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Manas Chakraborty

Pandit Manas Chakraborty was an Indian classical vocalist. He was taught music by his father Tarapada Chakraborty. Chakraborty performed at many music conferences and programs including the Allauddin Music Conference, the 5th RIMPA Music Festival, the Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, he was a writer and composer, used the pseudonym Sadasant or Sadasant Piya for composing bandishes. He composed many Bengali songs, he wrote a book with Bengali poems named "Tumio Bhetore Neel Nakhastra" edited by Maitrayee Bandyopadhyay and published by Pratibhas Publication. Heritage Samman by Heritage World Society, Tower Group Sangeet Samman Award, Presented by The Dover Lane Music Conference Dishari Award – West Bengal Journalists' Association Maharishi Award – Maharishi World Centre of Gandharva Veda at U. K. Roydon Hall Girija Shankar Memorial Award – Girija Shankar Smriti Parishad Jadubhatta Award – Salt Lake Cultural Association, Kolkata Outstanding Citizen Award – English Teaching Union. Award for his excellence at 15th Master Dinanath Mangeshkar Sangeet Sammellan – Samrat Sangeet Academy.

Felicitated by Rotary International Felicitated by Dover Lane Music Conference on his 50th birth-anniversary Felicitated by Kotalipara Sammelani Felicitated by Samatat for his contribution in the field of Indian Arts and Music Lifetime Achievement Award from Mohanananda Brahmachari Sishu Seva Pratisthan


Off-the-grid or off-grid is a characteristic of buildings and a lifestyle designed in an independent manner without reliance on one or more public utilities. The term "off-the-grid" traditionally refers to not being connected to the electrical grid, but can include other utilities like water and sewer systems, can scale from residential homes to small communities. Off-the-grid living allows for buildings and people to be self-sufficient, advantageous in isolated locations where normal utilities cannot reach and is attractive to those who want to reduce environmental impact and cost of living. An off-grid building must be able to supply energy and potable water for itself, as well as manage food and wastewater. Energy for electrical power and heating can be generated on-site with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, or micro hydro. Additional forms of energy include biomass in the form of wood and alcohol fuels and geothermal energy, which uses differences in the underground temperature to regular indoor air environments in buildings.

It is possible to eliminate electric power such as in Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite communities. Grid-connected buildings receive electric from power plants, which use natural resources such as coal and natural gas as energy to convert into electrical power. 2017’s breakdown of world energy sources shows that the globe dependent on grid power, uses a majority of non-renewables, while popular renewables such as solar PV and wind power are a small portion. When off the grid, such as in Africa where 55% people of do not have access to electricity and homes must take advantage of the renewable energy sources around them, because it is the most abundant and allows for self-sufficiency. Solar photovoltaics, which use energy from the sun, are one of the most popular energy solutions for off-grid buildings. PV array’s allow for energy from the sun to be converted into electrical energy. PV is dependent upon solar ambient temperature. Other components needed in a PV system include charge controllers and rapid shutdown controls.

Another popular source for off-grid power is wind energy, harnessed by wind turbines. Wind turbines components consist of blades that get pushed by wind, controllers, breaks, a tower; the amount of mechanical power captured from a wind turbine is a factor of the wind speed, air density, blade rotational area, the aerodynamic power coefficient of the turbine. Where water is abundant, hydropower is a promising energy solution. Large scale hydropower involves a dam and reservoir and small scale micro-hydro can use turbines in rivers with constant levels of water. Micro-hydro has potential to small communities, making a great off-grid choice; the amount of mechanical power generated is a factor of the flow of the stream, turbine size, water density, power coefficient, similar to wind turbines. The energy from waves and tides can be provide power to coastal areas; when renewables produce energy, not needed, the electrical energy is directed to charge a battery. This solves intermittency issues caused by the non-constant production of renewables and allows for variations in building loads.

Common batteries include lithium-ion battery. In order to protect against intermittency issues and system failures, many off-grid communities create hybrid energy systems; these combine traditional renewables like solar PV, wind, with more constant sources of power like micro-hydro or diesel generators. This ensures constant power for an off-grid community and building hybrid systems are more cost-effective than extending grids to isolated communities. Water is a crucial consideration in the off-grid environment, which must be collected and disposed of efficiently to make use of the environment. There are many ways to supply water for indoor domestic use, which vary based on local access and preference. Nearby streams, ponds and lakes are easy access points for fresh water. Oceans can be considered with proper desalination; this traditional method involves digging down to where water is present and abundant underground to the water table or to an aquifer, bringing it up for use, or collecting at springs where underground water comes to the surface.

