Emile Berliner Emil Berliner, was a German-born American inventor. He is best known for inventing the Gramophone, he founded the United States Gramophone Company in 1894, The Gramophone Company in London, England, in 1897, Deutsche Grammophon in Hanover, Germany, in 1898, Berliner Gram-o-phone Company of Canada in Montreal in 1899, Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901 with Eldridge Johnson. Berliner was born in Germany, in 1851 into a Jewish merchant family. Though raised Jewish, he became an agnostic, he completed an apprenticeship to become a merchant. While his real hobby was invention, he worked as an accountant to make ends meet. To avoid being drafted for the Franco-Prussian War, Berliner migrated to the United States of America in 1870 with a friend of his father's, in whose shop he worked in Washington, D. C, he moved to New York and, living off temporary work, such as doing the paper route and cleaning bottles, he studied physics at night at the Cooper Union Institute. After some time working in a livery stable, he became interested in the new audio technology of the telephone and phonograph, invented an improved telephone transmitter.
The patent was acquired by the Bell Telephone Company. In America, Thomas Edison and Berliner fought a long legal battle over the patent rights, but on February 27, 1901 the United States Court of Appeal declared the patent void and awarded Edison full rights to the invention, stating "Edison preceded Berliner in the transmission of speech... The use of carbon in a transmitter is, beyond controversy, the invention of Edison" and the Berliner patent was ruled invalid. Berliner subsequently moved to Boston in 1877 and worked for Bell Telephone until 1883, when he returned to Washington and established himself as a private researcher. Emile Berliner became a United States citizen in 1881. Berliner invented what was the first radial aircraft engine, a helicopter, acoustical tiles. In 1886 Berliner began experimenting with methods of sound recording, he was granted his first patent for what he called the "Gramophone" in 1887. The patent described recording sound using horizontal modulation of a stylus as it traced a line on a rotating cylindrical surface coated with an unresisting opaque material such as lampblack, subsequently fixed with varnish and used to photoengrave a corresponding groove into the surface of a metal playback cylinder.
In practice, Berliner opted for the disc format, which made the photoengraving step much less difficult and offered the prospect of making multiple copies of the result by some simpler process such as electrotyping, molding or stamping. In 1888 Berliner was using a more direct recording method, in which the stylus traced a line through a thin coating of wax on a zinc disc, etched in acid to convert the line of bared metal into a playable groove. By 1890 a Berliner licensee in Germany was manufacturing a toy Gramophone and five-inch hard rubber discs, but because key US patents were still pending they were sold only in Europe. Berliner meant his Gramophone to be more than a mere toy, in 1894 he persuaded a group of businessmen to invest $25,000, with which he started the United States Gramophone Company, he began marketing seven-inch records and a more substantial Gramophone, which was, still hand-propelled like the smaller toy machine. The difficulty in using early hand-driven Gramophones was getting the turntable to rotate at an acceptably steady speed while playing a disc.
Engineer Eldridge R. Johnson, the owner of a small machine shop in Camden, New Jersey, assisted Berliner in developing a suitable low-cost wind-up spring motor for the Gramophone and became Berliner's manufacturer. Berliner gave Frank Seaman the exclusive sales rights in the US, but after disagreements Seaman began selling his own version of the Gramophone, as well as unauthorized copies of Berliner's records, Berliner was barred from selling his own products; the US Berliner Gramophone Company shut down in mid-1900 and Berliner moved to Canada. Following various legal maneuvers, the Victor Talking Machine Company was founded by Eldridge Johnson in 1901 and the trade name "Gramophone" was and permanently abandoned in the US, although its use continued elsewhere; the Berliner Gramophone Co. of Canada was chartered on 8 April 1904 and reorganized as the Berliner Gramophone Co. in 1909 in Montreal's district Saint Henri. The Gramophone The Gramophone was presented as an apparatus for making permanent records of the human voice or other sounds, including music of all kinds and for reproducing the same at any time thereafter as as desired.
