Grain Power Station
Grain Power Station is a CCGT power station and former oil-fired power station in Kent, with operational capacity of 1,275 megawatts owned by Uniper. Grain was built on a 250-acre site for the nationalised Central Electricity Generating Board, it was built by several contractors including John Laing Construction, the Cleveland Bridge Company, N. G. Bailey, Babcock & Wilcox and GEC Turbine Generators Ltd beginning before 1975, it opened in 1979. It was located on the Isle of Grain; the station had the second tallest chimney in the UK, at 244 metres, visible from a wide area of North Kent and parts of South Essex. The chimney was built by specialist contractors Bierrum and Partners Ltd; this chimney was demolished at 11am on 7 September 2016. Grain adjoins the site of the BP Kent oil refinery, which closed in 1982; the station burned oil to drive, via steam turbines, two 690 megawatts alternators. The station was capable of generating enough electricity to supply 2% of Britain's peak electricity needs.
The station was designed to have a total capacity of 3,300 megawatts from five sets of boiler/turbine combinations. The two remaining oil-fired generating units were mothballed by Powergen in 2002 and 2003, but immediately the company began to consider reopening the plant as electricity prices increased rapidly, it was operated by E. ON UK who operated the nearby Kingsnorth coal-fired station, now decommissioned; the plant did not meet the emissions requirements of the Large Combustion Plant Directive and was required to close by 2015. However, due to the rising costs of maintaining the plant, E. ON UK, the owners of Grain Oil power station, announced that Grain was to be mothballed and the site closed by 31 December 2012. Grain Oil power station generated no further electricity but was maintained as standby capacity for the grid. In April 2014 the dismantling process at the site began, being carried out by Mason Ltd.. On 10 May 2015, three buildings on the site were destroyed. Three of the five boiler houses were demolished by explosives on Sunday 2 August 2015.
The 244m-high chimney was demolished on 7 September 2016. The chimney is now the largest structure to be demolished in the United Kingdom beating the New Brighton Tower which won the title one hundred years ago. A new 1,275MW plant consisting of three natural gas-fired Combined Cycle Gas Turbine units capable of generating enough electricity to supply around one million homes has been constructed on the site. Construction work by Alstom started in May 2007, finished in May 2010, cost £580 million. One of the gas turbines was first fired on 2 June 2010; the overall efficiency was expected to be 72%. The power station is able to transfer up to 340MW of heat energy recovered from the steam condensation to run the vaporisers in the nearby Liquefied natural gas terminal, allowing for a reduction in carbon emissions of up to 350,000 tonnes a year, it has three GT26 gas turbines. The whole scheme is designed to three Alstom KA26 Single-Shaft Combined Cycle Power Plant Power Blocks. Uniper CHP plant 2002 Mothballing plan 2003 Reopening Gas-fired station Gas power station proposal in December 2005 Go-ahead for gas power station in November 2006 Demolition begins at Grain Power Station in May 2015 The whole construction from start to finish, showing the three distinct KA26 CCGT units at E.
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Grain of salt
" grain of salt", or " pinch of salt"), is an idiom of the English language, which means to view something with skepticism or not to interpret something literally. Hypotheses of the phrase's origin include Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia, regarding the discovery of a recipe for an antidote to a poison. In the antidote, one of the ingredients was a grain of salt. Threats involving the poison were thus to be taken "with a grain of salt", therefore less seriously; the phrase cum. It is constructed according to the grammar of modern European languages rather than Classical Latin. Pliny's actual words were addito salis grano. An alternative account says that the Roman general Pompey believed he could make himself immune to poison by ingesting small amounts of various poisons, he took this treatment with a grain of salt to help him swallow the poison. In this version, the salt is not the antidote, it was taken to assist in swallowing the poison. The Latin word sal means both "salt" and "wit", so that the Latin phrase "cum grano salis" could be translated as both "with a grain of salt" and "with a grain of wit".
The phrase is said "with a pinch of salt" in British English and said "with a grain of salt" in American English. The dictionary definition of grain of salt at Wiktionary
A crystallite is a small or microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials. The orientation of crystallites can be random with no preferred direction, called random texture, or directed due to growth and processing conditions. Fiber texture is an example of the latter. Crystallites are referred to as grains; the areas where crystallites meet are known as grain boundaries. Polycrystalline or multicrystalline materials, or polycrystals are solids that are composed of many crystallites of varying size and orientation. Most inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including all common metals, many ceramics and ice; the extent to which a solid is crystalline has important effects on its physical properties. Sulfur, while polycrystalline, may occur in other allotropic forms with different properties. Although crystallites are referred to as grains, powder grains are different, as they can be composed of smaller polycrystalline grains themselves. While the structure of a crystal is ordered and its lattice is continuous and unbroken, amorphous materials, such as glass and many polymers, are non-crystalline and do not display any structures as their constituents are not arranged in an ordered manner.
