Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the state in the U. S. with political subdivisions termed parishes. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Much of the lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh. These contain a rich southern biota, typical examples include birds such as ibis, there are many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a process in the landscape. These support a large number of plant species, including many species of orchids. Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized.
Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century, many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715, when René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane. The suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to information relating to an individual, subject. Thus, Louis + ana carries the idea of related to Louis, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened, Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in such as the Kisatchie National Forest.
The oldest rocks date back to the early Tertiary Era, some 60 million years ago, the history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearings Roadside Geology of Louisiana. The sediments were carried north to south by the Mississippi River
1970 United States Census
Microdata from the 1970 census are freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files and these data were originally created and disseminated by DUALabs. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2042, california took over as the most populous state, New York had previously been ranked number one. While the entire country increased to more than 204 million persons, four states lost population with West Virginia leading the list, down 8, historic US Census data 1971 U. S Census Report, with estimated 1970 Census results 1970 Census of Population
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country. In practice, like the definition of poverty, the official or common understanding of the poverty line is higher in developed countries than in developing countries. In 2008, the World Bank came out with a figure of $1.25 at 2005 purchasing-power parity, the new IPL replaces the $1.25 per day figure, which used 2005 data. Most scholars agree that it better reflects todays reality, particularly new price levels in developing countries, the common international poverty line has in the past been roughly $1 a day. At present the percentage of the population living under extreme poverty is likely to fall below 10% according to the World Bank projections released in 2015. Determining the poverty line is usually done by finding the total cost of all the resources that an average human adult consumes in one year. Individual factors are used to account for various circumstances, such as whether one is a parent, elderly.
The poverty threshold may be adjusted annually, charles Booth, a pioneering investigator of poverty in London at the turn of the 20th century, popularised the idea of a poverty line, a concept originally conceived by the London School Board. Booth set the line at 10 to 20 shillings per week, to secure the necessaries of a healthy life, which included fuel and light, food and household and personal items. Based on data from leading nutritionists of the period, he calculated the cheapest price for the minimum calorific intake and nutritional balance necessary and he considered this amount to set his poverty line and concluded that 27. 84% of the total population of York lived below this poverty line. Rowntree distinguished between primary poverty, those lacking in income and secondary poverty, those who had enough income, Absolute poverty is the level of poverty as defined in terms of the minimal requirements necessary to afford minimal standards of food, health care and shelter. For the measure to be absolute, the line must be the same in different countries, such an absolute measure should look only at the individuals power to consume and it should be independent of any changes in income distribution.
Notice that if real income in an economy increases. Measuring poverty by a threshold has the advantage of applying the same standard across different locations and time periods. For example, a living in far northern Scandinavia requires a source of heat during colder months. The term absolute poverty is sometimes used as a synonym for extreme poverty. Absolute poverty is the absence of resources to secure basic life necessities. It depends not only on income but on access to services, safe drinking water, Water must not come solely from rivers and ponds, and must be available nearby
Central Time Zone
The North American Central Time Zone is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Central Standard Time is six hours behind Coordinated Universal Time, during summer most of the zone uses daylight saving time, and changes to Central Daylight Time which is five hours behind UTC. The province of Manitoba is the province or territory in Canada that observes Central Time in all areas. Also, most of the province of Saskatchewan is on Central Standard Time year-round, major exceptions include Lloydminster, a city situated on the boundary between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The city charter stipulates that it shall observe Mountain Time and DST, putting the community on the time as all of Alberta, including the major cities of Calgary. As a result, during the summer, clocks in the province match those in Alberta. The Central Time Zone is the second most populous in the US after the Eastern Time Zone and Valley observe Eastern Time historically because they were textile mill towns and the original home office of their mills was in West Point, Georgia.
Some eastern counties observe Central Time because they are close to the border of the Middle Tennessee counties surrounding the Nashville metropolitan area. Louisiana Michigan, All of Michigan observes Eastern Time except the four Upper Peninsula counties that border Wisconsin, other westernmost counties from this area such as Ontonagon observe Eastern Time. South Dakota, Eastern half as divided by the Missouri river adjacent to the state capital, the metropolitan area of Pierre is Central, including Fort Pierre. Wisconsin Most of Mexico—roughly the eastern three-fourths—lies in the Central Time Zone, except for six northwestern states, the federal entities of Mexico that observe Central Time, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua all use Central Standard Time year-round. The Galápagos Islands in Ecuador uses Central Standard Time all year-round, Daylight saving time is in effect in much of the Central time zone between mid-March and early November. The modified time is called Central Daylight Time and is UTC−5, in Canada, Saskatchewan does not observe a time change.
