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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time. Perfective aspect is used in referring to an event conceived as bounded and unitary, without reference to any flow of time during. Imperfective aspect is used for situations conceived as existing continuously or repetitively as time flows. Further distinctions can be made, for example, to distinguish states and ongoing actions from repetitive actions. Certain aspectual distinctions express a relation in time between the event and the time of reference; this is the case with the perfect aspect, which indicates that an event occurred prior to the time of reference: "I have eaten". Different languages make different grammatical aspectual distinctions; the marking of aspect is conflated with the marking of tense and mood. Aspectual distinctions may be restricted to certain tenses: in Latin and the Romance languages, for example, the perfective–imperfective distinction is marked in the past tense, by the division between preterites and imperfects.

Explicit consideration of aspect as a category first arose out of study of the Slavic languages. The concept of grammatical aspect should not be confused with imperfect verb forms; the Indian linguist Yaska dealt with grammatical aspect, distinguishing actions that are processes, from those where the action is considered as a completed whole. This is the key distinction between the perfective. Yaska applied this distinction to a verb versus an action nominal. Grammarians of the Greek and Latin languages showed an interest in aspect, but the idea did not enter into the modern Western grammatical tradition until the 19th century via the study of the grammar of the Slavic languages; the earliest use of the term recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary dates from 1853. Aspect is confused with the related concept of tense, because they both convey information about time. While tense relates the time of referent to some other time the speech event, aspect conveys other temporal information, such as duration, completion, or frequency, as it relates to the time of action.

Thus tense refers to temporally. Aspect can be said to describe the texture of the time in which a situation occurs, such as a single point of time, a continuous range of time, a sequence of discrete points in time, etc. whereas tense indicates its location in time. For example, consider the following sentences: "I eat", "I am eating", "I have eaten", "I have been eating". All are in the present tense, indicated by the present-tense verb of each sentence, yet since they differ in aspect each conveys different information or points of view as to how the action pertains to the present. Grammatical aspect is a formal property of a language, distinguished through overt inflection, derivational affixes, or independent words that serve as grammatically required markers of those aspects. For example, the K'iche' language spoken in Guatemala has the inflectional prefixes k- and x- to mark incompletive and completive aspect. Languages that do not mark aspect morphologically or through auxiliary verbs, can convey such distinctions by the use of adverbs or other syntactic constructions.

Grammatical aspect is distinguished from lexical aspect or aktionsart, an inherent feature of verbs or verb phrases and is determined by the nature of the situation that the verb describes. The most fundamental aspectual distinction, represented in many languages, is between perfective aspect and imperfective aspect; this is the basic aspectual distinction in the Slavic languages. It semantically corresponds to the distinction between the morphological forms known as the aorist and imperfect in Greek, the preterite and imperfect in Spanish, the simple past and imperfect in French, the perfect and imperfect in Latin; the perfective aspect looks at an event as a complete action, while the imperfective aspect views an event as the process of unfolding or a repeated or habitual event. For events of short durations in the past, the distinction coincides with the distinction in the English language between the simple past "X-ed," as compared to the progressive "was X-ing". Compare "I wrote the letters this morning" and "I was writing letters this morning".

In describing longer time periods, English needs context to maintain the distinction between the habitual and perfective

François Dupré

François Louis Jules Dupré was a French, art collector, owner of the thoroughbred horse breeding and racing farm, Haras d'Ouilly. He was a grandson of the painter Jules Dupré. Dupré served in the French Army during World War I. Wounded during battle, he was hospitalized for a considerable length of time, he went on to a career in business that saw him become the owner of two luxury hotels in Paris, the prestigious Hotel George V, Paris and the Hotel Plaza Athenée. In addition, in 1947, Dupré acquired the Hotel Ritz in Canada. In 1937, while traveling by passenger liner across the Atlantic, Dupré met twenty-five-year-old Anna Stefanna Nagy who would become his second wife. Dupré was friends with Duke Louis Decazes, a Thoroughbred racehorse enthusiast who owned the Haras d'Ouilly stud farm in Pont-d'Ouilly, Calvados. Beginning in 1921, the two partnered in several racehorses and in 1930 Dupré purchased the Haras d'Ouilly property, he became one of Europe's leading breeders and owners, winning numerous important conditions races in France and England.

