Aberdeen Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen, Scotland. They compete in the Scottish Premiership and have never been relegated from the top division of the Scottish football league system since they were promoted in 1905, despite twice finishing within the relegation zone. Aberdeen have won seven Scottish Cups and six Scottish League Cups, they are the only Scottish team to have won two European trophies, having won the European Cup Winners' Cup and the European Super Cup in 1983. Formed in 1903 as a result of the amalgamation of three clubs from Aberdeen, they challenged for honours until the post war decade, when they won each of the major Scottish trophies under manager Dave Halliday; this level of success was surpassed in the 1980s, under the management of Alex Ferguson, they won three league titles, four Scottish Cups and a Scottish League Cup, alongside the two European trophies. Aberdeen were the last club outside the Old Firm to win a league title, in 1984–85, the last Scottish team to win a European trophy.
The team has enjoyed less success since this golden era, though a 19-year wait for a major trophy was ended by winning the 2013–14 Scottish League Cup, followed up by multiple second-place finishes behind Celtic in the league during the 2010s. Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium since their inception; the ground has a capacity of 20,866 and was the first all-seated and all-covered stadium in the United Kingdom. Pittodrie was the first football stadium to feature a dug-out, an invention of player and coach Donald Colman; the club's colours have been red and white since 1939. In modern times, Aberdeen have exclusively played with all-red strips with white detailing. Aberdeen attract support from the city and surrounding areas, as they are the only senior team in the North East area and have no geographically close rivals; the current Aberdeen F. C. was formed following the merger of three clubs based in the city—Aberdeen, Victoria United and Orion—in 1903. The new club played its first match on 15 August 1903: a 1–1 draw with Stenhousemuir.
That first season produced a win in the Aberdeenshire Cup, but only a third-place finish in the Northern League. The club applied for membership of the Scottish League for the following season, were elected to the Second Division. In 1904, the club were managed by Jimmy Philip. At the end of its first season, despite having finished seventh out of twelve teams, Aberdeen were elected to the new, expanded First Division, they have remained in the top tier of Scottish football since. From 1906, the club made steady progress, with a Scottish Cup semi-final appearance in 1908 and another in 1911. In that season of 1910–11, Aberdeen recorded their first victories over the Old Firm of Celtic and Rangers, led the league for a time, but finished the season in second place. Wartime affected the club as much as any other. Aberdeen dropped out of competitive football, along with Raith Rovers. Senior football returned on 16 August 1919, Aberdeen resumed with a fixture against Albion Rovers. Philip was still in charge, continued to oversee a team capable of isolated good results, but never quite able to sustain a challenge long enough to win a trophy.
In 1923, Aberdeen were drawn against Peterhead in the Scottish Cup, posted their record score—a 13–0 victory. Philip retired a year and was replaced as manager by Paddy Travers, he presided over the team's first Scottish Cup final in 1937. Travers' "trainer"—first team coach in modern parlance—was former player Donald Colman. Colman conceived the dug-out, a covered area set below the level of the playing surface to better aid his observations. Everton visited Pittodrie soon after its introduction, exported the idea to the English leagues, from where it spread throughout the football-playing world. Travers left to become manager of Clyde in 1939. Travers was replaced by former Yeovil Town manager Dave Halliday, one of more than a hundred applicants for the role, the club moved from their black and gold strip to red and white. Halliday had begun his work when World War II halted competitive football in the United Kingdom. For these six years, the club was temporarily taken over by then-directors Charles B Forbes and George Anderson while Halliday served in the war.
