National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food and labor. The term is used to refer solely to those raised for food. In recent years, some organizations have raised livestock to promote the survival of rare breeds, animal husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods. Originally, livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming and these practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have led to increased concerns about animal welfare and environmental impact. Livestock production continues to play an economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the live and stock. Older English sources, such as the King James Version of the Bible, the word cattle is derived from Old North French catel, which meant all kinds of movable personal property, including livestock, which was differentiated from immovable real estate.
In English, sometimes smaller livestock such as chickens and pigs were referred to as small cattle, the modern meaning of cattle, without a modifier, usually refers to domesticated bovines, but sometimes livestock refers only to this subgroup. Legal definition United States federal legislation sometimes more narrowly defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities either eligible or ineligible for a program or activity, for example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep. Animal-rearing originated during the transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans, over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild, dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago. Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BC in Asia, swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BC in the Middle East and China.
The earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BC, the term livestock is nebulous and may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful and this can mean domestic animals, semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only lightly domesticated or of disputed status and these populations may be in the process of domestication. Some people may use the term livestock to refer to only used for red meat. Livestock are used by humans for a variety of purposes, many of which have an economic value, Livestock products include, Meat A useful form of dietary protein and energy, meat is the edible tissue of the animal carcass
Coles Creek culture
Coles Creek culture is a Late Woodland archaeological culture in the Lower Mississippi valley in the southern United States. The period marks a significant change in the history of the area. Population increased dramatically and there is evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity. Although many of the traits of chiefdom societies are not yet manifested. Coles Creek sites are found in Arkansas and Mississippi and it is considered ancestral to the Plaquemine culture. The Coles Creek culture is a development of the Lower Mississippi Valley that took place between the terminal Woodland period and the Plaquemine culture period. The culture was defined by the unique decoration on grog-tempered ceramic ware by James A. Ford after his investigations at the Mazique Archeological Site and he had studied both the Mazique and Coles Creek Sites, and almost went with the Mazique culture, but decided on the less historically involved sites name. Although earlier cultures built mounds mainly as a part of customs, by the Coles Creek period these mounds took on a newer shape.
Instead of being primarily for burial, mounds were constructed to support temples, pyramidal mounds with flat tops and ramps were constructed, usually over successive years and with many layers. A temple or other structures, usually of wattle and daub construction, a typical Coles Creek site plan consisted of at least two and more commonly three, mounds around a central plaza. This pattern emerged in roughly 800 CE and continued for several hundred years, by late Coles Creek times, the site plans are often enlarged to include up to three more mounds. Sites typical of this period are Mount Nebo, Holly Bluff, Kings Crossing, long distance trade seems to have been negligible at this time, as exotic goods and trade items are rare in Coles Creek sites. There is little evidence of domesticated or cultivated plants until the end of the Coles Creek period, acorns are a dominant food source, supplemented with persimmons and some starchy seeds such as maygrass. Coles Creek populations may have loosely managed certain plant resources in order to promote a better or more consistent food supply, maize is found in very limited quantities, but by 1000-1200 CE had begun to increase, although nowhere near the levels it would reach in Mississippian times.
The bow and arrow was introduced in this period, although the continued to be used. Pottery styles changed during this period, as began to create more durable wares with more diversified uses. Wet clay was tempered with particles of dry clay to prevent cracking during firing, most pots were decorated only on the upper half, usually with designs of incised lines or impressed tool marks
They were a maize-based agricultural society who lived in sedentary villages and built ceremonial platform mounds. The Fort Ancient culture was thought to have been an expansion of the Mississippian cultures. It is now accepted as a developed culture that descended from the Hopewell culture. The Fort Ancient Cultures most famous mound is called the serpent mound, the name of the culture originates from the Fort Ancient, Ohio archeological site. However, the Fort Ancient Site is now thought to have built by Ohio Hopewellian people. It was likely occupied by the succeeding Fort Ancient culture, the site is located on a hill above the Little Miami River, close to Lebanon, Ohio. Starting in about 1000 CE, terminal Late Woodland groups in the Middle Ohio Valley adopted maize agriculture and they began settling in small, year-round nuclear family households and settlements of no more than 40 to 50 individuals. These small scattered settlements, located along terraces that overlooked rivers and sometimes on flood plains, by 1200 the small villages began to coalesce into larger settlements of up to 300 people.