Systems for bringing underground water to buildings include wind and solar driven pumps or hand pumps. Well water should be tested on a regular basis and when changes in the water’s taste, odor, or appearance occur to ensure its quality; this system relies on the weather to provide water. Catchment systems are designed based off the water demand of the users and local rainfall characteristics. Rain water is funneled from the roof of a building to water tanks where the water is stored until needed. Another, less self-sufficient method involves bringing large amounts of clean water to the site where it is stored; this system relies on access to clean drinking water elsewhere and transportation to the off-grid site. Wherever the water does come from, it must be safe to use indoors. For various issues with water quality, different water treatment strategies are available. A physical barrier allows water to pass through and blocks impurities in the water and, if the filter is fine enough, can filter out biological contaminants.

In order to disinfect water, common chemicals such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone are introduced which kill microorganisms. A UV system uses bulbs that emit ultraviolet light into filtered water to kill all types of viruses and protozoa. A less typical approach, this involves applying a current to water that has a small salt

Rajshahi District

Rajshahi District is a district in mid-western Bangladesh. It is a part of the Rajshahi Division; the metropolitan city of Rajshahi is in Rajshahi District. Rajshahi region was ruled by the Puṭhia Raj family based in the Puṭhia Rajbaɽi; the Mughal Emperror Akbar had given the Rajshahi region to the Puṭhia Raj family to govern, the governor was Pitambar. The Puṭhia family was given the title of Raja by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. Rajshahi District was established in 1772. Parts of the districts became Bogura district, Malda district, Natore district, Naogaon district, Nawabganj district, Pabna district. On 1 April 1876 Rajshahi town was made into municipal town. During the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 the town was the site of battles between the Mukti Bahini and Pakistan Army. Pakistan Army fought a battle against the Mukti Bahini on 30 March 1971 which resulted in the death of East Pakistan Rifles member. Between 26 and 30 March 31 individuals in Godagaɽi upazila were killed by Pakistan Army.

On 13 April Pakistan Army killed Rajshahi Cadet College Professor AB Siddiqi. Pakistan Army killed 25 people. Mukti Bahini commander Havilder Shafiq led an attack on Pakistan Army boat on 8 August killing 18 Pakistan Army personal. Pakistan Army killed two members of Bangladesh Ansar in war of attrition. Pakistan Army established a camp in the Zoha Hall of Rajshahi University where they massacred hundreds of civilians. Pakistan Army had established camps inside Rajshahi Cadet College, Roy Saheb brickfield, Sardaha Pilot School, Sardah Police Academy; the Pakistan Army tortured members of civilians in the camps. The Pakistan Army killed hundreds of refugees on the banks of Padma river who were fleeing to India. In a fight between Mukti Bahini and Pakistan Army near Kabasmul a Pakistan Army major was killed. Pakistan Army retaliated by killing 44 civilians in Palsa; the Pakistan Army stationed in Pabna and Rajshahi districts surrendered on 18 December 1971, two days after Pakistani forces in Bangladesh signed the Pakistani instrument of Surrender in Dhaka on 16 December 1971.

Pakistani military surrendered to Indian Army Captain Nanda in Naṭore. The Pakistan Army camp in Rajshahi University was taken over by Mukti Bahini members 0n 17 December after fighting them. Surrender ceremonies took place on 20 December. Rajshahi town was upgraded to a Municipal Corporation on 13 August 1987. In 1997 the government of Bangladesh made Rajshahi town into a full city corporation, Rajshahi City Corporation. In 2016 Rezaul Karim Siddiquee, a Professor at University of Rajshahi, a 65 year old Sufi Preacher, were killed by Islamic extremists. Rajshahi district is bounded by Naogaon District to the north, Natore District to the east, Chapai Nababganj District and the river Padma to the south. There are ten rivers in this district, totaling 146 km in length; the main river is Padma River. Some others are Mahananda and Barnai river. Rajshahi District has a total population of 2,286,874 of whom 1,184,448 are male and 1,102,426 are female. Muslims are 2,136,702; the district has a high literacy rate with average literacy rate of 99.50%.