One reason that Saskatchewan does not take part in a change is that, geographically. The province elected to move onto permanent daylight saving by being part of the Central Time Zone, Mexico decided not to go along with this change and observes their horario de verano from the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October. In December 2009, the Mexican Congress allowed ten border cities, eight of which are in states that observe Central Time, to adopt the U. S. daylight time schedule effective in 2010
Interstate 20 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. I‑20 runs 1,535 miles beginning near Kent, Texas, at I-10 to Florence, South Carolina, between Texas and South Carolina, I‑20 runs through northern Louisiana, central Mississippi and north-central Alabama, and north-central Georgia. I‑20 intersects seven of the ten primary north–south Interstates and the east-west Interstates 10 and 30, from its terminus at I‑95, the highway continues about 2 miles eastward into the city of Florence as Business Spur 20. I-20 begins 10 miles east of Kent at a fork with I-10, from there, the highway travels east-northeastward through Odessa and Abilene before turning eastward towards Dallas/Fort Worth. The La Entrada al Pacifico corridor runs along I-20 between U. S. Route 385 and Farm to Market Road 1788, between Monahans and I-10, I-20 has an 80 miles per hour speed limit. From the highways opening in the 1960s through 1971, I-20 originally went through the heart of the Metroplex via the Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike and this old route is now signed I-30, US80 and Texas Spur 557.
In 1987, I-20 was rerouted to go through the sections of Fort Worth, Grand Prairie, Dallas. Part of I-20 in Dallas is named the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway, I-20 continues eastward from Terrell, bypassing Tyler and Longview, before crossing the Louisiana border near Waskom. In Louisiana, I-20 roughly parallels U. S. Route 80 through the part of the state. From that area, the highway traverses rural, hilly terrain, bypassing Minden, Ruston. From Monroe, I-20 enters flatter terrain as it approaches the Mississippi River, before crossing the Mississippi, the highway passes Tallulah. At the Mississippi River, I-20 leaves Louisiana and enters Vicksburg, upon entering Mississippi by crossing the Mississippi River, I-20 immediately enters Vicksburg. Between Edwards and Clinton, the highway follows the original two-lane routing of US80. In Jackson, I-20 sees a short concurrency with both I-55 and US49, in Jackson is an unusually expansive stack interchange, at the junction of I-20, I-55 North and US49 South.
The interchange replaces a former interchange at I-55 North and a cloverleaf at Highway 49. From the Stack, I-20 continues eastward to Meridian, where it begins the nearly 160-mile overlap with I-59, the route of the Mississippi section of I-20 is defined in Mississippi Code § 65-3-3. I-20 crosses the Alabama state line near York, and it stays conjoined as it passes through western Alabama, at Birmingham, the two highways pass through downtown together before splitting at Exit 130 just east of the Birmingham airport. I-20 continues eastward through Oxford/Anniston and the Talladega National Forest, passing by the Talladega Superspeedway in the process, I-20 enters Georgia near Tallapoosa and after passing through western Georgia, it enters the Atlanta metropolitan area
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census, is the twenty-third and currently most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the day used for the census, was April 1,2010. As part of a drive to increase the accuracy,635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed, participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25,2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, more than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15,2010, the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1,2010. The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%, from April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called non-response follow-up.
In December 2010, the Census Bureau delivered population information to the president for apportionment, personally identifiable information will be available in 2082. The Census Bureau did not use a form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, the 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions, How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1,2010. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1,2010 that you did not include in Question 1, mark all that apply, Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number. What is Person 1s age and Person 1s date of birth, is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else, the form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey.
The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a basis will receive the survey each year. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples, the final form did not contain a separate same-sex married couple option
Ralph Allen Garr is a former Major League Baseball outfielder. Garr was a free swinger with remarkable talent for hitting to all fields, a career.306 hitter with amazing speed, Garr batted.300 or better five times during his career. Garr was born in Monroe and worked as a shoe shine boy at a barber shop growing up. After graduation from Lincoln High School in Ruston, Louisiana, he attended historically black Grambling State University in Grambling, though Garr was a fast runner and good contact hitter, he was a below average infielder. He was converted to an outfielder with the Shreveport Braves in 1968, after two minor league seasons in which he batted.287 with 53 runs batted in, Garr made the jump from double A to the majors in September 1968. Regardless, he earned an invite to Spring training 1969, upon Cartys return, he was optioned to the triple A Richmond Braves, but returned in September when rosters expanded. Overall, he batted.222 in 22 games, Garr again made the Braves out of Spring training 1970, and resumed the role he had at the end of the 1968 &1969 seasons.