They were occupied for longer periods, possibly up to 25 years, during the Early and Middle Fort Ancient period, the houses were designed as single-family dwellings. Later Fort Ancient buildings are larger multi-family dwellings, settlements were rarely permanent, as the people commonly moved to a new location after one or two generations, when the natural resources surrounding the old village were exhausted. The people laid out the villages around an oval central plaza. The arrangement of buildings in Fort Ancient settlements is thought to have served as a sort of calendar, marking the positions of the solstices. The people began to build low platform mounds for ceremonial purposes, the plaza was the center of village life, the place where ceremonies and other social events were held. The Late Fort Ancient period from 1400 to 1750 is the era in the Middle Ohio Valley. During this era, the formerly dispersed populations began to coalesce, the Gist-phase villages became much larger than during the preceding period, with populations as high as 500.
This era showed increased contact with Mississippian peoples, some of whom may have migrated to and these sites were abandoned during this time period. During the Montour phase, the people inhabited their villages year-round and this may indicate that during the winter, family groups and hunting parties may have returned to the regions previously occupied by their ancestors. Such a pattern was observed during historic times, for example, such artifacts appeared and were used in the area before the arrival of European explorers or settlers
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
The Dalton Tradition is a Late Paleo-Indian and Early Archaic projectile point tradition. These points appeared in most of Southeast North America around 8500–7900 BC and they are distinctive artifacts, having concave bases with ears that sometimes flare outward. These tools not only served as points but as saws and they were often changed in form and function because the hunters would sharpen the points over and over and would eventually turn them into knives chisels or scrapers. A variant on the Dalton point is the Hardaway point of North Carolina,2005 Dalton Tradition in No Carolina Site showing Dalton points
The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. Within this area, societies participated in a degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways. The Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over what is now the United States, most of the items traded were exotic materials and were received by people living in the major trading and manufacturing areas. These people converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks, the objects created by the Hopewell exchange system spread far and wide and have been seen in many burials outside the Midwest. Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can be considered a cultural climax, Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio, where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition.
Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois, the Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell. The name Hopewell was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, the mound group itself was named for the family who owned the earthworks at the time. What any of the groups now defined as Hopewellian called themselves is unknown. The Hopewell inherited from their Adena forebears an incipient social stratification and this increased social stability and reinforced sedentism, social stratification, specialized use of resources, and probably population growth. Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people, in some sites, hunters apparently received a higher status in the community because their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods. The Hopewellian peoples had leaders, but they were not like powerful rulers who could command armies of slaves and these cultures likely accorded certain families a special place of privilege.
Some scholars suggest that these societies were marked by the emergence of big-men and these leaders acquired their position because of their ability to persuade others to agree with them on important matters such as trade and religion. They perhaps were able to influence by the creation of reciprocal obligations with other important members of the community. Today, the features of the Hopewell tradition era are mounds built for uncertain purposes. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory, eastern Woodlands mounds have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights. The gigantic sculpted earthworks often took the shape of animals, the function of the mounds is still under debate. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good condition of the largest mounds
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer and frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky, as a young adult, Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, and selling their pelts in the fur market. Through this occupational interest, Boone first learned the easy routes to the area, there, he founded the village of Boonesborough, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone, Boone was a militia officer during the Revolutionary War, which, in Kentucky, was fought primarily between the American settlers and the British-aided Indians. Boone was captured by Shawnee warriors in 1778 and he escaped and alerted Boonesborough that the Shawnees were planning an attack. Although heavily outnumbered, Americans repelled the Shawnee warriors in the Siege of Boonesborough, Boone was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly, during the Revolutionary War, and fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782.
Blue Licks, a Shawnee victory over the Patriots, was one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, following the war, Boone worked as a surveyor and merchant, but fell deeply into debt through failed Kentucky land speculation. Frustrated with the problems resulting from his land claims, in 1799, Boone emigrated to eastern Missouri. Boone remains a figure in American history. He was a legend in his own lifetime, especially after an account of his adventures was published in 1784 by John Filson, an American edition made him equally famous across the United States. After his death, he was frequently the subject of heroic tall tales and his adventures—real and legendary—were influential in creating the archetypal Western hero of American folklore. In American popular culture, he is remembered as one of the foremost early frontiersmen, the epic Daniel Boone mythology often overshadows the historical details of his life. Daniel Boone was of English and Welsh ancestry, because the Gregorian calendar was adopted during his lifetime, Boones birth date is sometimes given as November 2,1734, although Boone used the October date.
