Derek Oldham was an English singer and actor, best known for his performances in the tenor roles of the Savoy Operas with the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company. After performing in concerts as a boy soprano and working as a bank clerk, Oldham began a professional performing career in 1914. With the outbreak of World War I, he joined the Scots Guards. After the war, he joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, singing the tenor leads in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas for three years, he starred in musicals and operettas in the West End in the 1920s, including Madame Pompadour, The Merry Widow, Rose-Marie and The Vagabond King. He returned to the D'Oyly Carte for brief periods from 1929 to 1937. Oldham continued singing and acting through the 1940s appearing in several films, he concentrated on legitimate theatre in the 1950s, acting until the age of 70. He maintained a lifelong interest in Gilbert and Sullivan, serving as an officer of the Gilbert and Sullivan Society, he retired to Hampshire during the last ten years of his life.
Oldham was born John Stephens Oldham in Accrington, the son of Thomas Oldham and his wife Harriett, née Stephens. He had an elder brother, a sister; as a child, Oldham was a boy soprano in demand for over five years in oratorios and pantomimes. As a young man, he sang in amateur operatic societies, he debuted on the professional adult stage in 1914, as Julien in The Daring of Diane, an operetta by Alfred Anderson and Heinrich Reinhardt, presented at the London Pavilion. He made an immediate mark: The Observer said that he "has an exceptionally charming tenor voice, uses it with fine art, acts with engaging simplicity and sincerity." That year, at the Lyric Theatre, he played Bumerli in The Chocolate Soldier, in which he won excellent notices. At the end of that year, after the outbreak of World War I, he joined the Scots Guards, a year was commissioned in the East Lancashire Regiment and was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry in Macedonia in 1918. During the war, he formed a concert group to entertain his fellow servicemen producing The Chocolate Soldier not far from enemy lines.
Oldham was demobilised in July 1919 and joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company the following month, when the company opened its first London season in over a decade. He assumed the leading Gilbert and Sullivan tenor roles of Alexis in The Sorcerer, Lord Tolloller in Iolanthe, Cyril in Princess Ida, Nanki-Poo in The Mikado, Colonel Fairfax in The Yeomen of the Guard, Marco in The Gondoliers; the following year, he took on the roles of Ralph Rackstraw in H. M. S. Pinafore, Frederic in The Pirates of Penzance, Richard Dauntless in Ruddigore. In 1921 he exchanged Cyril for Prince Hilarion in Princess Ida. Oldham left the D'Oyly Carte company in 1922 to star in a great number of musicals and operettas during the 1920s at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and other West End theatres, his first musical was Whirled into Happiness at the Lyric Theatre, as Horace Wiggs, where his leading lady was his future wife, Winnie Melville. They married in 1923, she joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company as a principal soprano.
Oldham wrote, "The sheltered student life of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company gave place to the hard glitter and luxury of the West End theatre – a world of restaurants, supper parties, all the trappings that went with London theatrical life between the two wars". Other musicals in which Oldham starred included Madame Pompadour, The Merry Widow, Rose-Marie. In 1927, Oldham and Melville starred together in the European première of The Vagabond King, he as François Villon, she as Katherine de Vaucelles, they separated in 1933 and divorced, she died in 1937. Oldham returned several times to D'Oyly Carte, appearing in the 1929–30 season and on tour in his old roles of Ralph, Tolloller, Nanki-Poo and Marco. In the 1934–35 season, he played these roles on the company's first major American tour in the 20th century. In 1936, during the company's season at Sadler's Wells, he played Hilarion, he was leading tenor in the 1936–37 season, which included another long American tour. Oldham's presence was a condition demanded by the American promoters.
During this tour he and Sylvia Cecil were excused by the company for one night to sing a program of classical and popular favorites, including "Prithee, pretty maiden" from Patience, the evening before President Roosevelt's 2nd inauguration, at a party at the White House. Oldham played in many musicals and plays, including The Song of the Drum at Drury Lane, as Captain Anthony Darrell, he appeared at the Royal Albert Hall as Chibiabos in Hiawatha in 1938, conducted by Malcolm Sargent. After 1948 he developed a career as a Lieder singer and lecture-recitalist and as a character actor in non-musical plays, his last role in London was Dr. Stoner in the Agatha Christie play Verdict. Between 1934 and 1957, he appeared in several films. In 1940, on 29 February, the character Frederic came of age, as described in The Pirates of Penzance, Act II; this was a significant date for any G&S tenor. In New York, the Gilbert and Sullivan Society journal, "The Palace Peeper", marked the event by publishing an original ode to Frederic, in which Oldham was honoured as the archetype of the romantic Frederic.