He appeared in sixteen games with the Braves through May, but had earned a reputation as something of a defensive liability at this point in his career. He was optioned back to Richmond at the end of May, and went on to bat an International League record.386 with seven runs,51 RBIs. He returned to Atlanta in September as an outfielder. Rico Carty injured his knee playing Winter ball in the Dominican Republic. Garr seized the opportunity, batting over.400 through the middle of May, on May 10, against Tom Seaver and the New York Mets, Garr hit a solo home run with two outs in the tenth inning to tie the game. He hit a home run in the twelfth for the walk-off victory. He became so popular with fans in Atlanta that the Braves negotiated exclusive big-league baseball rights with Warner Bros. By the end of the season, Garrs batting average cooled off to.343 and he scored a career high 101 runs batting second in the Braves batting order. Unfortunately, Garrs defensive short-comings caused him to lose his job in left field when Carty returned to the Braves in 1972.
He still appeared in 134 games and managed a.962 fielding percentage manning all three outfield spots and his.325 batting average was again second best in the league. At the end of the season, Carty was traded to the Texas Rangers, Garr again put up solid offensive numbers in 1973, but his weak glove made him trade-bait at the 1973 Winter meetings
Lincoln Parish, Louisiana
Lincoln Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,735, the parish was created on February 24,1873 from parts of Bienville, Claiborne and Jackson parishes, and its boundaries have changed only once. This makes Lincoln parish one of the Reconstruction parishes, Lincoln Parish comprises the Ruston, LA Micropolitan Statistical Area. At sites such as Watson Brake, Frenchmans Bend, and Caney, generations of hunter-gatherers worked for hundreds of years to build, hedgepeth Site, located in Lincoln Parish, is dated about 5200-4500 BP, from the latter part of this period. Such finds are changing the understanding of human cultures. It was an attempt to break up the old order of political power, the parish is named for the late U. S. president Abraham Lincoln. In 1934, the historian Robert W, another Louisiana Tech faculty member, Robert C. Snyder, was instrumental in the establishment in 1962 of the Lincoln Parish Library and he served as the library board president for many years.
Lincoln Parish is usually Republican in contested elections, in 2012, Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney won the parish with 10,739 votes to U. S. President Barack H. Obama, the Democrat who polled 7,956 ballots. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has an area of 472 square miles. 55. 2% were White,40. 5% Black or African American,1. 7% Asian,0. 3% Native American,0. 1% Pacific Islander,1. 3% of some other race and 1. 1% of two or more races. As of the census of 2000, there were 42,509 people,15,235 households, the population density was 90 people per square mile. There were 17,000 housing units at a density of 36 per square mile. 1. 16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,27. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 3.01. In the parish the population was out with 22. 10% under the age of 18,25. 70% from 18 to 24,23. 20% from 25 to 44,17. 60% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 26 years, for every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.90 males, the median income for a household in the parish was $26,977, and the median income for a family was $38,972
2000 United States Census
This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States. Approximately 16 percent of households received a form of the 2000 census. Full documentation on the 2000 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Microdata from the 2000 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, personally identifiable information will be available in 2072. The U. S. resident population includes the number of people in the 50 states. The Bureau enumerated the residents of the U. S. territory of Puerto Rico, its population was 3,808,610, the 2000 Census was the first time survey options for multiracial Americans were provided. S. Households had access to computers, 42% have Internet access, the South and West experienced the bulk of the nations population increase,14,790,890 and 10,411,850, respectively.
This meant that the center of U. S. population moved to Phelps County. The Northeast grew by 2,785,149, the Midwest by 4,724,144, the results of the census are used to determine how many congressional districts each state is apportioned. Congress defines the formula, in accordance with Title 2 of the U. S. Code, each member of the House represents a population of about 647,000. The populations of the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico are excluded from the apportionment population because they do not have voting seats in the U. S, since the first census in 1790, the decennial count has been the basis for the United States representative form of government. Article I, Section II specifies that The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, in 1790, each member of the House represented about 34,000 residents. Since then, the House more than quadrupled in size, each member represents about 20 times as many constituents. This recommendation was followed by the Secretary of Commerce, after the census was tabulated, Utah challenged the results in two different ways.
