to undertake an espionage mission. In the novel Live and Let Die, Felix Leiter drives a Cord of unspecified model when he and James Bond are in Florida; the original design for the Batmobile was a red convertible based on the Cord 812, which Batman creator Bob Kane considered one of hi
A lowrider is a class or style of customized vehicle. Distinct from a regular lowered vehicle, these customized vehicles are individually painted with intricate, colorful designs, rolling on wire-spoke wheels with whitewall tires. Lowrider rims range from 13", they are fitted with hydraulic or air bag systems that allow the vehicle to be raised or lowered at the owner's command. Given these specific characteristics, while a lowrider is always a lowered car, a lowered car is not always a lowrider; the term is used to describe a class of vehicle, not the height from ground to chassis. The term lowrider can refer to the driver of the car, it began in Los Angeles, California in the mid-to-late 1940s and during the post-war prosperity of the 1950s. Some Mexican-American barrio youths lowered blocks, cut spring coils, z’ed the frames and dropped spindles; the aim of the lowriders is to cruise as as possible, "Low and Slow" being their motto. By redesigning these cars in ways that go against their intended purposes and in painting their cars so that they reflect and hold meanings from Mexican culture, lowriders create cultural and political statements that go against the more prevalent Anglo culture.
The design of the cars encouraged a "bi-focal perspective-they are made to be watched but only after adjustments have been made to provide ironic and playful commentary on prevailing standard of automobile design." However, this resulted in a backlash: the enactment of Section 24008 of the California Vehicle Code in January 1, 1958, which made it illegal to operate any car modified so that any part was lower than the bottoms of its wheel rims. In 1959, a customizer named Ron Aguirre developed a way of bypassing the law with the use of hydraulic Pesco pumps and valves that allowed him to change ride height at the flick of a switch; the following year saw the emergence of the Chevrolet Impala, which featured an X-shaped frame, suited for lowering and modification with hydraulics. Between 1960 and 1975, customizers adapted and refined GM X-frames and airbrushing techniques to create the modern lowrider style. In the 1990s, lowriders became associated with West Coast Hip hop and G-Funk culture.
Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Warren G, South Central Cartel, Eazy-E and Above the Law among others featured lowriders prominently in their music videos. Today, the lowriding scene is diverse with many different participating cultures, vehicle makes, visual styles. At first, lowriders were only seen in places like LA back in the 1970s on Whittier Boulevard when lowriding came to its peak. Whittier was a wide commercial street that cut through the barrio of the city in Los Angeles, California. On Saturday nights, young Mexican Americans went cruising along Whittier in their lowriders. Lowriders nowadays have gotten popular: lowriders can be seen all over the country from coast to coast, but they have been spreading to other places around the world. Lowriding culture has spread to Japan. Cal Style VW Hi-Riser VIP style Car restoration Lowrider bicycle "Low Rider" — song by the band War Lowrider magazine Ramone Brown, J. "DIPN The Industry of Low Riding", Dream Factory Films, 1
A hood/bonnet ornament, radiator cap, motor mascot or car mascot is a specially crafted model which symbolizes a car company like a badge, located on the front center portion of the hood. It has been used as an adornment nearly since the inception of automobiles. According to the author of A History of Cars written for youth, the first "hood ornament" was a sun-crested falcon mounted on Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun's chariot. In the early years, automobiles had their radiator caps outside of the hood and on top of the grille which served as an indicator of the temperature of the engine's coolant fluid; the Boyce MotoMeter Company was issued a patent in 1912 for a radiator cap that incorporated a thermometer, visible to the driver with a sensor that measured the heat of the water vapor, rather than the water itself. This became a useful gauge for the driver because many early engines did not have water pumps, but a circulation system based on the "thermo-syphon" principle as in the Ford Model T.
The "exposed radiator cap became a focal point for automobile personalization."Hood ornaments were popular in the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, with many automakers fitting them to their vehicles. Moreover, a healthy business was created in the supply of accessory mascots available to anyone who wanted to add a hood ornament or car mascot to their automobile. Most companies like Desmo and Smith's are now out of business with only Louis Lejeune Ltd. in England surviving. Sculptors such as Bazin, Sykes and Lejeune all created finely detailed sculptures in miniature, like Statuettes. Restrictions to the fitting of ornaments on the front of vehicles have been introduced in some jurisdictions. Projecting decorative designs on the hood may increase the risk of injury to pedestrians in the case of an accident. Regulations introduced in the United States for the 1968 model year vehicles meant the disappearance of fixed stand-up hood ornaments, as well as spinner wheel protrusions. Versions featured flexibly mounted stand-up hood ornaments designed to fold without breaking on impact.
