A palindrome is a word, phrase, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward, such as madam or racecar or the number 10801. Sentence-length palindromes may be written when allowances are made for adjustments to capital letters and word dividers, such as "A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!", "Was it a car or a cat I saw?" or "No'x' in Nixon". Composing literature in palindromes is an example of constrained writing; the word "palindrome" was coined by the English playwright Ben Jonson in the 17th century from the Greek roots palin and dromos. Palindromes date back at least to 79 AD, as a palindrome was found as a graffito at Herculaneum, a city buried by ash in that year; this palindrome, called the Sator Square, consists of a sentence written in Latin: "Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas". It is remarkable for the fact that the first letters of each word form the first word, the second letters form the second word, so forth. Hence, it can be arranged into a word square that reads in four different ways: horizontally or vertically from either top left to bottom right or bottom right to top left.
As such, they can be referred to as palindromatic. A palindrome with the same square property is the Hebrew palindrome, "We explained the glutton, in the honey was burned and incinerated", credited to Abraham ibn Ezra in 1924, referring to the halachic question as to whether a fly landing in honey makes the honey treif; the palindromic Latin riddle "In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni" describes the behavior of moths. It is that this palindrome is from medieval rather than ancient times; the second word, borrowed from Greek, should properly be spelled gyrum. Byzantine Greeks inscribed the palindrome, "Wash sins, not only face" ΝΙΨΟΝ ΑΝΟΜΗΜΑΤΑ ΜΗ ΜΟΝΑΝ ΟΨΙΝ, on baptismal fonts; this practice was continued in many English churches. Examples include the font at St. Mary's Church and the font in the basilica of St. Sophia, the font of St. Stephen d'Egres, Paris; some well-known English palindromes are, "Able was I ere I saw Elba", "A man, a plan, a canal – Panama", "Madam, I'm Adam" and "Never odd or even".
English palindromes of notable length include mathematician Peter Hilton's "Doc, note: I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod" and Scottish poet Alastair Reid's "T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad; the most familiar palindromes in English are character-unit palindromes. The characters read the same backward as forward; some examples of palindromic words are redivider, civic, level, kayak, racecar, redder and refer. There are word-unit palindromes in which the unit of reversal is the word. Word-unit palindromes were made popular in the recreational linguistics community by J. A. Lindon in the 1960s. Occasional examples in English were created in the 19th century. Several in French and Latin date to the Middle Ages. There are line-unit palindromes. Palindromes consist of a sentence or phrase, e.g. "Mr. Owl ate my metal worm", "Was it a car or a cat I saw?", "Murder for a jar of red rum" or "Go hang a salami, I'm a lasagna hog". Punctuation and spaces are ignored.
Some, such as "Rats live on no evil star", "Live on time, emit no evil", "Step on no pets", include the spaces. Semordnilap is a name coined for words; the word was coined by Martin Gardner in his notes to C. C. Bombaugh's book Oddities and Curiosities of Words and Literature in 1961. An example of this is the word stressed, desserts spelled backward; some semordnilaps are deliberate. An example in electronics is the mho, a unit of electrical conductance, ohm spelled backwards, the unit of electrical resistance and the reciprocal of conductance; the daraf, a unit of elastance, is farad spelled backwards, the unit of capacitance and the reciprocal of elastance. In fiction, many characters have names deliberately made to be semordnilaps of other names or words, the most used of, Alucard. Semordnilaps are known as emordnilaps, word reversals, reversible anagrams, heteropalindromes, semi-palindromes, half-palindromes, mynoretehs, volvograms, or anadromes, they have sometimes been called antigrams, though this term refers to anagrams which have opposite meanings.
In 2017, a six-year-old Canadian named Levi Budd called this a levidrome, which garnered support into making it a word from celebrities William Shatner and Patricia Arquette As of October 2018, none of these terms have been accepted as official entries in the Oxford English Dictionary. Some names are palindromes, such as the given names Hannah, Anna, Bob and Otto, or the surnames Harrah, Renner and Nenonen. Lon Nol was Prime Minister of Cambodia. Nisio Isin is a Japanese novelist and manga writer, whose pseudonym is a pal
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Queens' College, Cambridge
Queens' College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Queens' is one of the oldest and the largest colleges of the university, founded in 1448 by Margaret of Anjou, has some of the most recognisable buildings in Cambridge; the college spans both sides of the river Cam, colloquially referred to as the "light side" and the "dark side", with the Mathematical Bridge connecting the two. The college's alumni include heads of government and politicians from various countries, religious leaders and Oscar nominees. Examples are Abba Eban and T. H. White, its most famous matriculant is Desiderius Erasmus, who studied at the college during his trips to England between 1506 and 1515. As of June 2016, the college held non-current assets valued at £111.18 million. The current president of the college is Labour Party adviser, Lord Eatwell. Past presidents include Saint John Fisher. Queens' College was founded in 1448 by Margaret of Anjou and refounded in 1465 by the rival queen Elizabeth Woodville.
