Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less
Hawkins County, Tennessee
Hawkins County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 56,833, its county seat is Rogersville, Hawkins County is part of the Kingsport–Bristol–Bristol, TN-VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area known as the "Tri-Cities" region. The land was given to William Armstrong as a land grant in the 1780s. Armstrong built Stony Point. Armstrong's landholding was established as a county in 1787, it was named for Benjamin Hawkins, a U. S. Senator from North Carolina, the state which it was a part of at that time. In 1797, French King Louis Philippe visited Armstrong's estate. During the American Civil War, Hawkins County saw combat; the Battle of Rogersville took place on November 6, 1863. Hawkins County is governed by a 21-member County Commission, whose members are elected from geographic districts; the chief executive officer of the county is the County Mayor. The Tennessee Constitution provides for the election of an executive officer – now referred to as the County Mayor – in each county.
The County Mayor is elected by popular vote at the regular August election every four years, coinciding with the Governor's election, may serve an unlimited number of terms. The County Mayor is Chief Executive Officer of the county; the County Mayor exercises a role of leadership in county government and is responsible for the County's fiscal management and other executive functions. The County Mayor may draw warrants upon the General Fund; the County Mayor has custody of county property not placed with other officers, may examine the accounts of county officers. The County Mayor is a nonvoting ex-officio member of the County Commission and of all its committees, may be elected chairman of the county legislative body; the County Mayor may call special meetings of the County Commission. Unless an optional general law or private act provides otherwise, the County Mayor compiles a budget for all county departments and agencies, presented to the County Commission; the current Mayor of Hawkins County is Melville Bailey.
The Hawkins County Board of Commissioners called the County Commission, is the legislative body of the County government and the primary policy-making body in the County. It consists of three from each of the seven civil districts of Hawkins County; each member serves a four-year term of office. The County Commission operates with a committee structure; the County Clerk serves as the Secretary to the Board of Commissioners and is responsible for maintaining all official records of the meetings. The most important function of the county legislative body is the annual adoption of a budget to allocate expenditures within the three major funds of county government - general and highway - and any other funds that may be in existence in that particular county; the county legislative body has considerable discretion in dealing with the budget for all funds except the school budget, which in most counties must be accepted or rejected as a whole. If rejected, the school board must continue to propose alternatives until a budget is adopted by both the county school board and the county legislative body.
The county legislative body sets a property tax rate which, along with revenues from other county taxes and fees as well as state and federal monies allocated to the county, are used to fund the budget. The county legislative body is subject to various restrictions in imposing most taxes, although these do not apply to the property tax; the University of Tennessee's County Technical Assistance Service publishes the County Revenue Manual to assist county officials in identifying sources of county revenue. The county legislative body serves an important role in exercising local approval authority for private acts when the private act does not call for referendum approval. Private acts, which give additional authority to counties, must be approved by a two-thirds vote of the members of the county legislative body or be approved by a referendum in order to become effective; the form of local approval required is specified in the private act. The county legislative body annually elects a chairman pro tempore.
The county legislative body may elect the county executive or a member of the body to be the chairman, although the county executive may refuse to serve. If the county executive is chairman, he or she may vote only to break a tie vote. If a member is chairman, the member can not vote again to break a tie. If the county executive is not chairman, he or she may veto most resolutions of the county legislative body, but this veto may be overridden by a majority vote; the majority vote, required for this and the passage of resolutions or other measures is a majority of the entire actual membership of the county legislative body, not a majority of the quorum, nor a majority of the authorized membership. Another important function of the county legislative body is its role in electing county officers when there is a vacancy in an elected county office; the person elected by the county legislative body serves in the office for the remainder of the t
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Union County, Tennessee
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,109, its county seat is Maynardville. Union County is included in TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Union County was formed in 1850 from portions of Grainger, Campbell and Knox counties. There are at least two theories on the source of its name; the name may commemorate the "union" of sections of five counties, or it may reflect East Tennessee's support for the preservation of the Union in the years before the Civil War. The county seat was named "Liberty," but renamed "Maynardville" in honor of attorney and congressman, Horace Maynard, who had defended the county in a court case that sought to block its formation. In the 1930s, the damming of the Clinch River by Norris Dam to form Norris Lake inundated a large part of the county, including the community of Loyston, displaced many residents. With assistance from the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Tennessee Valley Authority developed Big Ridge State Park as a demonstration park on the shore of the lake in Union County.