Halliday's place in the Aberdeen Hall of Fame was secured after the war when he became the first manager to bring national trophies to Pittodrie. Aberdeen won the Southern League Cup in the 1945 -- defeating Rangers 3 -- 2 at Hampden, they reached the 1947 Scottish Cup final, defeating Hibernian 2–1 with George Hamilton, signed from Halliday's former club Queen of the South, scoring to gain the club's first major trophy. From this early success, Halliday's side reached two more Scottish Cup finals, in 1953 and 1954, though they lost both. Halliday's team were not to be denied and the following season, 1954–55, Aberdeen won their first Scottish League title. Though league winners, the club did not participate in the first European Cup competition—Scotland's place was awarded to Hibernian, who took part by special invitation. Halliday and Hamilton left at the end of that championship-winning season, Halliday was replaced by Davie Shaw. Aberdeen won the League Cup under his guidance, beating St Mirren in 1955–56, reached another Scottish Cup final in 1959.
However, Shaw stepped aside for another former favourite player, Tommy Pearson, in 1959. Pearson's time in charge coincided with a high turnover of
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.
The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number nine – Everton's Dixie Dean a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.
Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10, exemplified by Dennis Bergkamp.
Other number 10s who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are described as an attacking midfielder or the playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the Number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe Roberto Baggio's playing role, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a Number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he is a prolific goalscorer. Second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the Number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly as assist providers.
In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante" or "ponta-de-lança". The position of inside forward was popularly used in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries; the inside forwards would support the centre-forward and making space in the opposition defence, and, as the passing game developed, supporting him or her with passes. The role is broadly analogous to the "hole" or second striker position in the modern game, although here there were two such players, known as inside right and inside left. In early 2–3–5 formations the inside-forwards would flank the centre-forward on both sides. With the advent of
Stirling Albion F.C.
Stirling Albion Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the city of Stirling. The club was founded in 1945 following the demise of King's Park after World War II; the club competes in Scottish League Two as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League. Its highest league position came in 1958–59 with a 12th-placed position in the top flight, its only major success is in the league where it has won the second tier of Scottish football on four occasions, the last coming in 1964–65. The club has more competed in the third or fourth tier following league re-construction in 1975 and 2013. Stirling's home ground is Forthbank Stadium, a 3,798 capacity stadium in the east of the city near the banks of the River Forth. Before the stadium was opened in 1993 the club was based at Annfield Stadium, the home of the club since it was founded in 1945. Stirling Albion was founded in 1945 after the town's previous football team King's Park had failed to survive the Second World War. King's Park's ground had been damaged during the war, having been hit by a German bomb on 20 July 1940.
This was one of only two bombs to fall on the town during the Second World War. The new club was the brainchild of local businessman Thomas Fergusson, a local coal magnate, he purchased the Annfield estate to build a new stadium. Annfield was situated within a quarter of a mile from the town centre and would be the home of The Binos until 1992; the name'Albion' came from the make of Fergusson's coal trucks. This however is an urban myth. Albion Coal lorries were used as grandstands but the Club was named at a meeting of fans long before a ball was kicked; the name Albion was chosen because it was an old word for Great Britain and held meaning for the founder. Between the 1940 and 1960, the club gained a reputation as a club, too good for the lower league but never quite good enough to establish themselves in the top flight, hence the club's nickname of The Yo-Yos. For a time it was a saying in Scotland that something or somebody was "going up and down like Stirling Albion". In 1966 the club became the first British team to play in Japan.
Under the vastly experienced Bob Shankly, Stirling made progress, achieving consecutive 3rd place finishes in 1971/72 and 1972/73, narrowly missing out on promotion to the top tier. On retiring to the boardroom, Shankly was succeeded for one season by Frank Beattie but handpicked his long-term protege, former Albion player Alex Smith, cutting his managerial teeth at Stenhousemuir. Smith’s first season in 1974/75 saw the club finish 8th, three points behind Alex Ferguson’s St Mirren in 6th; that slim margin would prove crucial as league reconstruction meant it was the difference between staying in the 2nd division or starting afresh in the new 3rd tier. Over the next two seasons, Smith began a major rebuild of the playing staff that would create one of Albion’s finest squads. To a core of long-standing regulars including midfielder Robert Duffin, half-back James Clark and goalkeeper George Young, he added, among others, centre-half John Kennedy from Partick Thistle, Clyde full-back James Burns and Hibernian youngsters Allan Moffat and David Steedman.