His horse Tantième had back-to-back wins in the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe in 1950 and'51, in 1963 Relko won The Derby. Races in France: Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe Tantième Prix de l'Abbaye de Longchamp Texana Fortino Texanita Grand Prix de Paris Danseur Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud Match Poule d'Essai des Pouliches Virgule Solitude La Sega Bella Paola raced by Madame Dupré Koblenza raced by Madame Dupré Poule d'Essai des Poulains Relko Prix du Jockey Club Reliance Rheffic raced by Madame Dupré Prix Noailles Tanerko Match Prix Royal-Oak Match Races in England: 1,000 Guineas Bella Paola raced by Madame Dupré Epsom Derby Relko Coronation Cup Relko King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes Match Races in the United States: Washington, D. C. International Stakes Match François Dupré died in 1966 at his estate in Jamaica, his widow Anna ran the racing operation until 1977 when she sold the entire bloodstock for £1.3 million to the Aga Khan IV. The Dupré's famous colors of gray with a pink cap were taken over by Jean-Luc Lagardère who would buy Haras d'Ouilly in 1981.

Pont-d'Ouilly municipal website with the history of Haras d'Ouilly November 23, 1962 TIME magazine article on François Dupré winning the Washington D. C. International

Nava Vihara

The Nava Vihāra were two Buddhist monasteries close to the ancient city of Balkh in northern Afghanistan. Historical accounts report it as flourishing as an important centre of Buddhism between the seventh and eleventh centuries CE, it may have been founded earlier in or after the reign of the Kushan emperor Kaniṣka, in the second century CE. Historical accounts report it as flourishing as an important centre of Buddhism between the seventh and eleventh centuries CE, it may have been founded earlier in or after the reign of Kaniṣka, in the second century CE. The many Buddhist references in the Persian literature of the period provide evidence of Islamic–Buddhist cultural contact. Persian poetry, for example used the simile for palaces that they were "as beautiful as a Nowbahar." Further, at Nava Vihāra and Bamiyan, Buddha images of Maitreya, the future Buddha, had'moon discs' or halo iconographically represented behind or around their heads. This led to the poetic depiction of pure beauty as someone having "the moon-shaped face of a Buddha."

Thus, 11th-century Persian poems, such as Varqe and Golshah by Ayyuqi, use the word budh with a positive connotation for "Buddha," not with its second, derogatory meaning as "idol." It implies the ideal of asexual beauty in both women. Such references indicate that either Buddhist monasteries and images were present in these Iranian cultural areas at least through the early Mongol period in the 13th century or, at minimum, that a strong Buddhist legacy remained for centuries among the Buddhist converts to Islam. In the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, Xuanzang reports that at the time of his visit to Balkh in 630 there were about a hundred viharas and 30,000 monks, a large number of stupas and other religious monuments, that Buddhism was flourishing in the Bactrian portion of the Western Turkic Khaganate, he described it as having strong links with the Kingdom of Khotan in the Tarim Basin. The temple was led by Pramukha, Sanskrit for "leader, administrator", under the Arabized name of Barmak, came to be known as the Barmakids).

The Umayyad Caliphate captured Balkh in 663 from the Kabul Shahis who had taken over the territory from the Western Turks. In 708 Nazaktar Khan, a Kabul Shahi prince, in alliance with the Tibetan Empire, recaptured Bactria from the Umayyads and continued Buddhist rule. In 715 Ibn Qutaybah recaptured the region for the Umayyads and Tibet switched sides to ally with him against the Kabul Shahis. Qutaiba inflicted heavy damage on Nava Vihāra, resulting in many monks fleeing to Khotan and Kashmir; the Barmakids, who attained great power under the Abbasid Caliphate becoming powerful viziers, are regarded as having their origin in a line of hereditary priests at Nava Vihāra who had converted to Islam. An Arab author, Umar ibn al-Azraq al-Kermani, wrote a detailed account of Nava Vihāra at the beginning of the 8th century, preserved in a 10th-century work, the Kitab al-Buldan by Ibn al-Faqih, he described Nava Vihara in terms strikingly similar to the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest site of Islam. He described that the main temple had a stone cube in the center, draped with cloth, that devotees circumambulated it and made prostration, as is the case with the Kaaba.

The stone cube referred to the platform on which a stupa stood, as was the custom in Bactrian temples. The cloth that draped it was in accordance with Persian custom of showing veneration that applied to Buddha statues as well as to stupas; some Arabic sources erroneously describe the vihāra as a fire temple of Zoroastrianism because of its proximity to Balkh, Zoroaster's birthplace. In Arabic sources, the monastery's name is represented as "Naubahar". Van Bladel has pointed out that this version of the name can be traced to the pronunciation in the Bactrian language; the Han Chinese pilgrim Yijing visited Nava Vihāra in the 680s and reported it flourishing as a Sarvāstivādin center of study. Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī, a Persian scholar and writer in service to the Ghaznavids, reported that around the start of the 10th century, the monasteries in Bactria, including Nava Vihāra, were still functioning and decorated with Buddhist frescoes. A curious notice of this building is found in the writings of Arabian geographer Ibn Hawqal, an Arabian traveler of the 10th century.

Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Trapusa and Bahalika Balkh Nava Vihāra at the Mapping Buddhist Monasteries website

Capel Dewi, Llandysul

Capel Dewi is a small village in the county of Ceredigion, Wales. The village lies in the Clettwr Valley on the eastern bank of the River Clettwr, a tributary of the River Teifi. Capel Dewi is part of the community of Llandysul along with the settlements of Horeb, Pont Sian, Pren-gwyn, Tregroes and the village of Llandysul itself; the village is one of two settlements in Ceredigion called Capel Dewi, the other being the smaller Capel Dewi near Aberystwyth. The village is home to several buildings including the Rock Mill. Opened in 1890, the Rock Mill is a waterwheel powered woollen mill, the last commercial woollen mill remaining in Wales. Capel Dewi has its own church, St David's Church, which gives the village its name; the church, in the centre of the village, was made a Grade II listed building in 1993

House Brunton

House Brunton is a residential property in Berea, South Africa designed by the renowned firm of Henry Seton Morris and Cottrill. The house was completed in 1906 and takes its name from the original occupants, the celebrated painter Winifred Brunton and her husband, Guy Brunton, an Egyptologist and director of Cairo Museum; the house is situated on the corner of Primrose Terrace and Fife Street and is used as a beer hall. The house has two storeys with white washed walls. Winifred Mabel Brunton was born 6 May 1880 and died 29 January 1959, she was one of three daughters born to Charles and Elizabeth Newberry, who built and lived in the Prynnsberg mansion in Clocolan from the 1880s. Winnifred studied art at the Slade School, she exhibited at the Royal Academy and was a member of the Royal Society of British Artists and the Royal Miniature Society. She married a respected Egyptologist and one-time Assistant Keeper of the Cairo Museum, they brought with thema a large collection of Egyptian Antiquities.

Works by Winifred Brunton include: Murals with Egyptian theme, family miniatures, at Prynnsberg, Clocolan Illustrations for the book ‘Kings and Queens of Ancient Egypt’ Illustrations for the book ‘Great Ones of Ancient Egypt’ The Morris & Cottrill partnership was a collaboration between Henry Seton Morris and G St J Cottrill in Johannesburg around 1906. Morris was in South Africa for a short period from 1902 to around 1909. House Brunton is the only building known to have been produced by the short-lived Morris and Cottrill partnership; the House Brunton residence is and culturally significant for the following reasons: The House Brunton is associated with Winifred Brunton and Guy Brunton, who were notable people in Johannesburg The house is the only known building associated with the short-lived practice of Morris & Cottrill House Brunton was built in 1906 which makes it old enough to qualify as a heritage house

21st Century Union March

21st Century Union March is an album by Ethnic Heritage Ensemble, a jazz band formed by percussionist Kahil El'Zabar, joined by saxophonist Edward Wilkerson and trombonist Joseph Bowie. It was released on the Swedish Silkheart label. In his review for AllMusic, Thom Jurek describes the album as: an infectious, utterly intoxicating brew of African folk songs, rhythm marches, R&B honking, bop caesuras, blues stomping, inseparable from tradition yet extends its relevancy into a new era; the Penguin Guide to Jazz states: The team has an chamberish feel on 21st Century Union March. Bowie takes a proniment soloist's role, Wilkerson seems reserved, the music has a gentle way of unfolding when El'Zabar works up some thunder at his various drums. In a review for JazzTimes Willard Jenkins says: This is music not of an overly intellectual bent, it is instead so earthy and ethereal as to conjure rich colorations and dreamscapes. All compositions by Kahil El'Zabar except as indicated"Crumb Puck You Let Slide" – 6:48 "Fanfare" – 8:58 "Lover Man" – 3:23 "How the Cow See Cirrus" – 11:43 "Missing Miles" – 5:03 "Burundi" – 10:05 "Love Outside of Dreams" – 6:27 "Dear Albert" – 9:01 "Procession" – 3:14 Joseph Bowie – trombone, miscellaneous percussion Edward Wilkerson – tenor sax, alto clarinet, miscellaneous percussion Kahil El'Zabar – earth drums, trap drums, miscellaneous percussion, vocals Jenkins, Willard.

"21st Century Union March review". JazzTimes