Deputy Prime Minister of Australia
The Deputy Prime Minister of Australia is the second-most senior officer in the Government of Australia. The office of Deputy Prime Minister was created as a ministerial portfolio in 1968, although the title had been used informally for many years previously; the Deputy Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister. When Australia has a Labor Government, the deputy leader of the parliamentary party holds the position of Deputy Prime Minister; when Australia has a Coalition Government, the Coalition Agreement mandates that all Coalition members support the leader of the Liberal Party becoming Prime Minister and mandates that the leader of the National Party be selected as Deputy Prime Minister. The present office-holder, Michael McCormack, was elected Leader of the National Party on Monday 26 February 2018 at a meeting at which the resignations of his predecessor, Barnaby Joyce, became effective. Joyce returned to the back bench. McCormack was sworn in as Deputy Prime Minister the same day.
The 2017 Australian constitutional crisis resulted in the position being made vacant for the first time since its official creation. Barnaby Joyce, the then-incumbent, was ruled ineligible to be a member of parliament by the High Court of Australia sitting as the Court of Disputed Returns on 27 October 2017, as he held New Zealand citizenship at the time of his election in contravention of Section 44 of the Constitution of Australia. Joyce regained the position on 6 December 2017 after he won the by-election for the seat of New England several days earlier; the position of deputy Prime Minister was an unofficial or honorary position. The unofficial position acquired more significance following the 1922 federal election, which saw the governing Nationalist Party lose its parliamentary majority; the Nationalists reached a coalition agreement with the Country Party, which called for Country Party leader Earle Page to take the second rank in the Nationalist-led ministry of Stanley Bruce. While Page's only official title was Treasurer, he was considered as a deputy to Bruce.
Until 1968 the term was used unofficially for the second-highest ranking minister in the government while the Coalition was in government. Under the Coalition agreement between the Liberals and Country Party, when in government, the position was held by the leader of the Country Party; that continues to be case. In the case of Labor governments, the party's deputy leader was and continues to be the Deputy Prime Minister. On 19 December 1967, John McEwen, the long-serving leader of the Country Party in the Coalition government, was sworn in as interim Prime Minister following the sudden death in office of Prime Minister Harold Holt. McEwen was sworn in as Prime Minister on the understanding that his commission would continue only so long as it took for the Liberals to elect a new leader; the Liberal leadership ballot was rescheduled for 9 January 1968. As it turned out, McMahon did not stand, Senator John Gorton was elected, replacing McEwen as Prime Minister on 10 January 1968. McEwen reverted to his previous status as the second-ranking member of the government, as per the Coalition agreement.
He had unofficially been Deputy Prime Minister since becoming Country Party leader in 1958, since 1966 had exercised an effective veto over government policy by virtue of being the longest-serving member of the government. To acknowledge McEwen's long service and his status as the second-ranking member of the government, Gorton formally created the post of Deputy Prime Minister, with McEwen as the first holder of the post. Governor-General Lord Casey accepted the view put to him by McEwen that to commission a Liberal temporarily as Prime Minister would give that person an unfair advantage in the forthcoming party room ballot for the permanent leader. McEwen's appointment was in keeping with the previous occasion when the main non-Labor party was without a leader. Since 1968 only two Deputy Prime Ministers have gone on to become Prime Minister: Paul Keating and Julia Gillard. In both cases, they succeeded incumbent Prime Ministers who lost the support of their party caucus mid-term and their election as party leader preceded their predecessor's resignations and their subsequent appointments as Prime Minister.