Midfielder Robin Thomson and teenage winger Graeme Armstrong arrived from non-league football. Albion opened the 1976/77 season with a League Cup campaign that saw them nearly topple Premier Division Aberdeen in the quarter-finals, losing the first leg 1-0 at Pittodrie but winning the return by the same score at Annfield with a Robert Gray header; the Dons won the replay at the neutral ground of Dens Park, Dundee, 2-0, before beating both Rangers and Celtic on the way to lifting the trophy. Albion went on to win the Second Division crown that season, conceding only 29 goals in 39 matches and taking the title with several games to spare. Back in the 2nd tier, Albion finished a creditable 5th in 1977/78 and enjoyed comfortable mid-table finishes in the subsequent two seasons. However, despite consolidation on the pitch, Annfield's infrastructure was in dire need of repair and the club’s cash supplies began to run low; the 1980/81 season started memorably with a stunning 1-0 win over Celtic in the first leg of their 2nd round League Cup tie thanks to a Lloyd Irvine goal.
They took an early lead in the 2nd leg at Parkhead too with a Matt McPhee free kick, but minutes away from a famous victory, a late Tommy Burns strike took the tie to extra time. Albion were overwhelmed and lost 6-2 on aggregate, a teenage Charlie Nicholas coming off the bench to grab his first two goals for the Hoops. Following a third match against Celtic – a 3-0 defeat in the Scottish Cup in February – goals and confidence dried up and 13 games without finding the net led to relegation back to the 3rd tier. Through necessity, Albion began to cash in on the squad’s better players, Smith was given the task of developing a conveyor belt of local talent to sell on and keep Albion afloat. George Young had signed for Rangers for £20,000 in 1979 but the exodus began to pick up pace. Defender George Nicol went to Dundee United in John Kennedy to St Johnstone a year later. Three of Smith’s local discoveries left in quick succession in 1983 and 1984: striker John Colquhoun to Celtic, midfielder Brian Grant to Aberdeen and Scotland youth defender John Philliben to Doncaster Rovers.
Meanwhile, stalwart goalkeeper Gordon Arthur departed for Dumbarton. Despite the calibre of the players leaving, Albion maintained consistent top-half finishes and, in 1984, racked up a record 20-0 Scottish Cup victory over Selkirk, which made headlines around the world. Following a bright start to the 1986/87 campaign, Smith was prised away to take charge of St Mirren, his assistant George Peebles took over at Ann
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
2006–07 in Scottish football
The 2006–07 season was the 110th season of competitive football in Scotland. 9 July: Rangers defender Fernando Ricksen is banned for the club's pre-season trip to South Africa, following an incident on the outbound flight. Manager Paul Le Guen cited "wholly inappropriate and unacceptable" behaviour as the reason for Ricksen's omission. Ricksen admitted that he fears for his future at Rangers claiming that the club have other motives for wanting him out, he was loaned to Russian Premier League club Zenit Saint Petersburg. 29 July: Scotland under-19s lose 2–1 to Spain in the final of the European Under-19 Football Championship. 23 October: In the wake of their 2–0 home defeat to Kilmarnock, Hearts head coach Valdas Ivanauskas is given a two-week leave of absence after discussions with majority shareholder Vladimir Romanov. Ivanauskas cited ill-health as the reason for his temporary departure. Sporting Director, former coach of Belarus, Eduard Malofeev is appointed for the interim. 27 October: Hearts' majority shareholder Vladimir Romanov states that he will sell players if the club fail to beat Dunfermline Athletic in their forthcoming fixture.