In the European Union, since 1974 all new cars have had to conform to a European directive on vehicle exterior projections. Rolls Royce's mascot is now mounted on a spring-loaded mechanism designed to retract into the radiator shell if struck with a force greater than 98 newtons; the Mercedes-Benz and many other ornaments were designed. For aftermarket ornaments, breakaway nylon fixings are available that comply with EC Directive 74/483. Many automakers wanted their own emblems displayed on their vehicles' hoods, Boyce Motormeter accommodated them with corporate logos or mascots, as well as numerous organizations that wanted custom cap emblems to identify their members; the company had over 300 such customers at one time during the mid-1920s, for car, tractor, boat and motorcycle manufacturers, in 1927, had 1,800 employees in six countries: U. S. England, Australia and Germany; the hundreds of motor vehicle manufacturers before 1929 meant many customers for their customized emblems. Along with the grille, the hood ornament is a distinctive styling element and many marques use it as their primary brand identifier.
Examples of hood ornaments include: Archer on Pierce-Arrow cars Ottawa leader Pontiac on Pontiac automobiles Crest and Wreath on Cadillac cars Letter "B" with wings on Bentley cars Ball with wings on Horch cars Leaping jaguar on Jaguar Cars Lion rampant on Peugeot cars Marlin on the American Motors fastback mounted within a round "sight" Rocket on Oldsmobile cars Rocky Mountain big horn ram's head on Dodge cars and trucks Spirit of Ecstasy on Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Three-pointed star surrounded by a circle on Mercedes-Benz sedans and wagons Trishields on Buick carsAdditionally, many models such as Buick's Regal, the Chevrolet Impala, or Chrysler's Cordoba had their own unique emblem and accompanying distinctive standup hood ornament. The radiator cap was transformed into an art form and became a way of individualizing the car, "representing a company's vision of the automobile", or "speaking volumes about the owner" of the vehicle. Hood ornaments are cast in brass, zinc, or bronze and finished in a chrome plated finish.
During the years when chrome plate was unavailable, they were plated in either nickel. Some incorporated other materials, such as plastic, bakelite, or colored glass, while others incorporated a light bulb for illumination at night; the best-known glass mascots were made by René Lalique in France. Other sellers or producers of glass mascots include Sabino in France, Red Ashay in England, Persons Majestic in the U. S; the latter two had their products made in Czechoslovakia. The Lalique company, like Louis Lejeune, is one of the few survivors from this era of motoring. There is a collectors market for hood ornaments and car mascots. "Flying Ladies": The Art of the Automobile Hood Ornaments and Car Mascots. Retrieved on April 18, 2008. Jill Reger Photography—Photographic art of car mascots and hood ornaments Weiner, Geoffrey George. Unique Lalique Mascots: The Automotive Radiator Hood Ornaments of Master Glass Artisan R. Lalique. Brighton, UK: The Book Guild Ltd. ISBN 978-1909-984219. OCLC 893632146
REO Motor Car Company
The REO Motor Car Company was a Lansing, Michigan-based company that produced automobiles and trucks from 1905 to 1975. At one point the company manufactured buses on its truck platforms. Ransom E. Olds was an entrepreneur. In 1897 Olds founded the Olds Motor Vehicle Company, makers of Oldsmobile. In 1905 Olds left Oldsmobile and established a new company, REO Motor Car Company, in Lansing, Michigan. Olds had the titles of president and general manager. To ensure a reliable supply of parts, he organized a number of subsidiary firms like the National Coil Company, the Michigan Screw Company, the Atlas Drop Forge Company; the company was to be called "R. E. Olds Motor Car Company," but the owner of Olds' previous company called Olds Motor Works and threatened legal action on the grounds of confusion of names by consumers. Olds changed the name to his initials. Olds Motor Works soon adopted the popular name of Oldsmobile; the company's name was spelled alternately in all capitals REO or with only an initial capital as Reo, the company's own literature was inconsistent in this regard, with early advertising using all capitals and advertising using the "Reo" capitalization.