A member of the Gilbert and Sullivan Society in London from 1924, Oldham was elected Vice-President of the Society in 1947. During his last decade, Oldham lived in retirement in Hayling Island, Hampshir
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Gertrude Lawrence was an English actress, singer and musical comedy performer known for her stage appearances in the West End of London and on Broadway in New York. Lawrence was born Gertrude Alice Dagmar Klasen, Alexandra Dagmar Lawrence-Klasen, Gertrude Alexandra Dagmar Klasen or some variant, of English and Danish extraction, in Newington, London, her father was a basso profondo. His heavy drinking led her mother Alice to leave him soon after Gertrude's birth. In 1904, her stepfather took the family to Bognor on the Sussex coast for the August bank holiday. While there, they attended a concert. At her mother's urging, young Gertrude sang a song and was rewarded with a gold sovereign for her effort, it was her first public performance. In 1908, to augment the family's meagre income, Alice accepted a job in the chorus of the Christmas pantomime at Brixton Theatre. A child who could sing and dance was needed to round out the troupe, Alice volunteered her daughter. While working in the production Alice heard of Italia Conti, who taught dance and the rudiments of acting.
Gertrude auditioned for Conti. Lawrence joined Italia Conti's production of. At some point during this period, the child decided to adopt her father's professional surname as her own. Dean cast her in his next production, Gerhart Hauptmann's Hannele, where she first met Noël Coward, their meeting was the start of a close and sometimes tempestuous friendship and arguably the most important professional relationship in both their lives. Following Hannele, Lawrence reconnected with her father, living with a chorus girl, they agreed to let her tour with them in two successive revues, after which Arthur announced he had signed a year-long contract with a variety show in South Africa, leaving the two young women to fend for themselves. Lawrence, now aged sixteen, opted to live at the Theatrical Girls' Club in Soho rather than return to her mother and stepfather, she worked with various touring companies until 1916, when she was hired by impresario André Charlot to understudy Beatrice Lillie and appear in the chorus of his latest production in London's West End.
When it closed, she assumed Lillie's role on tour returned to London once again to understudy the star in another Charlot production, where she met dance director Francis Gordon-Howley. Although he was twenty years her senior, the two wed and soon after had a daughter Pamela, born on May 28, 1918, Lawrence's only child; the marriage was not a success, Lawrence took Pamela with her to her mother's home in Clapham. The couple did not divorce until ten years later. In 1918, either during Lawrence's pregnancy or shortly after she gave birth, she contracted lumbago, she was given two weeks to recuperate by Charlot. He saw Lawrence at an opening night party at Ivor Novello's invitation two days before she was cleared to return to work by her doctor. Charlot fired her; when the apparent reason for her dismissal became common knowledge among other West End theatrical producers, she was unable to find work. In early 1919, Lawrence accepted a job singing in the show at Murray's, a popular London nightclub, where she remained for the better part of the next two years.
While performing there she met a member of the Household Cavalry. He became her friend and lover, taught her how to dress and behave in high society. At the end of 1920, Lawrence left Murray's and began to ease her way back into the legitimate theater while touring in a music hall act as the partner of popular singer Walter Williams. In October 1921, Charlot asked her to replace an ailing Beatrice Lillie as star of his latest production, A to Z, opposite Jack Buchanan. In it the two introduced the song "Limehouse Blues," which went on to become one of Lawrence's signature tunes. In 1923, Noël Coward developed his first musical revue, London Calling! for Lawrence. Charlot agreed to produce it, but brought in more experienced writers and composers to work on the book and score. One of Coward's surviving songs was "Parisian Pierrot", a tune that would be identified with Lawrence throughout her career; the show's success led its producer to create André Charlot's London Revue of 1924, which he took to Broadway with Lawrence, Lillie and Constance Carpenter.
It was so successful it moved to a larger theatre to accommodate the demand for tickets and extended its run. After it closed, the show toured the United States and Canada, although Lawrence was forced to leave the cast when she contracted double pneumonia and pleurisy and was forced to spend fourteen weeks in a Toronto hospital recuperating. Charlot's Revue of 1926, starring Lawrence and Buchanan, opened on Broadway in late 1925. In his review, Alexander Woollcott singled out Lawrence, calling her "the personification of style and sophistication" and "the ideal star." Like its predecessor, it toured following the Broadway run. It proved to be Lawrence's last project with Charlot. In November 1926, she became the first British performer to star in an American musical on Broadway when she opened in Oh, Kay!, with music by George Gershwin, lyrics by Ira Gershwin, a book by Guy Bolton and P. G. Wodehouse. Following a run of 256 performances, the musical opened in the West End, where it ran
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Stanley Augustus Holloway, OBE was an English stage and film actor, singer and monologist. He was famous for his comic and character roles on stage and screen that of Alfred P. Doolittle in My Fair Lady, he was renowned for his comic monologues and songs, which he performed and recorded throughout most of his 70-year career. Born in London, Holloway pursued a career as a clerk in his teen years, he made early stage appearances before infantry service in the First World War, after which he had his first major theatre success starring in Kissing Time when the musical transferred to the West End from Broadway. In 1921, he joined a concert party, The Co-Optimists, his career began to flourish. At first, he was employed chiefly as a singer, but his skills as an actor and reciter of comic monologues were soon recognised. Characters from his monologues such as Sam Small, invented by Holloway, Albert Ramsbottom, created for him by Marriott Edgar, were absorbed into popular British culture, Holloway developed a following for the recordings of his many monologues.