Club captain Steven Pressley released a statement shortly after expressing the players' discontent at the current situation at the club. 14 November: After their 1–1 draw away at Falkirk, Hearts announce that interim head coach Eduard Malofeev is to be replaced by FBK Kaunas manager Eugenijus Riabovas, this is to allow Malofeev to pursue his Uefa coaching Pro-licence. 24 November: Valdas Ivanauskas returns as Hearts head-coach. 9 December: Hearts part company with captain Steven Pressley. 20 December: Dundee part company with striker Andy McLaren after he was given three red cards in a 2–1 defeat to Clyde. 1 January: It is reported that Barry Ferguson has been stripped of the captaincy of Rangers and will not play for the club again under Paul Le Guen. Gavin Rae is appointed as the new captain. 2 January: Paul Le Guen confirms that Gavin Rae will be the new Rangers captain. With regard to Barry Ferguson he stated "When you have someone you feel undermines you, it becomes harder and harder". Asked whether Ferguson had been placed on the transfer list, Le Guen said "It remains to be seen.
My own position, precarious, may have an influence on that." 4 January: Paul Le Guen leaves Rangers by mutual consent after meeting with Rangers chairman Sir David Murray. 8 January: The Scottish Football Association reject an approach from Rangers for manager Walter Smith. A statement from the SFA revealed that Smith had requested to be relieved of his contract, however this was refused following a meeting. 10 January: Walter Smith is confirmed as Rangers manager, having resigned from his position as Scotland manager. The SFA release a statement stating that "No agreement has been reached with Mr Smith or Rangers Football Club on any compensation payment" and "In the absence of agreement, proceedings will require to be raised against Mr Smith for breach of contract and Rangers Football Club for inducement to breach the contract." 11 January: The SFA agree a compensation package with Rangers over manager Walter Smith's switch to Ibrox. 2 March: For the second time of the season, Hearts manager Valdas Ivanauskas is given leave of absence by the club.
Sporting Director, former CSKA Moscow player Anatoly Korobochka is appointed on a temporary basis. 18 March: Hibernian win the Scottish League Cup, defeating Kilmarnock 5–1 in the final. 7 April: Second Division team Forfar Athletic become the first team in Scotland to confirm their relegation following a 9–1 defeat by Greenock Morton. 14 April: Greenock Morton are promoted as champions of the Second Division, despite losing 2–0 to Raith Rovers. 21 April: Berwick Rangers are promoted as champions of the Third Division after a 1–0 win over Arbroath. 22 April: Celtic are crowned Scottish Premier League champions for the second successive season after defeating Kilmarnock 2–1. 28 April: Gretna win promotion to the Premier League as First Division champions after beating Ross County 3–2 at Victoria Park, a result that relegated County to the Second Division. 3 May: East Stirlingshire, having finished bottom of the Third Division for the fifth consecutive season, are told they will lose full member status if the club finish bottom again next season.
5 May: Rangers ensure second place in the SPL and entry to the UEFA Champions League Second qualifying round after defeating Celtic 2–0 at Ibrox. 12 May: Queen's Park gain promotion to the Second Division after defeating East Fife 7–2 on aggregate in the promotion play-off. The Glasgow club swap places with Stranraer. 12 May: Stirling Albion gain promotion to the First Division, swap places with Airdrie United, after defeating the North Lanarkshire club 5–4 on aggregate in the promotion/relegation play-off match 12 May: Dunfermline Athletic are relegated to the First Division. A 2–1 defeat at Inverness, coupled with St Mirren's 3–2 win at Motherwell, meant the Fife club exit the SPL after seven seasons in the top flight. 16 May: Sevilla win the UEFA Cup after defeating Espanyol 3–1 on penalties at Hampden Park. The match had finished 2–2 after 90 minutes. 20 May: Aberdeen seal a UEFA Cup place for next season after defeating Rangers 2–0 at Pittodrie in the final game of the season. 26 May: SPL champions Celtic complete the double after defeating Dunfermline Athletic 1–0 to win the Scottish Cup for the 34th time.