The records were of hard rubber, solid metal or other indestructible material and could therefore be handled without fear of breaking or injuring them. The sound records were grooves of depth but of varying direction, as apposed to those of straight lines and various depths in the Phonograph and Graphophone; these records could be multiplied at will to any extent, each copy would sound like the original. It was based on the Leon Scott Phonautograph, invented nearly forty years before, which traced sound as curvilinear lines upon the smoked surface of a brass cylinder by means of a diaphragm with a stylus attached to its center. Early in 1877, or six months before the discovery of the phonograph principle by indenting tin-foil or wax, Charles Cros, of Paris, had conceived and placed on file the theory that if the curvilinear record of a Scott Phonautograph be phot
Lester William Polsfuss, known as Les Paul, was an American jazz and blues guitarist, songwriter and inventor. He was one of the pioneers of the solid-body electric guitar, his techniques served as inspiration for the Gibson Les Paul. Paul taught himself how to play guitar, while he is known for jazz and popular music, he had an early career in country music, he is credited with many recording innovations. Although he was not the first to use the technique, his early experiments with overdubbing, delay effects such as tape delay, phasing effects and multitrack recording were among the first to attract widespread attention, his innovative talents extended into his playing style, including licks, chording sequences, fretting techniques and timing, which set him apart from his contemporaries and inspired many guitarists of the present day. He recorded with his wife, the singer and guitarist Mary Ford, in the 1950s, they sold millions of records. Among his many honors, Paul is one of a handful of artists with a permanent, stand-alone exhibit in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
He is prominently named by the music museum on its website as an "architect" and a "key inductee" with Sam Phillips and Alan Freed. Les Paul is the only person to be included in both the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Paul was born Lester William Polsfuss in Waukesha, Wisconsin, to Evelyn Polsfuss, his family was of German ancestry. Paul's mother was related to the founders of Milwaukee's Valentin Blatz Brewing Company and the makers of the Stutz automobile, his parents divorced. His mother simplified their Prussian family name first to Polfuss to Polfus, although Les Paul never changed his name. Before taking the stage name Les Paul, he performed as Red Hot Red and Rhubarb Red. At the age of eight, Paul began playing the harmonica. After trying to learn the piano, he switched to the guitar, it was during this time that he invented a neck-worn harmonica holder, which allowed him to play both sides of the harmonica hands-free while accompanying himself on the guitar.
It is still manufactured using his basic design. By age thirteen, Paul was performing semi-professionally as a country-music singer and harmonica player. While playing at the Waukesha area drive-ins and roadhouses, Paul began his first experiment with sound. Wanting to make himself heard by more people at the local venues, he wired a phonograph needle to his guitar and connected it to a radio speaker, using that to amplify his acoustic guitar; as a teen Paul experimented with sustain by using a 2-foot piece of rail from a nearby train line. At age seventeen, Paul played with Rube Tronson's Texas Cowboys, soon after he dropped out of high school to team up with Sunny Joe Wolverton's Radio Band in St. Louis, Missouri, on KMOX. Paul moved to Chicago in 1934, where he continued to perform on radio stations WBBM and WLS, he met pianist Art Tatum, whose playing influenced him to stick with the guitar rather than original plans of taking on the piano. His first two records were released in 1936, credited to "Rhubarb Red", Paul's hillbilly alter ego.
He served as an accompanist for a few other bands signed to Decca. During this time he adopted his stage name of Les Paul. Paul's guitar style was influenced by the music of Django Reinhardt, whom he admired. Following World War II, Paul made friends with Reinhardt; when Reinhardt died in 1953, Paul paid for part of the funeral's cost. One of Paul's prized possessions was a Selmer Maccaferri acoustic guitar given to him by Reinhardt's widow. Paul formed a trio in 1937 with rhythm guitarist Jim Atkins and bassist/percussionist Ernie "Darius" Newton, they left Chicago for New York in 1938. Chet Atkins wrote that his brother, home on a family visit, presented him with an expensive Gibson archtop guitar that Les Paul had given to Jim. Chet recalled that it was the first professional-quality instrument he owned. Paul was dissatisfied with acoustic-electric guitars and began experimenting at his apartment in Queens, New York with a few designs of his own. Famously, he created several versions of "The Log", a length of common 4x4 lumber with a bridge, neck and pickup attached.