Frank Forde, deputy Labor leader when John Curtin died, was interim Prime Minister between 6 and 13 July 1945, when a leadership ballot took place that elected Ben Chifley as Curtin's successor. In November 2007, when the Australian Labor Party won government, Julia Gillard became Australia's first female, first foreign-born, Deputy Prime Minister. In 2017, the position became vacant for a period of 40 days, the only time in its history when it has been unoccupied; as part of the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, it emerged that the then-incumbent Barnaby Joyce was a citizen of New Zealand by descent at the time of the 2016 federal election. Joyce told t
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Warracknabeal is a wheatbelt town in the Australian state of Victoria. Situated on the banks of the Yarriambiack Creek, 330 km north-west of Melbourne, it is the business and services centre of the northern Wimmera and southern Mallee districts, hosts local government offices of the Shire of Yarriambiack. At the 2011 census Warracknabeal district had a population of 2,745, of which 2,340 lived in the urban town centre; the original inhabitants of the area around Warracknabeal were the Wotjobaluk tribe of Aboriginal people. The town's name is believed to derive from an aboriginal expression meaning "place of big gums shading the water hole"; the earliest European settlers in the area included Andrew and Robert Scott, who established the first run of the name. The Post Office opened on 1 September 1861 and was known as Werracknebeal until 1885. Amongst the historical buildings are an 1872 prison cell built from red and yellow gum, a Tudor-style post office, several 19th century hotels and pubs, a four storey water tower from 1886.
There is an agricultural machinery museum housing pieces from the history of farming in the Mallee and Wimmera districts. The Warracknabeal bounded locality includes the rural neighbourhoods of Batchica 36°11′10″S 142°23′54″E, Challambra 36°14′46″S 142°31′53″E and Mellis 36°17′47″S 142°28′57″E; the town is serviced by one pharmacy. Hospital services are provided by Rural Northwest Health; the town has an Osteopath. The town has four schools: Warracknabeal Secondary College, Warracknabeal Primary School, St Mary's Catholic Primary School and Warracknabeal Special Developmental School; the town has an Australian rules football team competing in the Wimmera Football League. Warrack Eagles Netball Club competes in the Wimmera Netball Association; the town has two teams that compete within the Dimboola Tennis Association competition as of 2015: the Warracknabeal Gold and Warracknabeal Maroon. The horse racing club—the Wimmera Racing Club—schedules around six race meetings a year at Warracknabeal, including the Warracknabeal Cup meeting every Easter Saturday.
It has the Sheep Hills Race Club, which schedules two race meetings a year, including the Sheep Hills Cup meeting in February. Golfers play at the course of the Warracknabeal Golf Club. Warracknabeal has a cricket team who have won their 3rd consecutive flag in the Wimmera Mallee Cricket Association. Warracknabeal has three hockey teams: a senior men's team, a women's team, a mixed junior team, who were winners of the 2011 premiership. Warracknabeal has a roller Derby team called the Wheat City Derby Angels, they participate in tournaments around Victoria. Warracknabeal is the seat of government for the Shire of Yarriambiack, it is the administrative centre. The council offices are located in Lyle Street; the former town hall and theatre complex, added to the Victorian Heritage Register in 2009, is now used for civic purposes. YFest incorporates an Easter Saturday Street Parade, a 3 Day Vintage Machinery Rally at Wheatlands Museum, 4 Day Golf Tournament, 3 day Art Show, Easter Saturday Race Meeting and Waterski Spectacular.
The town of 2400 people swells with many visitors and family and offers many family and rich community events every year. The Easter Y-Fest is in its twenty-fifth year and continues to grow stronger as the individual events that make up Y-Fest, benefit from the joint marketing efforts of the Y-Fest Promotions Committee Inc; this Committee, made up of representatives from each of the individual event committees and Council, was formed as a marketing group to promote the Y-Fest concept and has been successful in boosting attendances at all venues. Arts and media Jack Hibberd, playwright Nick Cave, musicianMilitary Linden Cameron MC, Australian army officerPolitics Thomas d'Alton, politician Jack Ginifer, Labor politician Bernie Dunn, National politicianSport Ken Smale, Australian rules footballer John Hayes, Australian rules footballer Graeme Clyne, Australian rules footballer Russell Crow, Australian rules footballer Andy Wilson, Australian rules footballer Graeme Schultz, Australian rules footballer Lauren Hewitt, Olympic track and field medalist Jeremy Clayton, Australian rules footballer Natalie Medhurst, Netballer Matt Rosa, Australian rules footballer Kyle Cheney, Australian rules footballer Warracknabeal Airport Media related to Warracknabeal at Wikimedia Commons Warracknabeal Herald Warracknabeal Secondary College Warracknabeal's Easter Y-Fest Website
Edward Gough Whitlam was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975. The Leader of the Labor Party from 1967 to 1977, Whitlam led his party to power for the first time in 23 years at the 1972 election, he won the 1974 election before being controversially dismissed by the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, at the climax of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Whitlam remains the only Australian prime minister to have his commission terminated in that manner. Whitlam served as an air navigator in the Royal Australian Air Force for four years during World War II, worked as a barrister following the war, he was first elected to Parliament in 1952. Whitlam became Deputy Leader of the Labor Party in 1960, in 1967, after the retirement of Arthur Calwell, was elected Leader and became the Leader of the Opposition. After narrowly losing the 1969 election, Whitlam led Labor to victory at the 1972 election after 23 years of continuous Liberal-Country Coalition Government.