This dual foundation is reflected in its orthography: Queens', not Queen's, although the full name is "The Queen's College of St Margaret and St Bernard called Queens' College, in the University of Cambridge". In 1446 Andrew Dokett obtained a charter from Henry VI to found St Bernard's College, on a site now part of St Catharine's College. A year the charter was revoked and Dokett obtained a new charter from the king to found St Bernard's College on the present site of Old Court and Cloister Court. In 1448 Queen Margaret received from her husband, King Henry VI, the lands of St Bernard's College to build a new college to be called "Queen's College of St Margaret and St Bernard". On 15 April 1448, Sir John Wenlock, chamberlain to Queen Margaret, laid the foundation stone at the south-east corner of the chapel. By 1460 the library, chapel and President's Lodge were completed and the chapel licensed for service. In 1477 and 1484 Richard III made large endowments to the college and his wife, Anne Neville, became the third queen to be patroness of the college, making endowments on her own behalf, which were all taken away by Henry VII after he overthew Richard.
Between that time and the early 1600s many improvements were made and new buildings constructed, including the Walnut Tree Building, completed in 1618. Since the college has refurbished most of its old buildings and expanded. In the early seventeenth century Queens’ had become a fashionable college for the gentry and aristocracy for those with more Puritan leanings. During the English civil war the college sent all its silver to help the King; as a result, the president and the fellows were ejected from their posts. In 1660 the president was restored. In 1777, a fire in the Walnut Tree Building destroyed the upper floors, which were rebuilt 1778-82. In February 1795 the college was badly flooded waist-deep in the cloisters. In 1823, the spelling of the college's name changed from Queen's to Queens'; the earliest known record of the college boat club dates from 1831. In 1862, the St Bernard Society, the debating club of the college was founded. In 1884, the first football match was played by the college team and the St Margaret Society was founded.
In 1980, the college for the first time allowed females to matriculate as members, with the first female members of the college graduating in 1983. The arms are the paternal arms of the first foundress queen, Margaret of Anjou, daughter of Rene, Duke of Anjou, with a difference of a bordure vert for the college; the six quarters of these arms represent the six lordships. These arms are of interest because the third quarter uses or on argent, a combination which breaks the rule of tincture of "no metal on metal" in heraldry; the cross potent is a visual pun on the letters H and I, the first two letters of Hierusalem. These are not the official arms of the College, rather, a badge; the silver boar's head was the badge of Richard III. The earliest evidence of the college using a boar's head as a symbol is from 1544; the gold cross stands for St Margaret, the gold crozier for St Bernard, the two patron saints of Queens' College. There is a suggestion that the saltire arrangement of these is an allusion to Andrew Dokett, the first president of Queens'.
Today, this badge is used by college clubs, appears in connection with food or dining. Queens' College has some of the most recognisable buildings in Cambridge, it combines modern architecture in extensive gardens. It is one of only two colleges in which buildings straddle both sides of the River Cam, its two halves joined across the river by the famous Mathematical Bridge. Queens' College is located in the centre of the city, it is the second southernmost of the colleges on the banks of the River Cam on the east bank.. President's Lodge of Queens' is the oldest building on the river at Cambridge; the President's Lodge sits in Cloister Court: the Cloister walks were erected in the 1490s to connect the Old Court of 1448/9 with the riverside buildings of the 1460s, thus forming the court now known as Cloister Court. Essex Building, in the corner of the court, was erected 1756–60, is so named after its builder, James Essex the Younger, a local carpenter who had earlier erected the wooden bridge. Old Court was built between 1448 and 1451.