The Boone family belonged to the Religious Society of Friends, called Quakers, daniels father, Squire Boone emigrated from the small town of Bradninch, Devon to Pennsylvania in 1713, to join William Penns colony of dissenters. Squire Boones parents, George Boone III and Mary Maugridge, followed their son to Pennsylvania in 1717, in 1720, Squire Boone, who worked primarily as a weaver and a blacksmith, married Sarah Morgan. Sarahs family were Quakers from Wales, and had settled in 1708 in the area which became Towamencin Township of Montgomery County, in 1731, the Boones moved to the Oley Valley, near the modern city of Reading. There they built a log cabin, partially preserved today as the Daniel Boone Homestead, Daniel Boone was born there, the sixth of eleven children. Daniel Boone spent his years on what was the edge of the frontier
Glacial Kame Culture
The Glacial Kame Culture was a culture of Archaic people in North America that occupied southern Ontario, Michigan and Indiana from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC. The name of this culture derives from its members practice of burying their dead atop glacier-deposited gravel hills, among the most common types of artifacts found at Glacial Kame sites are shells of marine animals and goods manufactured from copper. The type site for Glacial Kame is the Ridgeway Site near the village of Ridgeway in Hardin County, other regional cultures include the Maple Creek Culture of southwestern Ohio, Red Ocher Culture and Old Copper Culture of Wisconsin. For a time, it was thought that the Glacial Kame Culture did not produce ceramics, for this reason, it appears that different groups of Glacial Kame peoples independently developed different methods of manufacturing their projectile points. Glacial Kame sandal-sole shell gorgets, an exploration of manufacture, use and public exhibition
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri is a public land-grant research university located in Columbia, Missouri, U. S. It was founded in 1839 as the first public institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River, as the largest university in the state, it enrolled 32,777 students in 2016, offering over 300 degree programs in 19 academic colleges in the 2014–2015 school year. It is the campus of the University of Missouri System, which maintains campuses in Kansas City, Rolla. MU is one of the nations top-tier R1 institutions and one of the 34 public universities to be members of the Association of American Universities, there are more than 300,000 MU alumni living worldwide with over one half continuing to reside in Missouri. The university was ranked 103rd among national universities in the 2016 U. S. News & World Report rankings, starting in December 1953, it boasts the countrys only university-owned TV network affiliate, operated by the Missouri School of Journalism. In 1908, the worlds first school of journalism was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism, the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the worlds most powerful university research reactor.
MU is one of six public universities in the United States with a school of medicine, veterinary medicine, agriculture. The university owns the University of Missouri Health Care system, the only athletic program that operates a NCAA Division I FBS football team in Missouri is known as the Missouri Tigers and competes as a member of the Southeastern Conference. The schools mascot, Truman the Tiger, is named after Missourian, according to the NCAA, the American tradition of homecoming was established at the university in 1911, the tradition has since been adopted nationwide. In 1839, the Missouri Legislature passed the Geyer Act to establish funds for a state university and it would be the first public university west of the Mississippi River. To secure the university, the citizens of Columbia and Boone County pledged $117,921 in cash, the land on which the university was eventually constructed was just south of Columbias downtown and owned by James S. Rollins. He was called the Father of the University, as the first public university in the Louisiana Purchase, the school was shaped by Thomas Jeffersons ideas about public education.
In 1862 the American Civil War forced the university to close for much of the year, residents of Columbia formed a home guard militia that became known as the Fighting Tigers of Columbia. They were given the name for their readiness to protect the city and university, in 1890, the universitys newly formed football team took the name the Tigers after the Civil War militia. In 1870 the institution was granted land-grant college status under the Morrill Act of 1862, the act led to the founding of the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy as an offshoot of the main campus in Columbia. It developed as the present-day Missouri University of Science and Technology, in 1888 the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station opened. This grew to encompass ten centers and research farms around Missouri, by 1890 the university encompassed a normal college, engineering college and science college, school of agriculture and mechanical arts. School of medicine, and school of law, on January 9,1892, Academic Hall, the institutions main building, burned in a fire that completely gutted the building, leaving little more standing than six stone Ionic columns
The term lithic stage refers to the cultures of the post-glacial hunters and collectors in South America. The stage derived its name from the first appearance of Lithic flaked stone tools, throughout South America, there are stone tool traditions of the lithic stage, such as the fluted fishtail that reflect localized adaptations to the diverse habitats of the continent. During the lithic stage people lived in small, mobile groups that survived on hunting, fishing. The intensive and continual use of plants and animals eventually led to genetic changes to some of the species. This lifestyle continued until around 5000 BC when people started to use domesticated plants, one of the leading figures is Alex Krieger who has documented hundreds of sites that have yielded crude, percussion-flaked tools. The most convincing evidence for a stage is based upon data recovered from sites in South America where such crude tools have been found. Examples include the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition groups, the Lithic stage was followed by the Archaic stage