Male literacy is 99.6% while female literacy is 99.3%. Sub-district or upazilas and thanas of Rajshahi are Bagha Upazila Bagmara Upazila Charghaṭ Upazila Durgapur Upazila Godagaɽi Upazila Mohanpur Upazila Paba Upazila Puṭhia Upazila Tanore Upazila Boalia Thana Matihar Thana Rajpara Thana Shah Makdam Thana Rajshai district has well organized internal communication as well as connection to other parts of the country. There are 96 metalled roads with a total length of about 1270 km, 108 semi-metalled roads of about 546 km length, six railways of about 63 km total length. Rajshahi Metropolitan is known as Silk City of Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Sericulture Development Board is situated at Rajshahi. There are seven silk factories in the BSCIC Industrial Town in Rajshahi. An Inter-City train is named Silk City express after Rajshahi; the train communicates Rajshahi to the capital city of Bangladesh. Rajshahi is notable in Bangladesh for producing Silk. Puthia Temple Complex Tomb of Shah Makhdum Kismat Madia Mosque Bagha Mosque Bagdhani Mosque Tomb of Shah Sultan Baɽo Kuṭhi Talando Shiv Mandir Districts of Bangladesh Faridpur District Rajbari District

Fictional location

Fictional locations are places that exist only in fiction and not in reality, such as the Negaverse or Planet X. Writers may describe such places to serve as backdrop for their fictional works. Fictional locations are created for use as settings in role-playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons, they may be used for technical reasons in actual reality for use in the development of specifications, such as the fictional country of Bookland, used to allow EAN "country" codes 978 and 979 to be used for ISBN numbers assigned to books, code 977 to be assigned for use for ISSN numbers on magazines and other periodicals. Fictional locations vary in their size. Small places like a single room are kept out of the umbrella of fictional locations by convention, as are most single buildings. A fictional location can be the size of a university, a town, a county, a state, a large section of continent, a whole planet, a whole galaxy a multiverse. In a larger scale the term alternate reality is used, but only if it is considered a variant of Earth rather than an original world.

Austin Tappan Wright's Islandia has Karain, on our world. However in fanfiction, along with pastiche and/or parody, it is not considered canon unless they get authorized. Within narrative prose, providing a believable location can be enhanced by the provision of maps and other illustrations; this is considered true for fantasy novels and historical novels which make great use of the map, but applies to science fiction and mysteries: earlier, in mainstream novels by Anthony Trollope, William Faulkner, etc. Fantasy and science fiction novels also provide sections which provide documentation of various aspects of the environment of the fiction, including languages, character lists, cultures and, of course, locations. In an online article on writing Dawn Arkin writes about the importance of location to the author's art: Setting has become a important part of most novels. Creating a fictional location has many advantages for the writer. You get to name the town, businesses, etc. Everything inside your town is under your control.

Maps are an immediate necessity for some works. Writers need working maps to keep straight at a glance whether the castle is north or south of the river, how long it takes to get between valleys; this can be helpful in preventing snags when dealing directly with fictional geography. Authors are as forgetful and absent-minded as the lesser breeds of humankind, a simple precaution like taking a moment to sketch out a map helps prevent such errors and inconsistencies. Sometimes an actual geographic corner is used as a model for "getting it right", identifying these can become a game for readers. Authors may turn an island into a continent or vice versa, rotate orientation, or combine two similar locales to get the best of both. Area code 555 Fictional universe List of fictional locations List of mythological places Category:Fictional locations


Nordostrundingen, is a headland located at the northeastern end of Greenland. Administratively it is part of the Northeast Greenland National Park; this headland was named by the Denmark expedition 1906-1908. At 11°19'W it is the most easterly point of land relative to either of the Americas. Nordøstrundingen is further east than three countries in Africa and further east than the westernmost point in Europe, if Iceland, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is considered part of Europe, it is only 1° 49′ from the westernmost point of the European mainland, in Portugal. Greenland is not part of North America politically, which leads some people to assert that the most easterly point of the continent is the easternmost point in CanadaCape Spear located at 52°37'W near St. John's, Newfoundland. However, both of these headlands are located on islands on the North American continental shelf. Semisopochnoi Island, Alaska is in the eastern hemisphere at 179°46'E and thus is the easternmost point in North America by longitude.

Cape St. Charles on the Labrador Peninsula is the easternmost point of continental North America. DK World Atlas, Millennium Edition, pg. 3