Utah was extremely close to gaining a fourth seat, falling 857 people short. The margin was shortened to 80 people, after the government discovered that it overcounted the population of North Carolina by 2,673 residents. Utah claimed that individuals traveling abroad as religious missionaries should be counted as residents, almost half of all Mormon missionaries, more than 11,000 individuals, were from Utah, only 102 came from North Carolina
Eddie Robinson (American football coach)
Eddie Gay Robinson, Sr. was an American football coach. He coached the second most victories in NCAA Division I history, with the restoration of the wins by the NCAA in 2015, Paterno has again been recognized as the Division I record holder. For 56 years, from 1941 to 1942 and again from 1945 to 1997, he was the coach at Grambling State University. Robinson is recognized by many football experts as one of the greatest coaches in history. During a period in football history when black players were not allowed to play for southern college programs. He retired in 1997 with a record of 408 wins,165 losses, Robinson coached every single game from the field and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1997. Robinson was born in Jackson in East Feliciana Parish in South Louisiana, to the son of a sharecropper and he graduated in 1937 from McKinley Senior High School in the capital city of Baton Rouge and briefly attended Southern University there. Robinson dreamed of becoming a football coach himself, but he faced an enormous drawback—he was black in the days of Jim Crow discrimination.
The only college position he could hope to obtain would be at a traditionally all-black school. Having earned his bachelors degree at Leland, Robinson returned to Baton Rouge, not long after that, he heard that the Louisiana Negro Normal and Industrial Institute—now Grambling State University—was searching for a new football coach. He applied for the job and was hired by the president and baseball coach. In 1941 the 22-year old Robinson assumed his duties as head coach at Grambling State. He had strict standards of conduct and educational achievement for his players. More than 200 of his players went on to play in the American Football League, CFL, Robinson coached James Harris, who with the AFLs Buffalo Bills became the first black quarterback in modern Pro Football history to start at that position in a season opener. Enormous publicity attended Robinsons record-breaking win with Grambling State in 1985, some observers feared that the coach would become the target of white hatred, much as Henry Aaron had when he broke Babe Ruths home run record.
Instead Robinson reported that he did not receive a single hate letter, when asked if his record was somehow tarnished by the fact that his team played most of its games against Division I-AA caliber competition, Robinson told Sports Illustrated, I grew up in the South. I was told where to attend school, where to attend junior high school. When I became a coach, I was told who I could recruit, who I could play, where I could play, I did what I could within the system
U.S. Route 80
U. S. Route 80 is an east–west United States Numbered Highway, much of which was once part of the early auto trail known as the Dixie Overland Highway. As the 0 in the number indicates, it was originally a cross-country route. However, the segment west of Dallas, has been decommissioned in favor of various Interstate Highways. Currently, the western terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 30 on the Dallas–Mesquite. The highways eastern terminus is in Tybee Island, Georgia, at the intersection of Butler Avenue, Inlet Avenue, modern US80 begins as a significant component of the urban freeway system of Dallas, Texas. With Spur 557, it serves as the shortest freeway route from the central and northern portions of Dallas to I-20, heading east towards Shreveport and it rejoins I-20 for about five miles, before splitting to pass through downtown Waskom before crossing into Louisiana. US80 is parallel to the newer I-20, which has supplanted it as a long-distance route, the highway crosses the state line from Texas into Caddo Parish as a two-lane road and crosses over to the south of I-20 without connecting with the freeway.
It passes through the town of Greenwood where it meets US79 coming north from Texas, US 79/US80 crosses over I-20 again, this time at an interchange, and enters the city of Shreveport as Greenwood Road. US171 ends at US 79/US80 at the intersection with Hearne Avenue, at this intersection, the road narrows to two through lanes. US80 intersects I-20 again just east of here, at Mansfield Road, the highway name changes to Texas Avenue and angles northeast through an industrial area. The road skirts the I-20/I-49 interchange and expands to four lanes for its approach to downtown. US 79/US80 passes through downtown Shreveport on Texas Street before crossing the Red River on the 1930s vintage Long–Allen Bridge and entering Bossier City, through Bossier Parish, US 79/US80 comprises a major urban and suburban arterial carrying a minimum of four lanes. In the eastern reaches of the parish, and continuing into Webster Parish, the road intersects the east end of I-220 at an interchange. US 79/US80 stays to the north of I-20, except for a stretch east of Haughton where it strays to the south for a period, at Dixie Inn, the highway intersects US371.
In Minden, US79 separates from US80 and continues its northeasterly trajectory toward Arkansas, East of Minden, US80 crosses to the south of I-20 and serves the Bienville Parish towns of Gibsland and Arcadia. Entering Lincoln Parish, the highway serves Simsboro and Grambling before entering Ruston, US80 resumes its eastward path on the north side of Ruston and exits the city on East Georgia Avenue. Between Ruston and Monroe the highway serves the communities of Choudrant. Now on the side of the interstate, it enters Ouachita Parish
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density