Celtic made preparations for the Champions League with the high-profile signings of Jan Vennegoor of Hesselink from PSV Eindhoven, Jiri Jarosik from Chelsea and Thomas Gravesen from Real Madrid while Stilyan Petrov left to join former boss Martin O'Neill at Aston Villa. Celtic signed former Rangers striker Kenny Miller on a free transfer from Wolverhampton Wanderers. Rangers, under new mana
Dumfries is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland. It is located near the mouth of the River Nith into the Solway Firth. Dumfries is the traditional county town of the historic county of Dumfriesshire. Dumfries is nicknamed Queen of the South; the nickname has given name to the town's professional football club. People from Dumfries are known colloquially in the Scots language as Doonhamers. There are at least three theories on the etymology of the name. One is that the name Dumfries originates from the Scottish Gaelic name Dùn Phris which means "Fort of the Thicket". Another is. Dumfries may be the same place as Penprys, mentioned in an awdl by Taliesin, suggests that the first element may have been pen, "summit, head". According to a third theory, the name is a corruption of two Old English or Old Norse words which mean "the Friars’ Hill". If the name were English or Norse, the expected form would have the elements in reversed orientation.
A Celtic derivation is therefore preferred. Moreover, the Brittonic element element drum, meaning "ridge", the Gaelic elements druim, which means the same, dronn-, "a hump", have all been suggested as an explanation of the first element. No positive information has been obtained of the era and circumstances in which the town of Dumfries was founded; some writers hold that Dumfries flourished as a place of distinction during the Roman occupation of North Great Britain. The Selgovae inhabited Nithsdale at the time and may have raised some military works of a defensive nature on or near the site of Dumfries; this is inferred from the etymology of the name, according to one theory, is resolvable into two Gaelic terms signifying a castle or fort in the copse or brushwood. Dumfries was once within the borders of the Kingdom of Northumbria; the district around Dumfries was for several centuries ruled over and deemed of much importance by the invading Romans. Many traces of Roman presence in Dumfriesshire are still to be found.
The apostle Paul claimed privilege as a Roman citizen on account of his birth at Tarsus. The Romanized natives received freedom as well as civilisation from their conquerors. Late in the fourth century, the Romans bade farewell to the country. According to another theory, the name is a corruption of two words. In the list of British towns given by the ancient historian Nennius, the name Caer Peris occurs, which some modern antiquarians suppose to have been transmuted, by a change of dialect, into Dumfries. Twelve of King Arthur's battles were recorded by Nennius in Historia Brittonum; the Battle of Tribruit, has been suggested as having been near Dumfries or near the mouth of the river Avon near Bo'ness. After the Roman departure the area around Dumfries had various forms of visit by Picts, Anglo-Saxons and Norse culminating in a decisive victory for Gregory, King of Scots at what is now Lochmaben over the native Britons in 890. When, in 1069, Malcolm Canmore and William the Conqueror held a conference regarding the claims of Edgar Ætheling to the English Crown, they met at Abernithi – a term which in the old British tongue means a port at the mouth of the Nith.
It has been argued, the town thus characterised. However, against this argument is that the town is situated eight to nine miles distant from the sea, although the River Nith is tidal and navigable all the way into the town itself. Although at the time 1 mile upstream and on the opposite bank of the Nith from Dumfries, Lincluden Abbey was founded circa 1160; the abbey ruins are on the site of the bailey of the early Lincluden Castle, as are those of the Lincluden Tower. This religious house was used for various purposes, until its abandonment around 1700. Lincluden Abbey and its grounds are now within the Dumfries urban conurbation boundary. William the Lion granted the charter to raise Dumfries to the rank of a royal burgh in 1186. Dumfries was much on the frontier during its first 50 years as a burgh and it grew as a market town and port. Alexander III visited Dumfries in 1264 to plan an expedition against the Isle of Man Scots but for 180 years subjected by the crown of Norway. Identified with the conquest of Man, Dumfries shared in the well being of Scotland for the next 22 years until Alexander's accidental death brought an Augustan era in the town's history to an abrupt finish.
A royal castle, which no longer exists, was built in the 13th century on the site of the present Castledykes Park. In the latter part of the centu