The Whitlam Government implemented a large number of new programs and policy changes, including the termination of military conscription, institution of universal health care and free university education, the implementation of legal aid programs. With the opposition-controlled Senate delaying passage of bills, Whitlam called a double dissolution election in 1974 in which he won a majority in the House of Representatives, albeit a reduced one, picked up three Senate seats; the Whitlam government instituted the first and only joint sitting enabled under s. 57 of the Constitution as part of the double dissolution process. Despite the government's second election victory, the opposition, reacting to government scandals and a flagging economy suffering from the 1973 oil crisis and the 1973–75 recession, continued to obstruct the government's program in the Senate. In late 1975, the Opposition Senators refused to allow a vote on the government's appropriation bills, returning them to the House of Representatives with a demand that the government go to an election, thus denying the government supply.
Whitlam refused to back down, arguing that his government, which held a clear majority in the House of Representatives, was being held to ransom by the Senate. The crisis ended on 11 November, when Whitlam arrived at a pre-arranged meeting with the Governor-General, Sir John Kerr, at Government House in order to call a half-Senate election. Kerr commissioned the opposition leader, Malcolm Fraser, as prime minister. Labor lost the subsequent election by a landslide. Whitlam stepped down after losing again at the 1977 election, retired from parliament in 1978. Upon the election of the Hawke Government in 1983, he was appointed as Ambassador to UNESCO, a position he filled with distinction, was elected a member of the UNESCO Executive Board, he remained active into his nineties. The propriety and circumstances of his dismissal and the legacy of his government have been debated in the decades after he left office. Edward Gough Whitlam was born on 11 July 1916 at the family home'Ngara', 46 Rowland Street, Kew, a suburb of Melbourne, the elder of two children, to Martha and Fred Whitlam.
His father was a federal public servant who served as Commonwealth Crown Solicitor, Whitlam senior's involvement in human rights issues was a powerful influence on his son. Since the boy's maternal grandfather was named Edward, from early childhood he was called by his middle name, which in turn had come from his paternal grandfather, named after the British soldier Field-Marshal Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough. In 1918, Fred Whitlam was transferred to Sydney; the family lived first in the North Shore suburb of Mosman and in Turramurra. At age six, Gough began his education at Chatswood Church of England Girls' School. After a year there, he attended Mowbray House School and Knox Grammar School, in the suburbs of Sydney. Fred Whitlam was promoted again in this time to Assistant Crown Solicitor; the position was located in the new national capital of Canberra, the Whitlam family moved there. Gough Whitlam remains the only prime minister to have spent his formative years in Canberra. At the time, conditions remained primitive in what was dubbed "the bush capital" and "the land of the blowflies".
Gough attended the government Telopea Park School. In 1932, Whitlam's father transferred him to Canberra Grammar School where, at the Speech Day ceremony that year, he was awarded a prize by the Governor-General, Sir Isaac Isaacs. Whitlam enrolled at St Paul's College at the University of Sydney at the age of 18, he earned his first wages by appearing, with several other "Paulines", in a cabaret scene in the film The Broken Melody—the students were chosen because St Paul's requires formal wear at dinner, they could therefore supply their own costumes. After receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree with second-class honours in classics, Whitlam remained at St Paul's to begin his law studies, he had contemplated an academic career, but his lacklustre marks made that unlikely. Dropping out of Greek classes, he professed himself unable to care for the "dry as dust" lectures of Enoch Powell. Soon after the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Whitlam enlisted in the Sydney University Regiment, part of the Militia.