Polycrystalline structures and paracrystalline phases are in between these two extremes. Crystallite size is measured from X-ray diffraction patterns and grain size by other experimental techniques like transmission electron microscopy. Solid objects large enough to see and handle are composed of a single crystal, except for a few cases. Most materials are polycrystalline, made of a large number of single crystals – crystallites – held together by thin layers of amorphous solid; the crystallite size can vary from a few nanometers to several millimeters. If the individual crystallites are oriented at random, a large enough volume of polycrystalline material will be isotropic; this property helps the simplifying assumptions of continuum mechanics to apply to real-world solids. However, most manufactured materials have some alignment to their crystallites, resulting in texture that must be taken into account for accurate predictions of their behavior and characteristics; when the crystallites are ordered with just some random spread of orientations, one has a mosaic crystal.
Material fractures can be a transgranular fracture. There is an ambiguity with powder grains: a powder grain can be made of several crystallites. Thus, the "grain size" found by laser granulometry can be different from the "grain size" found by X-ray diffraction, by optical microscopy under polarised light, or by scanning electron microscopy. Coarse grained rocks are formed slowly, while fine grained rocks are formed on geological time scales. If a rock forms quickly, such as the solidification of lava ejected from a volcano, there may be no crystals at all; this is. Grain boundaries are interfaces. A grain boundary is a single-phase interface, with crystals on each side of the boundary being identical except in orientation; the term "crystallite boundary" is sometimes, though used. Grain boundary areas contain those atoms that have been perturbed from their original lattice sites and impurities that have migrated to the lower energy grain boundary. Treating a grain boundary geometrically as an interface of a single crystal cut into two parts, one of, rotated, we see that there are five variables required to define a grain boundary.
The first two numbers come from the unit vector. The third number designates the angle of rotation of the grain; the final two numbers specify the plane of the grain boundary. Grain boundaries disrupt the motion of dislocations through a material. Dislocation propagation is impeded because of the stress field of the grain boundary defect region and the lack of slip planes and slip directions and overall alignment across the boundaries. Reducing grain size is therefore a common way to improve strength without any sacrifice in toughness because the smaller grains create more obstacles per unit area of slip plane; this crystallite size-strength relationship is given by the Hall–Petch relationship. The high interfacial energy and weak bonding in grain boundaries makes them preferred sites for the onset of corrosion and for the precipitation of new phases from the solid. Grain boundary migration plays an important role in many of the mechanisms of creep. Grain boundary migration occurs when a shear stress acts on the grain boundary plane and causes the grains to slide.
This means that fine-grained materials have a poor resistance to creep relative to coarser grains at high temperatures, because smaller grains contain more atoms in grain boundary sites. Grain boundaries cause deformation in that they are sources and sinks of point defects. Voids in a material tend to gather in a grain boundary, if this happens to a critical extent, the material could fracture. During grain boundary migration, the rate determining step depends on the angle between two adjacent grains. In a small angle dislocation boundary, the migration rate depends on vacancy diffusion between dislocations. In a high angle dislocation boundary, this depends on the atom transport by single atom jumps from the shrinki
Film grain or granularity is the random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small particles of a metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver halide that have received enough photons. While film grain is a function of such particles it is not the same thing as such, it is an optical effect, the magnitude of which depends on both the film stock and the definition at which it is observed. It can be objectionably noticeable in an over-enlarged photographic film photograph. Granularity, or RMS granularity, is a numerical quantification of film-grain noise, equal to the root-mean-square fluctuations in optical density, measured with a microdensitometer with a 0.048 mm diameter circular aperture, on a film area, exposed and developed to a mean density of 1.0 D. Granularity is sometimes quoted as "diffuse RMS granularity times 1000", so that a film with granularity 10 means an rms density fluctuation of 0.010 in the standard aperture area. When the particles of silver are small, the standard aperture area measures an average of many particles, so the granularity is small.
When the particles are large, fewer are averaged in the standard area, so there is a larger random fluctuation, a higher granularity number. The standard 0.048 mm aperture size derives from a drill bit used by an employee of Kodak. Film grain is sometimes quantified in a way, relative independent of size of the aperture through which the microdensitometer measures it, using R. Selwyn's observation that, for a not too small aperture, the product of RMS granularity and the square root of aperture area tends to be independent of the aperture size; the Selwyn granularity is defined as: G = σ 2 a where σ is the RMS granularity and a is the aperture area. The images below show an example of extreme film grain: Digital photography does not exhibit film grain, since there is no film for any grain to exist within. In digital cameras, the closest physical equivalents of film grains are the individual elements of the image sensor, the pixels. Thus, like film grain, physical pixel size represents the compromise between resolution and sensitivity.
However, while film grains are randomly distributed and have size variation, image sensor cells are of same size and are arranged in a grid, so direct comparison of film and digital resolutions is not straightforward. Instead, the ISO setting on a digital camera controls the gain of the electronic amplifier on the readout circuitry of the chip. High ISO settings on a digital camera operating in low light conditions does result in a noisy image, but the visual appearance is somewhat different from traditional photographic film; the visual and artistic effect of film grain can be simulated in some digital photo manipulation programs by adding grain to a digital image after it is taken. Various raw image processing software packages feature "film simulation" effects that apply the characteristics of various film brands, including the graininess. Plugins for the same purpose exist for various image editors such as Photoshop. In digital photography, image noise sometimes appears as a "grain-like" effect.
Film grain overlay, sometimes referred to as "FGO", is a process in which film emulsion characteristics are overlaid using different levels of opacity onto a digital file. This process adds film noise characteristics, in instances with moving images, subtle flicker to the more sterile looking digital medium; as opposed to computer plug-ins, FGO is derived from actual film grain samples taken from film, shot against a gray card. Film speed Film Grain discussed at FLIP Animation blog Retrieved March 2013
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, in the troy weight and Apothecaries' system, equal to 64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single virtual ideal seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definitions of units of mass. Rather, expressions such as "thirty-two grains of wheat, taken from the middle of the ear" appear to have been ritualistic formulas the premodern equivalent of legal boilerplate. Another source states that it was defined as the weight needed for 252.458 units to balance a cubic inch of distilled water at 30 inches of mercury pressure and 62 degrees Fahrenheit for both the air and water. Another book states that Captain Henry Kater, of the British Standards Commission, arrived at this value experimentally; the grain was the legal foundation of traditional English weight systems, is the only unit, equal throughout the troy and apothecaries' systems of mass. The unit was based on the weight of a single grain of barley, considered equivalent to 1 1⁄3 grains of wheat.
The fundamental unit of the pre-1527 English weight system known as Tower weights, was a different sort of grain known as the "wheat grain". The Tower wheat grain was defined as 45⁄64 of a troy grain. Since the implementation of the international yard and pound agreement of 1 July 1959, the grain or troy grain measure has been defined in terms of units of mass in the International System of Units as 64.79891 milligrams. 1 gram is 15.43236 grains. The unit used by jewellers to measure pearls, diamonds, or other precious stones, called the jeweller's grain or pearl grain, is equal to 1⁄4 of a carat, or 50 mg; the grain was the name of a traditional French unit equal to 53.115 mg. In both British Imperial and U. S. customary units, there are 7,000 grains per avoirdupois pound, 5,760 grains per troy pound or apothecaries pound. The grain is used to measure the mass of bullets and propellants; the term refers to a single particle of gunpowder, the size of which varies according to requirements. In archery, the grain is the standard unit used to weigh arrows.
In dentistry, gold foil, used as a material to restore teeth, is measured in grains. In North America, the hardness of water is measured in grains per US gallon of calcium carbonate equivalents. Otherwise, water hardness is measured in the metric unit parts per million, equivalent to mg/L. One grain per US gallon is 17.1 ppm. Soft water contains 1 -- 4 gpg of calcium carbonate equivalents. Though no longer recommended, grains are still used in medicine as part of the apothecaries' system in prescriptions for older medicines such as aspirin or phenobarbital. For example, the dosage of a standard 325 mg tablet of aspirin is sometimes given as 5 grains. In that example the grain is approximated to 65 mg, though the grain can be approximated to 60 mg, depending on the medication and manufacturer; the apothecaries system has its own system of notation, in which the unit's symbol or abbreviation is followed by the quantity in lower case Roman numerals. For amounts less than one, the quantity is written for one half, ss.
Therefore, a prescription for tablets containing 325 mg of aspirin and 30 mg of codeine can be written "ASA gr. V c̄ cod. gr. ss tablets". The apothecaries' system has been replaced by the metric system, the use of the grain in prescriptions is now rare. Particulate emission levels, used to monitor and regulate pollution, are measured in grains per cubic foot; this is the same unit used to measure the amount of moisture in the air known as the absolute humidity. The SI unit used to measure particulate emissions and absolute humidity is mg/m3. One grain per cubic foot is 2288 mg/m3. At least since antiquity, grains of wheat or barley were used by Mediterranean traders to define units of mass. According to a longstanding tradition, 1 carat was equivalent to the weight of 4 wheat grains or 3 barleycorns. Since the weights of these seeds are variable that of the cereals as a function of moisture, this is a convention more than an absolute law; the history of the modern British grain can be traced back to a royal decree in thirteenth century England, re-iterating decrees that go back as far as King Offa.