The pronunciation, was as a single word. Lansing is home to the R. E. Olds Transportation Museum. By 1907, REO had gross sales of $4.5 million and the company was one of the four wealthiest automobile manufacturers in the U. S. After 1908 however, despite the introduction of improved cars designed by Olds, REO's share of the automobile market decreased due in part to competition from emerging companies like Ford and General Motors. REO added a truck manufacturing division and a Canadian plant in St. Catharines, Ontario in 1910. Two years Olds claimed he had built the best car he could, a tourer able to seat two, four, or five, with a 30–35 hp engine, 112 inches wheelbase, 32 inches wheels, for US$1,055. By comparison, the Cole Series 30 and Colt Runabout were priced at US$1,500. In 1915, Olds relinquished the title of general manager to his protégé Richard H. Scott, eight years he ended his tenure as the company's presidency as well, retaining the position of chairman of the board; the most famous REO episode was the 1912 Trans-Canada journey.
Traveling 4,176 miles from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Vancouver, British Columbia, in a 1912 REO special touring car, mechanic/driver Fonce V. Haney and journalist Thomas W. Wilby made the first trip by automobile across Canada From 1915 to 1925, under Scott's direction REO remained profitable. In 1923, the company sold an early recreational vehicle, called the "Motor Pullman Car." Designed by Battle Creek, Michigan newspaper editor J. H. Brown, the automobile included a drop-down sleeping extension, a built-in gas range, a refrigerator. During 1925, Scott, like many of his contemporaries/competitors, began an ambitious expansion program designed to make the company more competitive with other automobile manufacturers by offering cars in different price ranges; the failure of this program and the effects of the Great Depression caused such losses that Olds ended his retirement during 1933 and assumed control of REO again, but resigned in 1934. During 1936, REO abandoned the manufacture of automobiles to concentrate on trucks.
REO's two most memorable cars were its Reo Flying Cloud introduced in 1927 and the Reo Royale 8 of 1931. The Flying Cloud was the first car to use Lockheed's new hydraulic internal expanding brake system and featured styling by Fabio Segardi. While Ned Jordan is credited with changing the way advertising was written with his "Somewhere West of Laramie" ads for his Jordan Playboy, Reo's Flying Cloud——a name that provoked evocative images of speed and lightness——changed the way automobiles would be named in the future, it had a 115-inch wheelbase. The final REO model of 1936 was a Flying Cloud. In April 1927, Reo introduced the Wolverine brand of cars as a companion model to the Flying Cloud. With a Continental engine, artillery wheels, a different pattern of horizontal radiator louvers from the Flying Cloud, the Wolverine was made until 1928; the 1931 Reo Royale was a trendsetting design, introducing design elements that were a precedent for true automotive streamlining in the American market.
The 8-cylinder model was sold through 1933 with minor updates. The name was used on a lower-priced 6-cylinder model through 1935. Beverly Kimes, editor of the Standard Catalog of American Cars, terms the Royale "the most fabulous Reo of all". In addition to its coachwork by Murray designed by their Amos Northup, the Royale provided buyers with a 125 hp straight-eight with a nine-bearing crankshaft, one-shot lubrication, thermostatically-controlled radiator shutters; the Royale rode upon factory wheelbases of 135 inches. As many as 3 Dietrich coachbuilt bodies were built on 148-inch wheelbases in 1931. Beginning in 1933, the Royale featured as an option REO's
Madison Square Garden (1925)
Madison Square Garden was an indoor arena in New York City, the third bearing that name. It was built in 1925 and closed in 1968, was located on Eighth Avenue between 49th and 50th Streets in Manhattan, on the site of the city's trolley-car barns, it was on the west side of Eighth Avenue. It was the first Garden, not located near Madison Square. MSG III was the home of the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League and the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association, hosted numerous boxing matches, the Millrose Games and other events. Ground breaking on the third Madison Square Garden took place on January 9, 1925. Designed by the noted theater architect Thomas W. Lamb, it was built at the cost of $4.75 million in 249 days by boxing promoter Tex Rickard, who assembled backers he called his "600 millionaires" to fund the project. The new arena was dubbed "The House That Tex Built." In contrast to the ornate towers of Stanford White's second Garden, the exterior of MSG III was a simple box.