In late 1941, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, with a year remaining in his legal studies, he volunteered for the Royal Australian Air Force. In 1942, while awaiting entry into the service, Whitlam met and ma
James Ford Cairns, Australian politician, was prominent in the Labor movement through the 1960s and 1970s, was Deputy Prime Minister in the Whitlam government. He is best remembered as a leader of the movement against Australian involvement in the Vietnam War, for his affair with Junie Morosi and for his renunciation of conventional politics, he was an economist, a prolific writer on economic and social issues, many of them self-published and self-marketed at stalls he ran across Australia after his retirement. James Ford Cairns was born in Carlton a working-class suburb of Melbourne, the son of a clerk, he grew up on a dairy farm north of Sunbury. His father went to the First World War as a lieutenant in the Australian Imperial Forces, but became disillusioned with the war and lost his respect for Britain, he did not return to Australia. Following the war he deserted his family, he travelled to Africa where he committed suicide after a stay of six or seven years. Many years Cairns informed Gough Whitlam that he had long believed that his father had been killed in World War I, but that he was told the truth of his father's desertion.
Cairns attended Sunbury State School and Northcote High School, where he completed his Leaving Certificate. Though life during the Depression was difficult with his mother having to work to provide for the family, with himself having to make a three-hour daily commute by train, he was a good student, making his name at Northcote High School due to entering the school's broad jump championship and winning it with a jump of twenty feet and two inches, his competitors producing jumps of sixteen to seventeen feet. In 1933 Cairns joined the Police Force, he soon became a detective and gained notoriety working in a special surveillance team known as "the dogs" shadowing squad wherein he was involved in a number of dramatic arrests. While working he studied at night and completed an economics degree at the University of Melbourne, he was the first Victorian policeman to hold a tertiary degree. In 1939 he married Gwen Robb. Cairns left the police in 1944. Thereafter he was employed, successively, as a tutor and lecturer in the Army and as a senior lecturer in economic history, at the University of Melbourne.
He was considered a convinced socialist. In 1946 he was rejected. Following this rejection, Cairns became active in its left wing; the Victorian division of the ALP had by this time been infiltrated by the Catholic "Groupers", associated with Archbishop Mannix and B. A. Santamaria, Cairns was a leading opponent of this group. In 1955, when the federal Labor leader, H. V. Evatt, attacked the Groupers and brought on a major split in the Labor Party, Cairns sided with Evatt. At the 1955 election, he stood for the House of Representatives for the working-class seat of Yarra, held by the leading Grouper, Stan Keon. In what Cairns has been quoted as saying was "... the most active and intense and vigorous election campaign that's been run in Australia." Cairns was held Yarra until 1969, when it was abolished at a redistribution. He shifted to Lalor in Melbourne's western suburbs; the seat had been in Labor hands since its creation in 1949, but had been taken by Liberal Mervyn Lee in 1966, as part of that year's pro-Liberal landslide.
However, a redistribution wiped out Lee's majority and gave Labor a notional majority of six percent. Rather than face certain defeat, Lee made an unsuccessful bid for the nearby seat of Bendigo; this proved prescient, as Cairns won Lalor with a healthy swing. In Canberra, Cairns became a leader of the left, he was a effective debater and was soon feared and disliked by ministers in the Liberal government of Robert Menzies, although his personal dealings with Menzies himself were more cordial than might have been expected. Cairns was disliked by many in his own party, who saw him as an ideologue whose political views were too left-wing for the Australian electorate. Cairns's abilities could not be denied, he completed his doctorate in economic history in 1957, by the 1960s he was among the Labor Party's leading figures. At this time he lectured on Marxist and socialist history, taught at free seminars for working people in Melbourne unable to afford tertiary education, his first exposure to overseas travel, which took place at this period, had a great effect on him.