By the 1930s, he was in demand to star in variety and musical comedy, including several revues. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, Holloway made short propaganda films on behalf of the British Film Institute and Pathé News and took character parts in a series of war films including Major Barbara, The Way Ahead, This Happy Breed and The Way to the Stars. After the war, he appeared in the film Brief Encounter and made a series of films for Ealing Studios, including Passport to Pimlico, The Lavender Hill Mob and The Titfield Thunderbolt. In 1956 he was cast as the irresponsible and irrepressible Alfred P. Doolittle in My Fair Lady, a role that he played on Broadway, the West End and in the film version in 1964; the role brought him international fame, his performances earned him nominations for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical and an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In his years, Holloway appeared in television series in the UK and the US, toured in revues, appeared in stage plays in Britain, Canada and the US, continued to make films into his eighties.
Holloway had five children, including the actor Julian Holloway. Holloway was born in Manor Park, the younger child and only son of George Augustus Holloway, a lawyer's clerk, Florence May née Bell, a housekeeper and dressmaker, he was named after Henry Morton Stanley, the journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and for his search for David Livingstone. There were theatrical connections in the Holloway family going back to Charles Bernard, an actor and theatre manager, the brother of Holloway's maternal grandmother. Holloway's paternal grandfather, Augustus Holloway, an orphan, was brought up by John Stone, a sailmaker, his wife Mary, in Poole, Dorset. Augustus became a wealthy shopkeeper, he married Amelia Catherine Knight in September 1856, they had three children, Maria and George. In the early 1880s the family moved to London; when Augustus died, George Holloway moved to nearby Manor Park and became a clerk for a city lawyer, Robert Bell. George married Bell's daughter Florence in 1884, they had two children and Stanley.
George was never seen or heard from again by his family. During his early teenage years, Holloway attended the Worshipful School of Carpenters in nearby Stratford and joined a local choir, which he called his "big moment", he left school at the age of 14 and worked as a junior clerk in a boot polish factory, where he earned ten shillings a week. He began performing part-time as Master Stanley Holloway – The Wonderful Boy Soprano from 1904, singing sentimental songs such as "The Lost Chord". A year he became a clerk at Billingsgate Fish Market, where he remained for two years before commencing training as an infantry soldier in the London Rifle Brigade in 1907. Holloway's stage career began in 1910, when he travelled to Walton-on-the-Naze to audition for The White Coons Show, a concert party variety show arranged and produced by Will C. Pepper, father of Harry S. Pepper, with whom Holloway starred in The Co-Optimists; this seaside show lasted six weeks. From 1912 to 1914, Holloway appeared in the summer seasons at the West Cliff Gardens Theatre, Clacton-on-Sea, where he was billed as a romantic baritone.
In 1913 Holloway was recruited by the comedian Leslie Henson to feature as a support in Henson's more prestigious concert party called Nicely, Thanks. In life, Holloway spoke of his admiration for Henson, citing him as a great influence on his career; the two became firm friends and consulted each other before taking jobs. In his 1967 autobiography, Holloway dedicated a whole chapter to Henson, whom he described as "the greatest friend and mentor a performer could have had". In 1913, Holloway decided to train as an operatic baritone, so he went to Italy to take singing lessons from Ferdinando Guarino in Milan. However, a yearning to start a career in light entertainment and a contract to re-appear in Bert Graham and Will Bentley's concert party at the West Cliff Theatre caused him to return home after six months. In the early months of 1914, Holloway made his first visit to the United States and went to Buenos Aires and Valparaíso with the concert party The Grotesques. At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, he decided to return to England, but his departure was delayed for six weeks due to his contract with the troupe.
At the age of 25, Holloway enlisted in the C
The Lilac Domino
Der lila Domino is an operetta in three acts by Charles Cuvillier. The original German libretto is by Emmerich von Gatti and Bela Jenbach, about a gambling count who falls in love at a masquerade ball with a noblewoman wearing a lilac domino mask; the operetta achieved far greater popularity in Britain and America than it did in Germany or France. Although The Lilac Domino became Cuvillier's greatest international hit, he won success in his native Paris with the operetta La reine s'amuse, he was popular in Germany before the First World War, Der lila Domino was the first of two operettas that he wrote for German theatres. Der lila Domino was first performed in Leipzig, Germany, on February 3, 1912, where it was a failure. Although produced with success in the U. S. and outstanding success in the UK, the work was not seen in France until 1947, when a production was mounted at Mulhouse, with a cast including Willy Clément. Entitled The Lilac Domino, with an English libretto by Harry B. Smith, lyrics by Robert B.