The park's recreational facilities opened in May 1934. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 247 square miles, of which 224 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; the county is situated in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, a range characterized by long, narrow ridges alternating with similarly-shaped valleys. Prominent ridges in Union County include Hinds Ridge and Lone Mountain; the southern end of Clinch Mountain forms part of the county's border with Grainger County to the east. The Clinch River, Union County's primary stream, flows through the northern part of the county; this section of the river is part of Norris Lake. Big Ridge Dam, a small non-generating dam, impounds an inlet of Norris Lake, creating Big Ridge Lake at Big Ridge State Park; the "Loyston Sea," one of the widest sections of Norris Lake, is located in Union County just north of the state park. Claiborne County Grainger County Knox County Anderson County Campbell County Big Ridge State Park Chuck Swan State Forest At the 2000 census, there were 17,808 people, 6,742 households and 5,191 families residing in the county.
The population density was 80 per square mile. There were 7,916 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.46% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,742 households of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.00% were non-families. 19.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 2.99. 25.70% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.60 males. The median household income was $27,335 and the median family income was $31,843. Males had a median income of $26,436 versus $18,665 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,375. About 16.80% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.10% of those under age 18 and 27.80% of those age 65 or over. Big Ridge Elementary School Horace Maynard Middle School Luttrell Elementary School Maynardville Elementary School Paulette Elementary School Sharps Chapel Elementary School Tennessee Virtual Academy Union County Alternative Center Grades 6-12 Union County High School Roy Acuff Museum Big Ridge State Park Luttrell Maynardville Plainview Alder Springs Braden Sharps Chapel Loyston Roy Acuff, entertainer Chet Atkins, entertainer Jake Butcher, former banker and politician, convicted of fraud Kenny Chesney, entertainer John Rice Irwin and founder of Museum of Appalachia Florence Reece, who wrote the song "Which Side Are You On?", was born in Sharps Chapel in 1900.
Carl Smith, entertainer National Register of Historic Places listings in Tennessee#Union County Official site Union County Chamber of Commerce Union County Public Schools TNGenWeb Union County at Curlie
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera. Bats are more manoeuvrable than birds, flying with their long spread-out digits covered with a thin membrane or patagium; the smallest bat, arguably the smallest extant mammal, is Kitti's hog-nosed bat, 29–34 mm in length, 15 cm across the wings and 2–2.6 g in mass. The largest bats are the flying foxes and the giant golden-crowned flying fox, Acerodon jubatus, which can weigh 1.6 kg and have a wingspan of 1.7 m. The second largest order of mammals, bats comprise about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with over 1,200 species; these were traditionally divided into two suborders: the fruit-eating megabats, the echolocating microbats. But more recent evidence has supported dividing the order into Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, with megabats as members of the former along with several species of microbats. Many bats are insectivores, most of the rest are frugivores. A few species feed on animals other than insects. Most bats are nocturnal, many roost in caves or other refuges.
Bats are present throughout the world, with the exception of cold regions. They are important in their ecosystems for dispersing seeds. Bats provide humans at the cost of some threats. Bat dung has been used as fertiliser. Bats consume insect pests, they are sometimes numerous enough to serve as tourist attractions, are used as food across Asia and the Pacific Rim. They are natural reservoirs such as rabies. In many cultures, bats are popularly associated with darkness, witchcraft and death. An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages, related to the fluttering of wings. Middle English had bakke, most cognate with Old Swedish natbakka, which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- influenced by Latin blatta, "moth, nocturnal insect"; the word "bat" was first used in the early 1570s. The name "Chiroptera" derives from Ancient Greek: χείρ – cheir, "hand" and πτερόν – pteron, "wing"; the delicate skeletons of bats do not fossilise well, it is estimated that only 12% of bat genera that lived have been found in the fossil record.