Its most distinctive feature was the ornate marquee above the main entrance, with its endless abbreviations Even the name of the arena was abbreviated, to "Madison Sq. Garden"; the arena, which opened on December 15, 1925, was 200 feet by 375 feet, with seating on three levels, a maximum capacity of 18,496 spectators for boxing. It had poor sight lines for hockey, fans sitting anywhere behind the first row of the side balcony could count on having some portion of the ice obstructed; the fact that there was poor ventilation and that smoking was permitted led to a haze in the upper portions of the Garden. In its history, Madison Square Garden III was managed by Rickard, John S. Hammond, William F. Carey, General John Reed Kilpatrick, Ned Irish and Irving Mitchell Felt, it was replaced by the current Madison Square Garden. Boxing was Madison Square Garden III's principal claim to fame; the first bout took place on December 1925, a week before the arena's official opening. On January 17, 1941, 23,190 people witnessed Fritzie Zivic's successful welterweight title defense against Henry Armstrong, still the largest crowd for any of the Gardens.
The New York Rangers, owned by the Garden's owner Tex Rickard, got their name from a play on words involving his name: Tex's Rangers. However, the Rangers were not the first NHL team to play at the Garden; the Rangers were founded in 1926, playing their first game in the Garden on November 16, 1926, both teams played at the Garden until the Americans suspended operations in 1942 due to World War II. In the meantime, the Rangers had usurped the Americans' commercial success with their own success on the ice, winning three Stanley Cups between 1928 and 1940; the refusal of the Garden's management to allow the resurrection of the Americans after the war was one of the popular theories underlying the Curse of 1940, which prevented the Rangers from winning the Stanley Cup again until 1994. Another alleged cause of "The Curse" stemmed from then-manager Kilpatrick burning the Garden's mortgage papers in the bowl of the Stanley Cup, as receipts from the 1940 Cup run had allowed the MSG Corporation to pay it off: hockey purists believed that the trophy had been "defiled", thus leading to the Rangers' woes.
The New York Rovers, a farm team of the Rangers played in the Garden on Sunday afternoons, while the Rangers played on Wednesday and Sunday nights. Tommy Lockhart managed the Rovers games and introduced on-ice promotions such as racing model aircraft and bicycles around the arena, figure skating acts Shipstads & Johnson Ice Follies and Sonja Henie, a skating grizzly bear; the first professional basketball game was played in the 50th Street Garden on December 6, 1925, nine days before the arena opened. It pitted the Original Celtics against the Washington Palace Five; the New York Knicks debuted there in 1946, although if there was an important college game, they played in the 69th Regiment Armory. MSG III hosted the NBA All-Star Game in 1954, 1955 and 1968. In 1931, a college basketball triple header to raise money for Mayor Jimmy Walker's Unemployment Relief Fund was successful. In 1934, Ned Irish began promoting a successful series of college basketball double headers at the Garden featuring a mix of local and national schools.
MSG III began hosting the National Invitation Tournament annually in 1938, hosted seven NCAA men's basketball championship finals between 1943 and 1950. On February 28, 1940, Madison Square Garden hosted the first televised basketball games in a Fordham-Pitt and Georgetown-NYU doubleheader. A point shaving scandal involving games played at the Garden led the NCAA to reduce its use of the Garden, caused some schools, including 1950 NCAA and NIT Champion City College of New York, to be banned from playing at the Garden. Capitol Wrestling Corporation—along with its successor, the World Wide Wrestling Federation—promoted professional wrestling at the Garden during its last two decades. Toots Mondt and Jess McMahon owned CWC, which promoted tag team wrestling. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Mondt and McMahon were successful at promoting ethnic heroes of Puerto Rican or Italian descent. Two notable events in wrestling history took place at MSG III. On May 17, 1963, Bruno Sammartino defeated "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers, via submission, in 48 seconds, to become the second WWWF World Heavyweight Champion.
On November 19, 1957, the Dr. Jerry Graham & Dic