For the sake of appearance, he attached the body of an Epiphone hollow-body guitar sawn lengthwise with The Log in the middle. This solved his two main problems: feedback, as the acoustic body no longer resonated with the amplified sound, sustain, as the energy of the strings was not dissipated in generating sound through the guitar body; these instruments were being improved and modified over the years, Paul continued to use them in his recordings long after the development of his eponymous Gibson model. In 1945, Richard D. Bourgerie made an electric guitar pickup and amplifier for professional guitar player George Barnes. Bourgerie worked through World War II at Howard Radio Company making electronic equipment for the American military. Barnes showed the result to Les Paul. While experimenting in his apartment in 1941, Paul nearly succumbed to electrocution. During two years of recuperation, he moved to Hollywood, supporting himself by producing radio music and forming a new trio. During this time, he was remembered by factory workers as a frequent visitor to the Electro String Instrument Corp. shop on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, where he observed production of Rickenbacker brand guitars and amplifiers.
He was drafted into the U. S. Army in 1943, where he served in t
Béla Viktor János Bartók was a Hungarian composer and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century. Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which became ethnomusicology. Bartók was born in the Banatian town of Nagyszentmiklós in the Kingdom of Hungary on 25 March 1881. Bartók had a diverse ancestry. On his father's side, the Bartók family was a Hungarian lower noble family, originating from Borsodszirák, Borsod. Although his paternal grandmother was a Catholic of Bunjevci origin, but considered herself Hungarian. Bartók's father was named Béla, his mother, Paula had ethnic German roots, spoke Hungarian fluently, she was a native of Turócszentmárton. Paula had Magyar and Slavic ancestors. Béla displayed notable musical talent early in life: according to his mother, he could distinguish between different dance rhythms that she played on the piano before he learned to speak in complete sentences.
By the age of four he was able to play 40 pieces on the piano and his mother began formally teaching him the next year. Béla was a small and sickly child and suffered from severe eczema until the age of five. In 1888, when he was seven, his father died suddenly, his mother took him and his sister, Erzsébet, to live in Nagyszőlős and to Pozsony. He gave his first public recital aged 11 to a warm critical reception. Among the pieces he played was his own first composition, written two years previously: a short piece called "The Course of the Danube". Shortly thereafter László Erkel accepted him as a pupil. From 1899 to 1903, Bartók studied piano under István Thomán, a former student of Franz Liszt, composition under János Koessler at the Royal Academy of Music in Budapest. There he met Zoltán Kodály, who made a strong impression on him and became a lifelong friend and colleague. In 1903, Bartók wrote his first major orchestral work, Kossuth, a symphonic poem which honored Lajos Kossuth, hero of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
The music of Richard Strauss, whom he met in 1902 at the Budapest premiere of Also sprach Zarathustra influenced his early work. When visiting a holiday resort in the summer of 1904, Bartók overheard a young nanny, Lidi Dósa from Kibéd in Transylvania, sing folk songs to the children in her care; this sparked his lifelong dedication to folk music. From 1907, he began to be influenced by the French composer Claude Debussy, whose compositions Kodály had brought back from Paris. Bartók's large-scale orchestral works were still in the style of Johannes Brahms and Richard Strauss, but he wrote a number of small piano pieces which showed his growing interest in folk music; the first piece to show clear signs of this new interest is the String Quartet No. 1 in A minor, which contains folk-like elements. In 1907, Bartók began teaching as a piano professor at the Royal Academy; this position enabled him to work in Hungary. Among his notable students were Fritz Reiner, Sir Georg Solti, György Sándor, Ernő Balogh, Lili Kraus.
After Bartók moved to the United States, he taught Violet Archer. In 1908, he and Kodály traveled into the countryside to collect and research old Magyar folk melodies, their growing interest in folk music coincided with a contemporary social interest in traditional national culture. They made some surprising discoveries. Magyar folk music had been categorised as Gypsy music; the classic example is Franz Liszt's famous Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano, which he based on popular art songs performed by Romani bands of the time. In contrast, Bartók and Kodály discovered that the old Magyar folk melodies were based on pentatonic scales, similar to those in Asian folk traditions, such as those of Central Asia and Siberia. Bartók and Kodály set about incorporating elements of such Magyar peasant music into their compositions, they both quoted folk song melodies verbatim and wrote pieces derived from authentic songs. An example is his two volumes entitled For Children for solo piano, containing 80 folk tunes to which he wrote accompaniment.