Smith, additional songs by Howard Carr and Donovan Parsons, it opened on Broadway at the 44th Street Theatre on October 28, 1914, produced by Andreas Dippel. It received favourable notices and ran for 109 performances, starring Eleanor Painter and the English baritone Wilfrid Douthitt, followed by a North American tour. In the U. S. and UK versions, the setting was changed from France to Palm Beach, Florida. Vicomte de Brissac – George Curzon Georgine – Eleanor Painter Elledon – James Harrod Leonie D'Andorcet – René Detling Count André de St. Amand – Wilfrid Douthitt Prosper – John E. Hazzard Casimir – Robert O'Connor Baroness de Villiers – Jeanne Maubourg Istvan – Harry Herrosen A new version was presented in London, with revised dialogue by S. J. Adair Fitzgerald, opening at the Empire Theatre on February 21, 1918, running there until September 27, 1919. After a brief break, the production transferred to the Palace Theatre in October 1919; the piece ran for a total of 747 performances, closing on December 13, 1919, an extraordinarily long run at that time.
The London cast starred Jamieson Dodds. It became the third of London's great World War I hits after Chu Chin Chow and The Maid of the Mountains; some of its success in London was due to interpolated numbers by the Empire Theatre's musical director, Howard Carr, a nephew of the composer Howard Talbot. One newspaper review commented, "The music throughout is beautiful and if the whole company were to dispense with costumes and sit in a ring like Christy Minstrels, the Lilac Domino would be a success". To which the humorous magazine Punch responded, "We can well believe it." Cornelius Cleveden – R. Stuart Pigott Leonie Forde – Josephine Earle Elliston Deyn – Vincent Sullivan Prosper Woodhouse – Frank Lalor Norman J. Calmain – Edwin Wilson The Hon. Aubrey D'Aubigny – Jamieson Dodds Carabana – Dallas Anderson Georgine – Clara Butterworth Baroness de Villiers – Andrée CordayPigott, who played the role of the heroine's millionaire father, died in his dressing room, during the run, having not missed a single performance of the first 565.
The Lilac Domino remained in the British musical theatre repertoire until after World War II touring in Britain and elsewhere. Jamieson Doods, from the London cast, led the first Australian tour in 1920. Notable revivals included a 1944 production at His Majesty's Theatre in London starring Pat Taylor as Georgine, with a cast including Leo Franklyn, Bernard Clifton, Graham Payn and Elizabeth French. In 1953 a revised book was prepared by H. F. Maltby, which proved popular with amateur groups and removed the American elements of the original English version, restoring the setting to France. A film version, The Lilac Domino, was released in the UK in 1937 and in the U. S. in 1940, starring Michael Bartlett as Count Anatole and June Knight as the Lilac Domino. The setting was changed to Budapest. At Hotel Parnasse in Nice, during Carnival, at a masquerade ball, everyone is amazed by news that the wealthy old Lyons silk merchant Gaston Le Sage has found a new young bride, a widow named Leonie Lemmonnier.
However, Leonie is more interested in Gaston's shy young step-nephew, promised to Gaston's 18-year-old daughter Georgine. Georgine arrives masked and identified only as the "Lilac Domino". Meanwhile, three young men have lost at cards, they agree. Count André de St. Armand is chosen by the roll of dice to do the marrying, he has fallen in love with a girl in a lilac domino. However, Georgine learns of the dice game, believes that André is wooing her only for her money, breaks things off with him though she returns his love. A gypsy violinist helps to unite the lovers. All ends happily. Act I1. No Fools Like Old Fools – Company 2. We Girls Don't Like Them Shy – Léonie 3. Let the Gypsies Play – Jack 4. My Fate – Georgine 5; the Lilac Domino – Georgine 6. Finale Act I: This Seems to Me a Tricky Business – Drake, Raymond, JackAct II7. For Your Love I Am Waiting – Léonie 8. A Pretty Pair – Montague & Bertie 9. Hello! Lilac Domino! – Jack with Georgine 10. Bells of Bon Secour – Jack 11. Dancing, Dancing – Drake, Jack, Georgine, Léonie and Paul 12.
What Has Gone – Georgine 13. Finale Act II: – Seek, Love's BlindAct III14. Carnival Night 15. All Line Up in a Queue – Drake and Girls 16. Ah! Ah! Ah! / Tarantella – Girls 17. We Girls Don't Like Them Shy – Léonie 18. Carte de jour – Guests 19. Finale Act III: The Domino! The Lilac Domino! – Company The Lilac Domino at the Guide to Musical Theatre List of longest running play
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations