Warp and weft
Warp and weft are the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric. The lengthwise or longitudinal warp yarns are held stationary in tension on a frame or loom while the transverse weft is drawn through and inserted over-and-under the warp. A single thread of the weft crossing the warp is called a pick. Terms vary; each individual warp thread in a fabric is called end. Inventions during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, with the "picking stick" and the "flying shuttle" speeding up production of cloth; the power loom patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 allowed sixty picks per minute. The words warp and weft derive from the Old English word wefan, to weave. Warp means "that, thrown away"; the warp is the set of yarns or other elements stretched in place on a loom before the weft is introduced during the weaving process. It is regarded as the longitudinal set in a finished fabric with two or more sets of elements; the term is used for a set of yarns established before the interworking of weft yarns by some other method, such as finger manipulation, yielding wrapped or twined structures.
Simple looms use a spiral warp, in which the warp is made up of a single long yarn wound in a spiral pattern around a pair of sticks or beams. The warp must be strong to be held under high tension during the weaving process, unlike the weft which carries no tension; this requires the yarn used for warp ends, or individual warp threads, to be made of spun and plied fibre. Traditionally wool, linen and silk were used. However, improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution created cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used in mechanized weaving. Artificial or man-made fibres such as nylon or rayon were employed. While most weaving is weft-faced, warp-faced textiles are created using densely arranged warp threads. In these the design is in the warp, requiring all colors to be decided upon and placed during the first part of the weaving process, which cannot be changed; such limitations of color placement create weavings defined by length-wise stripes and vertical designs.
Many South American cultures, including the ancient Incas and Aymaras, employed backstrap weaving, which uses the weight of the weaver's body to control the tension of the loom. Because the weft does not have to be stretched on a loom the way the warp is it can be less strong, it is made of spun fibre wool and cotton, today of synthetic fiber such as nylon or rayon. The weft is threaded through the warp using a "shuttle", air jets or "rapier grippers". Hand looms were the original weaver's tool, with the shuttle being threaded through alternately raised warps by hand; the expression "warp and weft" is used metaphorically. Warp and weft are sometimes used more in literature to describe the basic dichotomy of the world we live in, as in, up/down, in/out, black/white, Sun/Moon yin/yang, etc; the expression is used for the underlying structure upon which something is built. The terms "warp" and "woof" are found in some English translations of the Bible in the discussion of mildews found in cloth materials in Leviticus 13:48-59.
In Guru Granth Sahib many shabads in Gurbani use the metaphor of warp and weft to describe the state where our soul imbibes into the Almighty as a fabric. Weft is a hairdressing term for temporary hair extensions; these can be attached to a person's hair variously by cornrow braiding, using metal cylinders or gluing. The result is called a weave. Knot density Pile Warp knitting Barber, E. J. W.. Prehistoric Textiles. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00224-X. Burnham, Dorothy K.. Warp and Weft: A Textile Terminology. Royal Ontario Museum. ISBN 0-88854-256-9
Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spinning yarn or weaving fabric, archaeologists believe Stone Age people across Europe and Asia sewed fur and skin clothing using bone, antler or ivory needles and "thread" made of various animal body parts including sinew and veins. For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand; the invention of the sewing machine in the 19th century and the rise of computerization in the 20th century led to mass production and export of sewn objects, but hand sewing is still practiced around the world. Fine hand sewing is a characteristic of high-quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, custom dressmaking, is pursued by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of creative expression; the first known use of the word "sewing" was in the 14th century. Sewing has an ancient history estimated to begin during the Paleolithic Era.
Sewing was used to stitch together animal hides for shelter. The Inuit, for example, used sinew from caribou for thread and needles made of bone. Sewing was combined with the weaving of plant leaves in Africa to create baskets, such as those made by Zulu weavers, who used thin strips of palm leaf as "thread" to stitch wider strips of palm leaf, woven into a coil; the weaving of cloth from natural fibres originated in the Middle East around 4000 BC, earlier during the Neolithic Age, the sewing of cloth accompanied this development. During the Middle Ages, Europeans who could afford it employed tailors; the vital importance of sewing was indicated by the honorific position of "Lord Sewer" at many European coronations from the Middle Ages. An example was Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex, appointed Lord Sewer at the coronation of Henry VIII of England in 1509. Sewing for the most part was a woman's occupation, most sewing before the 19th century was practical. Clothing was an expensive investment for most people, women had an important role in extending the longevity of items of clothing.
Sewing was used for mending. Clothing, faded would be turned inside-out so that it could continue to be worn, sometimes had to be taken apart and reassembled in order to suit this purpose. Once clothing became worn or torn, it would be taken apart and the reusable cloth sewn together into new items of clothing, made into quilts, or otherwise put to practical use; the many steps involved in making clothing from scratch meant that women bartered their expertise in a particular skill with one another. Decorative needlework such as embroidery was a valued skill, young women with the time and means would practise to build their skill in this area. From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, sewing tools such as needles and pincushions were included in the trousseaus of many European brides. Decorative embroidery was valued in many cultures worldwide. Although most embroidery stitches in the Western repertoire are traditionally British, Irish or Western European in origin, stitches originating in different cultures are known throughout the world today.
Some examples are the Cretan Open Filling stitch, Romanian Couching or Oriental Couching, the Japanese stitch. The stitches associated with embroidery spread by way of the trade routes that were active during the Middle Ages; the Silk Road brought Chinese embroidery techniques to Western Asia and Eastern Europe, while techniques originating in the Middle East spread to Southern and Western Europe through Morocco and Spain. European imperial settlements spread embroidery and sewing techniques worldwide. However, there are instances of sewing techniques indigenous to cultures in distant locations from one another, where cross-cultural communication would have been unlikely. For example, a method of reverse appliqué known to areas of South America is known to Southeast Asia; the Industrial Revolution shifted the production of textiles from the household to the mills. In the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, the machinery produced whole cloth; the world's first sewing machine was patented in 1790 by Thomas Saint.
By the early 1840s, other early sewing machines began to appear. Barthélemy Thimonnier introduced a simple sewing machine in 1841 to produce military uniforms for France's army. By the 1850s, Isaac Singer developed the first sewing machines that could operate and and surpass the productivity of a seamstress or tailor sewing by hand. While much clothing was still produced at home by female members of the family and more ready-made clothes for the middle classes were being produced with sewing machines. Textile sweatshops full of poorly paid sewing machine operators grew into entire business districts in large cities like London and New York City. To further support the industry, piece work was done for little money by women living in slums. Needlework was one of the few occupations considered acceptable for women, but it did not pay a living wage. Women doing piece work from home worked 14-hour days to earn enough to support themselves, sometimes by renting sewing machines that they could not afford to buy.
Tailors became associated with higher-end clothing during this period. In London, this status grew out of the dandy trend of the early 19th century, when new tailor shops were established around Savile Row
In everyday language, a stitch in the context of embroidery or hand-sewing is defined as the movement of the embroidery needle from the back of the fibre to the front side and back to the back side. The thread stroke on the front side produced by this is called stitch. In the context of embroidery, an embroidery stitch means one or more stitches that are always executed in the same way, forming a figure. Embroidery stitches are called stitches for short. Embroidery stitches are the smallest units in embroidery. Embroidery patterns are formed by doing many embroidery stitches, either all the same or different ones, either following a counting chart on paper, following a design painted on the fabric or working freehand. Embroidery uses various combinations of stitches; each embroidery stitch has a special name to help identify it. These names vary from country to region to region; some embroidery books will include name variations. Taken by themselves the stitches are simple to execute, however when put together the results can be complex.
Straight stitches pass through the fabric ground in a simple up and down motion, for the most part moving in a single direction. Examples of straight stitches are: Running or basting stitch Simple satin stitch Algerian eye stitch Fern stitchStraight Stitches that have two journeys. Examples: Holbein stitch known as the double running stitch Bosnian stitch Back stitches pass through the fabric ground in an encircling motion; the needle in the simplest backstitch comes up from the back of the fabric, makes a stitch to the right going back to the back of the fabric passes behind the first stitch and comes up to the front of the fabric to the left of the first stitch. The needle goes back to the back of the fabric through the same hole the stitch first came up from; the needle repeats the movement to the left of the stitches and continues. Some examples of a back stitch are: Stem stitch or outline stitch Split stitch – the needle pierces the thread as it comes back up Crewel stitch Chain stitches catch a loop of the thread on the surface of the fabric.
In the simplest of the looped stitches, the chain stitch, the needle comes up from the back of the fabric and the needle goes back into the same hole it came out of, pulling the loop of thread completely through to the back. The needle passes back to the back of the fabric through the second hole and begins the stitch again. Examples of chain stitches are: detached chain; the loop stitch is held to the fabric at the wide end by a tiny tacking stitch. Spanish Chain or Zig-zag Chain Buttonhole or blanket stitches catch a loop of the thread on the surface of the fabric but the principal difference is that the needle does not return to the original hole to pass back to the back of the fabric. In the classic buttonhole stitch, the needle is returned to the back of the fabric at a right angle to the original start of the thread; the finished stitch in some ways resembles a letter "L" depending on the spacing of the stitches. For buttonholes the stitches are packed together and for blanket edges they are more spaced out.
The properties of this stitch make it ideal for preventing raveling of woven fabric. This stitch is the basis for many forms of needle lace. Examples of buttonhole or blanket stitches. Blanket stitch Buttonhole stitch Closed buttonhole stitch, the tops of the stitch touch to form triangles Crossed buttonhole stitch, the tops of the stitch cross Buttonhole stitches combined with knots: Top Knotted Buttonhole stitch German Knotted Buttonhole stitch Tailor's buttonhole stitch Cross stitches or cross-stitch have come to represent an entire industry of pattern production and material supply for the craft person; the stitch is done by creating a line of diagonal stitches going in one direction using the warp and weft of the fabric as a guide on the return journey crossing the diagonal in the other direction, creating an "x". Included in this class of stitches are: Herringbone stitches, including the hem stitch Breton stitch, here the threads of the "x" are twisted together Sprat's Head stitch Crow's Foot stitch, these last two stitches are used in tailoring to strengthen a garment at a point of strain such as a pocket corner or the top of a kick pleat.
Many examples of cross stitches can be found here Knotted stitches are formed by wrapping the thread around the needle, once or several times, before passing it back to the back of the fabric ground. This is a predominate stitch in Brazilian embroidery, used to create flowers. Another form of embroidery that uses knots is Candlewicking, where the knots are created by forming a figure 8 around the needle. Examples of knotted stitches are: French knot, or twisted knot stitch Chinese knot, which varies from the French knot in that it takes a tiny stitch in the background fabric while creating the knot Bullion knots Coral stitch There are more complex knotted stitches such as: Knotted Loop stitch Plaited Braid stitch Sorbello stitch Diamond stitch Knotted edgings based on buttonhole stitches include: Antwerp edging stitch Armenian edging stitch Couching or laid stitches involve two sets of threads: the set, being'laid' onto the surface of the fabric and the set which attaches the laid threads.
The laid threads may be heavier than the attaching thread, or they may be of a nature that does not allow them to be worked like a regular embroidery thread, such as metal threads. The stitches used t
Leather is a natural durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides and skins. The most common raw material is cattle hide, it can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from artisan to modern industrial scale. Leather is used to make a variety of articles, including footwear, automobile seats, bags, book bindings, fashion accessories, furniture, it is decorated by a wide range of techniques. The earliest record of leather artifacts dates back to 2200 BC; the leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental subprocesses: preparatory stages and crusting. A further subprocess, can be added into the leather process sequence, but not all leathers receive finishing; the preparatory stages are. Preparatory stages may include: soaking, liming, bating and pickling. Tanning is a process that stabilizes the proteins collagen, of the raw hide to increase the thermal and microbiological stability of the hides and skins, making it suitable for a wide variety of end applications.
The principal difference between raw and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard, inflexible material that, when rewetted, will putrefy, while tanned material dries to a flexible form that does not become putrid when rewetted. Many tanning methods and materials exist; the typical process sees tanners load the hides into a drum and immerse them in a tank that contains the tanning "liquor". The hides soak while the drum rotates about its axis, the tanning liquor penetrates through the full thickness of the hide. Once the process achieves penetration, workers raise the liquor's pH in a process called basification, which fixes the tanning material to the leather; the more tanning material fixed, the higher the leather's hydrothermal stability and shrinkage temperature resistance. Crusting is a process that lubricates leather, it includes a coloring operation. Chemicals added during crusting must be fixed in place. Crusting culminates with a drying and softening operation, may include splitting, dyeing, whitening or other methods.
For some leathers, tanners apply a surface coating, called "finishing". Finishing operations can include oiling, buffing, polishing, glazing, or tumbling, among others. Leather can be oiled to improve its water resistance; this currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. Tanning processes differ in which chemicals are used in the tanning liquor; some common types include: Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method, it is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water.
This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather, exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and congeals, becoming rigid and brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances, it was used as armor after hardening, it has been used for book binding. Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium other chromium salts, it is known as "wet blue" for the pale blue color of the undyed leather. The chrome tanning method takes one day to complete, making it best suited for large-scale industrial use; this is the most common method in modern use. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. However, there are environmental concerns with this tanning method. Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using oxazolidine compounds, it is referred to as "wet white" due to its pale cream color.
It is the main type of "chrome-free" leather seen in shoes for infants and automobiles. Formaldehyde has been used for tanning in the past. Chamois leather is a form of aldehyde tanning that produces a porous and water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made using marine oils that oxidize to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather. Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses emulsified oils those of animal brains such as deer and buffalo, they are known for their exceptional washability. Alum leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum leather is not tanned. In general, leather is produced in the following grades: Top-grain leather includes the outer layer of the hide, known as the grain, which features finer, more densely packed fibers, resulting in strength and durability. Depending on thickness, it may contain some of the more fibrous under layer, known as the corium. Types of top-grain leather incl
The blanket stitch is a stitch used to reinforce the edge of thick materials. Depending on circumstances, it may be called a "cable stitch" or a "crochet stitch", it is "a decorative stitch used to finish an unhemmed blanket. The stitch can be seen on both sides of the blanket." This stitch has long been both an application as a machine sewn stitch. When done by hand, it is sometimes considered a crochet stitch, used to join pieces together to make a blanket or other larger item, it is used in sewing leather pieces together, as traditionally done by indigenous American cultures, for weaving basket rims. The whipstitch is a type of surgical suturing stitch; when done by machine, it may be called a whip stitch or, sometimes, a Merrow Crochet Stitch, after the first sewing machine, used to sew a blanket stitch. This machine was produced and patented by the Merrow Machine Company in 1877; the defining characteristic of the crochet machine is its ability to sew with yarn and stitch thick goods with a consistent overlock edge.
From 1877 to 1925 the machine evolved and so did the capacity of manufacturers to produce goods with the whip stitch. The blanket stitch is used as a decorative stitch on an array of garments. Besides blankets, it is used on sweaters, swimsuits, home furnishings and much more. There are many styles of production blanket stitching, including rolled, with elastic, traditional. Additionally, the term "blanket stitch" has become a verb, describing the application of the stitch
Cross stitches in embroidery and other forms of needlework include a number of related stitches in which the thread is sewn in an x or + shape. Cross stitch has been called "probably the most used stitch of all" and is part of the needlework traditions of the Balkans, Middle East, Colonial America and Victorian England. Cross stitches were typical of 16th century canvas work, falling out of fashion in favor of tent stitch toward the end of the century. Canvas work in cross stitch became popular again in the mid-19th century with the Berlin wool work craze. Herringbone, Van Dyke, related crossed stitches are used in crewel embroidery to add texture to stems and similar objects. Basic cross stitch is used to fill backgrounds in Assisi work. Cross stitch was used to mark household linens in the 18th and 19th centuries, girls' skills in this essential task were demonstrated with elaborate samplers embroidered with cross-stitched alphabets, numbers and other animals, the crowns and coronets sewn onto the linens of the nobility.
Much of contemporary cross-stitch embroidery derives from this tradition. Common variants of cross stitch include: Basic cross stitch Long-armed cross stitch Double cross stitch Italian cross stitch Basket stitch Leaf stitch Herringbone stitch Closed herringbone stitch Tacked herringbone stitch Threaded herringbone stitch Tied herringbone stitch Montenegrin stitch Trellis stitch Thorn stitch Van Dyke stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery stitch Caulfield, S. F. A. and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Enthoven, Jacqueline: The Creative Stitches of Embroidery, Van Norstrand Rheinhold, 1964, ISBN 0-442-22318-8 Reader's Digest, Complete Guide to Needlework; the Reader's Digest Association, Inc.. ISBN 0-89577-059-8 Lemon, Metal Thread Embroidery, Sterling, 2004, ISBN 0-7134-8926-X, p. 112 Levey, S. M. and D. King, The Victoria and Albert Museum's Textile Collection Vol. 3: Embroidery in Britain from 1200 to 1750, Victoria and Albert Museum, 1993, ISBN 1-85177-126-3
The neckline is the top edge of a garment that surrounds the neck from the front view. Neckline refers to the overall line between all the layers of clothing and the neck and shoulders of a person, ignoring the unseen undergarments. For each garment worn above the waist, the neckline is a style line and may be a boundary for further shaping of the upper edge of a garment with, for example, a collar, darts, or pleats. In that respect it is similar to hemline. Necklines can be grouped into categories according to their shape and where they cut across the body: polo neck these are high close-fitting collars that wrap around the neck itself, are called turtlenecks, they are most common for sweaters or jerseys.jewel neckline these are round and sit at the base of the throat, are called the T-shirt neckline or crew neck. Scoop neck these have a curved U-shape, with the arms of the U hanging on the shoulders; the depth of the U can vary. V-neck originating from the Middle East, these are formed by two diagonal lines from the shoulders that meet on the chest creating a V shape.
The depth of the V can vary. The V may be truncated by a small bottom edge, forming a trapezoid.surplice necklinethese are similar to how a bathrobe's neckline is formed by one side of the garment overlapping the other. For a dress, the lower layer is sewn to the top layer just under the bust.portrait necklinea portrait neckline is a v-neck with the edges of the v placed out at the points of the shoulders rather than closer to the neck. The bottom edge cuts across the figure horizontally and the side edges pass over the shoulders. A special case of this is the slot neckline, in which the side edges are close, forming a narrow slot.deep or plunging neckthese are low necklines, in either V, U or square shapes, that reveal various amounts of cleavage, some extending to the natural waist line.boat neck these have a high, wide curved neckline that pass past the collarbones and hang on both shoulders, are called bateau necklines or Sabrina necklines. A variation is the portrait neckline.off-the-shoulder these are similar to boat necklines but are lower, below the shoulders and collar bone.
These pass over the arms but, in the strapless neckline style, may pass under the arms. These necklines accentuate the shoulders and neck of the wearer.one-shoulder neckline these are asymmetrical linear necklines that cut across the torso diagonally from one shoulder to under the other arm.halter neckline these feature a V-neck or scoop front neckline with straps which wrap around and connect at the nape of the neck.sweetheart neckline these have a curved bottom edge, concave down and doubly scalloped to resemble the top half of a heart. The side edges converge on the neck, similar to halter necklines. Sweetheart necklines accentuate the bosom.keyhole necklinethese are similar to halter necklines, but the converging diagonal lines meet in front of the neck, forming a "keyhole". More these feature a central hole just below the collar bones; these necklines are seen infrequently.illusion necklinea compromise between a low and a high neckline, it combines a low neckline with semi-transparent fabric along the top part, thus creating a second, higher neckline.
This neckline is seen on traditional white wedding dresses. The shape of a necklines can be modified in many ways, e.g. by adding a collar or scarf, overlaying it with a gauzy material or decorating the edges with scallops, picots or ruffles. The neckline can be a sharp edge of fabric or a more gentle cowl, can be accentuated by pattern in the fabric itself. Ruffs were popular in the Elizabethan era; the off-the-shoulder trend dates back to the Victorian Era. They were the height of fashion in the early to mid-nineteenth century. Charles Frederick Worth, the father of haute couture, designed many elaborate dresses, many of which featured bodices with off-the-shoulder sleeves and were popular with prominent figures like Empress Eugenie. In 1960s, French actress Brigitte Bardot put her own twist on this style, wearing off-the-shoulder tops with everything from midi skirts to pants, reviving the style; the style icon made off-the-shoulder sexy and trendy again and off-the-shoulder style became known as the “Bardot” style.
Since resurfacing in 2014, off-the-shoulder trend has gained massive popularity. This look looks good on a variety of body types. Bustline Cleavage Décolletage Hemline Low-rise Top Waistline The dictionary definition of neckline at Wiktionary Media related to Necklines at Wikimedia Commons