Early in 1967, the septuagenarian Arthur Calwell retired as Labor leader, Cairns contested the leadership. The following year, when Whitlam offered his resignation, Cairns again contested the leadership, but again he failed to win it. Whitlam appointed him shadow minister for industry. One of the reasons Cairns did not become leader of the Labor Party was that in the late 1960s and early 1970s his main focus was not on parliamentary politics but on leading the mass movement against the Vietnam War, to which the Menzies government had committed combat troops in 1965, against conscription for that war; until about 1968, most Australians supported the war.
1974 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 May 1974. All 127 seats in the House of Representatives and all 60 seats in the Senate were up for election, due to a double dissolution; the incumbent Labor Party led by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam defeated the opposition Liberal–Country coalition under Billy Snedden. Prior to the election the voting age had been reduced from 21 to 18 years; the election was held in conjunction with four referendum questions. Future Prime Minister John Howard entered parliament at this election. Gough Whitlam had been an active prime minister since his party's victory in the 1972 election, his government had pursued many progressive reforms and policies over its first term. However, it suffered through the 1973 oil crisis and the 1973–75 recession and received a hostile reception from the coalition/DLP-controlled Senate, with the last Senate election held in 1970. Following an attempt by Whitlam to create an extra Senate vacancy in Queensland by appointing former Democratic Labor Party Leader, Senator Vince Gair, as Ambassador to the Republic of Ireland, Snedden announced that the opposition would block the Government's supply bills in the Senate.
After a great deal of legalistic argumentation in both houses about the Gair Affair, justified by the failure of six bills to pass the Senate, Whitlam requested and was granted by Governor-General Sir Paul Hasluck a double dissolution under section 57 of the Constitution. The already-announced election date of 18 May was kept; the election focused on Whitlam's first one-and-a-half years in office and whether the Australian public was willing to continue with his reform agenda. NotesThe National Alliance was an electoral alliance the Country Party and the Democratic Labor Party in Western Australia; the two members who were elected under the NA banner sat with the Country Party in parliament. NotesThe Country Party contested the elections in Western Australia as the National Alliance, a merger of the CP and the Democratic Labor Party in that state; the NA won a single Senate seat in WA, its elected representative being Tom Drake-Brockman, who sat with the CP on election to parliament. Independent: Michael Townley The Whitlam Government had been re-elected with their majority in the House of Representatives reduced from 9 to 5 seats, while they gained 5 seats in the Senate.
The ALP and the coalition each won 29 seats in the 60 member Senate, with the balance of power held by Steele Hall of the Liberal Movement, Michael Townley, a conservative independent. The Democratic Labor Party, rendered obselete by the election of the Whitlam government in 1972, lost all five of its Senate seats. Al Grassby who served as Minister for Immigration in the Labor Whitlam Government lost his seat. Grassby's actions as immigration minister attracted criticism from anti-immigration groups, led by the Immigration Control Association, which targeted his electorate in a campaign at the May 1974 election; as a result, Grassby was defeated by the National Party candidate, John Sullivan, by just 792 votes. Grassby and his supporters accused these groups of mounting a smear campaign against him; the re-elected Whitlam government's failure again to gain a majority in the Senate led to the 1974 joint sitting, Australia's only joint sitting, pursuant to section 57 of the Constitution. It was approved by the new governor-general Sir John Kerr after the bills were presented to the new parliament and were rejected a third time.
It was held three months after the election, on 6–7 August, it enabled the six bills, thrice rejected by the Senate to be passed. The Health Insurance bills were both passed on party lines, 95–92, the Petroleum and Minerals Authority legislation passed on party lines, though with one Liberal Party member absent. Liberal Movement Senator Steele Hall supported the three Electoral bills, citing his experience as Liberal Premier of South Australia, where he had fought his own party in an effort to improve unequal electoral arrangements dubbed the Playmander. Northern Territory Country Party MP Sam Calder supported the Territory Senators legislation, though he opposed the ACT being given added representation. In February 1975, Townley joined the Liberal party. In 1975, Coalition premiers would break longstanding convention in the replacement of two ALP senators. Lionel Murphy, who had resigned to take up an appointment to the High Court, was replaced by independent Cleaver Bunton. Bunton refused to vote against supply.