Bartók's style in his art music compositions was a synthesis of folk music and modernism. His melodic and harmonic sense was profoundly influenced by the folk music of Hungary and other nations, he was fond of the asymmetrical dance rhythms and pungent harmonies found in Bulgarian music. Most of his early compositions offer a blend of late Romanticism elements. In 1909, at the age of 28, Bartók married Márta Ziegler, aged 16, their son, Béla Bartók III, was born on 22 August 1910. After nearly 15 years together, Bartók divorced Márta in June 1923. Two months after his divorce, he married Ditta Pásztory, a piano student, ten days after proposing to her, she was aged 19, he 42. Their son, Péter, was born in 1924. In 1911, Bartók wrote what was to be Bluebeard's Castle, dedicated to Márta, he entered it for a prize by the Hungarian Fine Arts Commission, but they rejected his work as not fit for the st
Carole King is an American singer-songwriter, active since 1958 as one of the staff songwriters at the Brill Building and as a solo artist. She is the most successful female songwriter of the latter half of the 20th century in the US, having written or co-written 118 pop hits on the Billboard Hot 100 between 1955 and 1999. King wrote 61 hits that charted in the UK, making her the most successful female songwriter on the UK singles charts between 1952 and 2005. King's major success began in the 1960s when she and her first husband, Gerry Goffin, wrote more than two dozen chart hits, many of which have become standards, for numerous artists, she has continued writing for other artists since then. King's success as a performer in her own right did not come until the 1970s, when she sang her own songs, accompanying herself on the piano, in a series of albums and concerts. After experiencing commercial disappointment with her debut album Writer, King scored her breakthrough with the album Tapestry, which topped the U.
S. album remained on the charts for more than six years. King has made 25 solo albums, the most successful being Tapestry, which held the record for most weeks at No. 1 by a female artist for more than 20 years. Her record sales were estimated at more than 75 million copies worldwide, she has won four Grammy Awards and was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame for her songwriting. She is the recipient of the 2013 Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song, the first woman to be so honored, she is a 2015 Kennedy Center Honoree. King was born Carol Joan Klein in February 1942 in Manhattan to a Jewish family, her mother, was a teacher, her father, Sidney N. Klein, was a firefighter for the New York City Fire Department. Sidney, a chemistry major, Eugenia, an English and drama major, met in an elevator when they were students at Brooklyn College in 1936, they married in 1937 during the last years of the Great Depression. Eugenia dropped out of college to run the household.
With the economy struggling, he took a more secure job as a firefighter in New York. After King was born, they remained in Brooklyn and were able to buy a small two-story duplex where they could rent out the upstairs for income. Eugenia had learned how to play piano as a child and, after buying a piano, would sometimes practice. Carol had an insatiable curiosity about music in general from the time she was about three years old, so her mother began teaching her some basic piano skills, but did not give Carol actual lessons; when Carol was four years old, her parents discovered she had developed a sense of absolute pitch, which enabled her to name a note by just hearing it. Sidney enjoyed showing off his daughter's skill to visiting friends: "My dad's smile was so broad that it encompassed the lower half of his face. I enjoyed making my father happy and getting the notes right."Carol's mother began giving her real music lessons when Carol was four years old. Carol would climb up on the stool and be raised higher by sitting on a phone book.
With her mother sitting alongside her, Carol was taught music theory and elementary piano technique, including how to read notation and execute proper note timing. King wanted to learn as much as possible: "My mother never forced me to practice, she didn't have to. I wanted so much to master the popular songs that poured out of the radio."Carol began kindergarten when she was four, but after her first year she was promoted directly to second grade because she had an exceptional facility with words and numbers. In the 1950s, she went to James Madison High School, she formed a band called the Co-Sines, changed her name to Carole King, made demo records with her friend Paul Simon for $25 a session. Her first official recording was the promotional single "The Right Girl", released by ABC-Paramount in 1958, which she wrote and sang to an arrangement by Don Costa, she attended Queens College, where she met Gerry Goffin, to become her songwriting partner. When she was 17, they married in a Jewish ceremony on Long Island in August 1959 after King had become pregnant with her first daughter, Louise.