The tower pound was one of many monetary pounds of 240 silver pennies. By consent of the whole Realm the King's Measure was made, so that an English Penny, called the Sterling, round without clipping, shall weigh Thirty-two Grains of Wheat dry in the midst of the Ear; the pound in question is the Tower pound. The Tower pound, abolished in 1527, consisted of 12 ounces like the troy pound, but was 1⁄16 lighter; the weight of the original sterling pennies was 22½ troy grains, or 32 "Tower grains". Physical grain weights were made and sold commercially at least as late as the early 1900s, took various forms, from squares of sheet metal to manufactured wire shapes and coin-like weights; the troy pound was only "the pound of Pence, Confections, as of Electuaries", as such goods might be measured by a troi or small balance. The old troy standard was set by King Offa's currency reform, was in full use in 1284, but was restricted to cu
Wood grain is the longitudinal arrangement of wood fibers or the pattern resulting from this. R. Bruce Hoadley wrote that grain is a "confusingly versatile term" with numerous different uses, including the direction of the wood cells, surface appearance or figure, growth-ring placement, plane of the cut, rate of growth, relative cell size; the most important physical aspect of wood grain in woodworking is the grain direction or slope. The two basic categories of grain cross grain. Straight grain runs parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piece. Cross grain deviates from the longitudinal axis in spiral grain or diagonal grain; the amount of deviation is called the slope of the grain. In describing the application of a woodworking technique to a given piece of wood, the direction of the technique may be: with the grain against the grain across the grain end grain Grain alignment must be considered when joining pieces of wood, or designing wooden structures. For example, a stressed span is less to fail if tension is applied along the grain, rather than across the grain.
Grain direction will affect the type of warping seen in the finished item. In describing the alignment of the wood in the tree a distinction may be made. Basic grain descriptions and types include: straight - grain which runs in a single direction, parallel to the axis of the tree spiral - grain which spirals around the axis of the tree interlocked - grain which spirals around the axis of the tree, but reverses its direction for periods of years resulting in alternating directions of the spiral grain. In its simplest aesthetic meaning, wood grain is the alternating regions of darker and lighter wood resulting from the differing growth parameters occurring in different seasons on a cut or split piece of wood. Causes including fungus, stress, special grain alignments, others produce figure in wood, their rarity promotes the value of both the raw material, the finished work it becomes a part of. These include: bird's eye quilted fiddleback curlyThe way a given piece of wood has been sawn affects both its appearance and physical properties: flat-grain: flat-sawn, slab-sawn, plain sawn, bastard-sawn, or sawn "through and through".
Edge grain: quarter-sawn or rift-sawn or straight-grained, end grain: the grain of wood seen when it is cut across the growth rings. Speaking, grain is not always the same as the figure of wood. There is irregular grain in burr wood or burl wood, but this is result of many knots. Grain painting Grain filler Knee Wood finishing
Grain is a Canadian literary magazine featuring poetry, short fiction, non-fiction, artwork. It is published quarterly by the Saskatchewan Writers' Guild and is based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Grain published its first issue in June 1973, a gestetner edition with stapled, taped bindings, with cover art on a card-stock cover by a new artist Joe Fafard; the first edition, edited by Ken Mitchell, Anne Szumigalski, Caroline Heath included writings by Robert Kroetsch, George Bowering, Robert Currie, John V. Hicks, cost $1.00. A subscription cost $5 for three years; this was the first of a series of semi-annual issues. In 1976, Grain began publishing three issues a year, in 1981, moved to its present quarterly - four issues a year - state. Over the years it has published many prominent authors from Canada and abroad. Overall 3,000 pieces of writing and over 500 art images have been published; the first Short Grain contest was announced in 1988. The contest would accept submissions in two categories: Postcard Stories: Narrative fiction under 500 words.
A total of 1000$ in awards was offered over 1st, 2nd, 3rd places in both categories. This first award was sponsored by M. C. Graphics, the printer of Grain. In 1991 Houghton Boston Printers took over printing of Grain magazine; this year marked a change in Short Grain sponsorship. Cheryl and Henry Kloppenburg and Solicitors of Saskatoon, began sponsoring the Short Grain contest, which they continue to do; this contest now awards $4,500 in prizes annually between the categories of Poetry and Fiction/Creative Non-Fiction. Grain has had 11 editors in its 40-year history: Ken Mitchell Caroline Heath E. F. Dyck Brenda Riches Mick Burrs Geoffrey Ursell J. Jill Robinson Elizabeth Philips Kent Bruyneel Sylvia Legris Rilla Friesen Grain has featured many renowned and award-winning writers including: Ken Babstock Roo Borson George Bowering Lorna Crozier Jeramy Dodds Connie Gault John V. Hicks Barbara Klar Robert Kroetsch Patrick Lane Tim Lilburn Yann Martel Don McKay A. F. Moritz Al Purdy Anne Simpson Karen Solie Moez Surani Guy Vanderhaeghe Jan Zwicky List of literary magazines Official website Saskatchewan Writers' Guild