Field took his seat in the Senate as an Independent on 9 September. Due to a High Court challenge to his appointment, he was on leave from the Senate, unable to exercise a vote, from 1 October 1975, which reduced the number of sitting senators to 59; this gave the Coalition an effective majority, holding 30 of the 59, allowing them to block supply in the Senate to pave the way for the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Candidates of the Australian federal election, 1974 Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1974–1975 Members of the Australian Senate, 1974–1975 AustralianPolitics.com 1974 election details University of WA election results in Australia since 1890 AEC 2PP vote
University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria. Melbourne is a sandstone university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21 and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university. There are 10 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty. Melbourne comprises 11 separate academic units and is associated with numerous institutes and research centres, including the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research and the Grattan Institute.
Amongst Melbourne's 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School and the Melbourne Medical School are well regarded. Times Higher Education ranked Melbourne 32nd globally in 2017-2018, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Melbourne 38th in the world, in the QS World University Rankings 2019 Melbourne ranks 39th globally and ranked sixth in the world according to the 2019 QS Graduate Employability Rankings. Four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from the University of Melbourne. Ten Nobel laureates have been the most of any Australian university; the University of Melbourne was established by Hugh Childers, the Auditor-General and Finance Minister, in his first Budget Speech on 4 November 1852, who set aside a sum of £10,000 for the establishment of a university. The university was established by Act of Incorporation on 22 January 1853, with power to confer degrees in arts, medicine and music; the act provided for an annual endowment of £9,000, while a special grant of £20,000 was made for buildings that year.
The foundation stone was laid on 3 July 1854, on the same day the foundation stone for the State Library Classes commenced in 1855 with three professors and sixteen students. The original buildings were opened by the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham, on 3 October 1855; the first chancellor, Redmond Barry, held the position until his death in 1880. The inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victoria's gold rush; the institution was designed to be a "civilising influence" at a time of rapid settlement and commercial growth. In 1881, the admission of women was a seen as victory over the more conservative ruling council; the university's 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2003. The Melbourne School of Land and Environment was disestablished on the first of January, 2015, its agriculture and food systems department moved alongside veterinary science to form the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, while other areas of study, including horticulture, forestry and resource management, moved to the Faculty of Science in two new departments.
As of May 2009 the university "suspended" the Bachelor of Music Theatre and Puppetry courses at the college and there were fears they may not return under the new curriculum. A 2005 heads of agreement over the merger of the VCA and the university stated that the management of academic programs at the VCA would ensure that "the VCA continues to exercise high levels of autonomy over the conduct and future development of its academic programs so as to ensure their integrity and quality" and that the college's identity will be preserved. New dean Sharman Pretty outlined drastic changes under the university's plan for the college in early April 2009; as a result, it is now being called into question. Staff at the college responded to the changes, claiming the university did not value vocational arts training, voicing fears over the future of quality training at the VCA. Former Victorian arts minister Race Mathews has weighed in on the debate expressing his hope that, "Melbourne University will not proceed with its proposed changes to the Victorian College of the Arts", for'good sense' to prevail.
In 2011, the Victorian State Government allocated $24 million to support arts education at the VCA and the faculty was renamed the Faculty of the Victorian College of the Arts and the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music. The Parkville Campus is the primary campus of the university. Established in a large area north of Grattan Street in Parkville, the campus has expanded well beyond its boundaries, with many of its newly acquired buildings located in the nearby suburb of Carlton; the university is undertaking an'ambitious infrastructure program' to reshape campuses. Melbourne University has 10 residential colleges in total, seven of which are located in an arc around the cricket oval at the northern edge of the campus, known as College Crescent; the other three are located outside of university grounds. The residential colleges aim to provide accommodation and holistic education experience to university students. Most of the university's residential colleges admit students from RMIT University and Monash University, Parkville campus, with selected colleges accepting students from the Australian Catholic University and Victoria University.
Several of the earliest campus buildings, such as the Old Quadrangle and Baldwin Spencer buildings, feature period architecture. The new Wilson Hall replaced th