Most of the oldest known bat fossils were very similar to modern microbats, such as Archaeopteropus. The extinct bats Palaeochiropteryx tupaiodon and Hassianycteris kumari are the first fossil mammals whose colouration has been discovered: both were reddish-brown. Bats were grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews and primates. Modern genetic evidence now places bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, with its sister taxon as Fereuungulata, which includes carnivorans, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, cetaceans. One study places Chiroptera as a sister taxon to odd-toed ungulates; the phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate. The traditional subdivision into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflected the view that these groups of bats had evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor capable of flight; this hypothesis recognised differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals.
Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a monophyletic group. Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene, belong within the four major lines of microbats. Two new suborders have been proposed. Yangochiroptera includes the other families of a conclusion supported by a 2005 DNA study. A 2013 phylogenomic study supported the two new proposed suborders. In the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera; the flying primate hypothesis proposed that, when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates by anatomical features not shared with Microchiroptera. For example, the brains of megabats have advanced characteristics. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats, debate continues about the meaning of the genetic and morphological evidence; the 2003 discovery of an early fossil bat from the 52 million year old Green River Formation, Onychonycteris finneyi, indicates that flight evolved before echolocative abilities.
Onychonycteris had claws on all five of its fingers, whereas modern bats have at most two claws on two digits of each hand. It had longer hind legs and shorter forearms, similar to climbing mammals that hang under branches, such as sloths and gibbons; this palm-sized bat had short, broad wings, suggesting that it could not fly as fast or as far as bat species. Instead of flapping its wings continuously while flying, Onychonycteris alternated between flaps and
Hancock County, Tennessee
Hancock County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,819, making it the fourth-least populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is Sneedville. Hancock County was created from parts of Claiborne counties; the act establishing the county was passed by the state legislature in 1844, but several Hawkins residents sued to block its creation. In 1848, the Tennessee Supreme Court ruled in favor of the new county; the county seat, was named in honor of the attorney William H. Sneed, who represented the county in the court case; the county was named after the Revolutionary War patriot John Hancock. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 223 square miles, of which 222 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. Lee County, Virginia Scott County, Virginia Hawkins County Grainger County Claiborne County Kyles Ford Wildlife Management Area At the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,819 people residing in the county.
98.0% were White, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% of some other race and 1.1% of two or more races. 0.2 % were Latino. At the 2000 census, there were 6,786 people, 2,769 households and 1,938 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 per square mile. There were 3,280 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.91% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 0.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,769 households, of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91.
23.10% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 15.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.30 males. The median household income was $19,760, the lowest median household income of any county in Tennessee, the 27th lowest in the United States; the median family income was $25,372. Males had a median income of $23,150 and females $18,199; the per capita income was $11,986. About 25.30% of families and 29.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.50% of those under age 18 and 30.70% of those age 65 or over. Hancock County is known for its population of people of Melungeon ancestry, who are believed to be of mixed European and Native American heritage; the Vardy Community School, which provided state-mandated education for Melungeon children in the early 20th century, is now a historic site located in the Newman's Ridge area.
Sneedville Alanthus Hill Kyles Ford Mulberry Gap Treadway Xenophon Like all of Unionist East Tennessee, Hancock County has been overwhelmingly Republican since the Civil War. Since the Republican Party first contested the state in 1868, every official Republican nominee has gained an absolute majority of Hancock County’s vote William Howard Taft during 1912 when the GOP was bitterly divided; the only post-Civil War Democratic Presidential nominee to reach forty percent of Hancock County’s vote has been Bill Clinton in 1992, when he was aided by the local popularity of Tennessee Senator Al Gore, whose native home in Smith County is nearby. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hancock County, Tennessee Johnson, Mattie Ruth. My Melungeon Heritage: A Story of Life on Newman's Ridge. Johnson City, Tennessee: Overmountain Press. Price, Henry R.. "Melungeons: The Vanishing Colony of Newman's Ridge." Conference paper. American Studies Association of Kentucky and Tennessee. March 25–26, 1967.
Winkler, Wayne "Walking Toward the Sunset: The Melungeons of Appalachia," Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press Official website Hancock County at Curlie The Hancock County Public Library website Hancock County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Sneedville/Hancock Chamber & Community Partners, Inc. website