Stylistic matters suggest that this was designed by and built under the direction of the master mason Reginald Ely, wh
Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books. Since 1991 it has been a division of the Orion Publishing Group. George Weidenfeld and Nigel Nicolson founded Weidenfeld & Nicolson in 1949 with a reception at Brown's Hotel, London. Among many other significant books published Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita and Nicolson's Portrait of a Marriage, a frank biography of his mother, Vita Sackville-West and father Harold Nicolson. In its early years Weidenfeld published nonfiction works by Isaiah Berlin, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Rose Macaulay, novels by Mary McCarthy and Saul Bellow, it published titles by world leaders and historians, along with contemporary fiction and glossy illustrated books. Weidenfeld & Nicolson acquired the publisher Arthur Baker Ltd in 1959 and ran it as an imprint into the 1990s. Weidenfeld was one of Orion's first acquisitions after the group's founding in 1991, formed the core of its offerings. At that time Weidenfeld imprints included its own establishment much earlier.
Orion was acquired in turn by Hachette Livre in 1998. The hardcover rights to Everyman Library were sold in 1991, survive as a Random House property, paperbacks Everyman Classics continued under Orion. Late in 2013, W&N published the British edition of I Am Malala, the memoir of Pakistani-born teenager Malala Yousafzai with Christina Lamb. Malala Yousafzai is a female education activist, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 2014. Illustrated Novel Library Lives Pleasures and Treasures The Young Historian Books World University Library Weidenfeld & Nicolson blog The Orion Publishing Group A brief history of the Orion Publishing Group at the Wayback Machine Weidenfeld & Nicolson Publishing Archives
A connoisseur is a person who has a great deal of knowledge about the fine arts, cuisines, or an expert judge in matters of taste. In many areas the term now has an air of pretension, may be used in a ironic sense, but in the art trade connoisseurship remains a crucial skill for the identification and attribution to individual artists of works by the style and technique, where documentary evidence of provenance is lacking; the situation in the wine trade is similar, for example in assessing the potential for ageing in a young wine through wine tasting. "The ability to tell instinctively who painted a picture is defined as connoisseurship". Connoisseurs evaluate works of art on the basis of their experience of the style and technique of artists. Judgment informed by intuition is essential, but it must be grounded in a thorough understanding of the work itself. On the basis of empirical evidence, refinement of perception about technique and form, a disciplined method of analysis, the responsibility of the connoisseur is to attribute authorship, validate authenticity and appraise quality.
These findings are crucial for the valuation of works, can be collected and organized into a catalogue raisonné of the work of a single artist or a school. In his Meaning in the Visual Arts, Erwin Panofsky explains the difference between a connoisseur and an art historian: "The connoisseur might be defined as a laconic art historian, the art historian as a loquacious connoisseur." The English dealer and art historian, Philip Mould says, "it is about noticing things which have specific characteristics of the artists involved, as opposed to general characteristics of the era". He points out the importance of condition and understanding what the artist painted, his colleague, Bendor Grosvenor takes the view that connoisseurship is learned by looking at paintings and cannot be taught in the classroom. He believes that it has become unfashionable in the world of art history and as a result, activities such as producing a catalogue raisonné are undervalued by the art history establishment. Svetlana Alpers confirms the art historians reservations that the identification of individual style in works is "essentially assigned to a group of specialists in the field known as conoisseurs".
Nonetheless, Christie's Education offers an MA in the History of Art and the Art Market that includes a seminar on connoisseurship. This covers "the critical skills needed to look at art, write about art and evaluate works, including handling and viewing art objects and visiting artists’ studios, conservation labs and museums." During the 18th century, the term was used as a synonym for a still vaguer man of taste or a pretend critic. In 1760, Oliver Goldsmith said, "Painting is and has been and now will someday become the sole object of fashionable care. In 1890, Giovanni Morelli wrote, "art connoisseurs say of art historians that they write about what they do not understand; the attributions of painted pottery were an important project to the History of Ancient Art and Classical Archeology. Two specialists were the most important authorities in archaeological connoisseurship: John Davidson Beazley and Arthur Dale Trendall. Connoisseur is used in the context of gastronomy, i.e. in connection with fine food, wine, coffee and many other products whose consumption can be pleasing to the senses.
Enthusiast Beck, James H. From Duccio to Raphael: Connoisseurship in Crisis. Friedländer, Max J. On Art and Connoisseurship, trans. Tancred Borenius. L'art du connaisseur = The art of connoisseurship. Robinson, Terry F. "Eighteenth-Century Connoisseurship and the Female Body" Oxford Handbooks Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 10 May 2017. Scallen, Catherine B. Rembrandt and the Practice of Connoisseurship. Trummers and Koenraad Jonckheere, eds. Art market and connoisseurship: a closer look at paintings by Rembrandt and their contemporaries