They quit college and took daytime jobs, Goffin working as an assistant chemist and King as a secretary. They wrote songs together in the evening. Neil Sedaka, who had dated King when he was still in high school, had a hit in 1959 with "Oh! Carol". Goffin took the tune and wrote the playful response, "Oh! Neil", which King released as a single the same year; the B-side contained the Goffin-King song "A Very Special Boy". The single was not a success. After writing The Shirelles' Billboard Hot 100 #1 hit "Will You Love Me Tomorrow", the first No.1 hit by a black girl group and King gave up their daytime jobs to concentrate on writing. "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" became a standard. During the sixties, with King writing the music and Goffin the lyrics, the two wrote a string of classic songs for a variety of artists. King and Goffin were the songwriting team behind Don Kirshner's Dimension Records, which produced songs including "Chains", "The Loco-Motion" for their babysitter Little Eva, "It Might as Well Rain Until September" which King recorded herself in 1962—her first hit.
King would record a few follow-up singles in the wake of "September", but none of them sold much, her sporadic recording career was abandoned by 1966. Other songs of King's early period include "Half Way To Paradise" [Tony Orland
Richard Wagstaff Clark was an American radio and television personality, television producer and film actor, as well as a cultural icon who remains best known for hosting American Bandstand from 1957 to 1988. He hosted the game show Pyramid and Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve, which transmitted Times Square's New Year's Eve celebrations. Clark was well known for his trademark sign-off, "For now, Dick Clark — so long!", accompanied by a facsimile of a military salute. As host of American Bandstand, Clark introduced roll to many Americans; the show gave many new music artists their first exposure to national audiences, including Iggy Pop, Ike & Tina Turner, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, Stevie Wonder, Talking Heads, Simon & Garfunkel and Madonna. Episodes he hosted were among the first in which blacks and whites performed on the same stage, among the first in which the live studio audience sat without racial segregation. Singer Paul Anka claimed that Bandstand was responsible for creating a "youth culture".
Due to his perennial youthful appearance and his teenaged audience of American Bandstand, Clark was referred to as "America's oldest teenager" or "the world's oldest teenager". In his off-stage roles, Clark served as Chief Executive Officer of Dick Clark Productions, he founded the American Bandstand Diner, a restaurant chain modeled after the Hard Rock Cafe. In 1973, he created and produced the annual American Music Awards show, similar to the Grammy Awards. Clark suffered a stroke in December 2004. With speech ability impaired, Clark returned to his New Year's Rockin' Eve show a year on December 31, 2005. Subsequently, he appeared at the 58th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2006, every New Year's Rockin' Eve show through the 2011–12 show, he died at the age of 82, following prostate surgery. Clark was born and raised in Mount Vernon, New York, to Richard Augustus Clark and Julia Fuller Clark nee Barnard, his only sibling, older brother Bradley, was killed in the Battle of the Bulge during World War II.
Clark attended A. B. Davis High School in Mount Vernon, where he was an average student. At age 10, Clark decided to pursue a career in radio. In pursuit of that goal, he attended Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, graduating in 1951 with a degree in advertising and a minor in radio. While at Syracuse, he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. In 1945, Clark began his career working in the mailroom at WRUN, an AM radio station in Rome, New York, owned by his uncle and managed by his father, he was asked to fill in for the vacationing weatherman, within a few months he was announcing station breaks. While attending Syracuse, Clark worked at WOLF-AM a country music station. After graduation, he returned to WRUN for a short time. After that, Clark got a job at the television station WKTV in New York, his first television-hosting job was on Cactus Dick and the Santa Fe Riders, a country-music program. He replaced Robert Earle as a newscaster. In addition to his announcing duties on radio and television, Clark owned several radio stations.
From 1964 to 1978, he owned KPRO in California under the name Progress Broadcasting. In 1967, he purchased KGUD-AM-FM in California. In 1952, Clark moved to Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, where he took a job as a disc jockey at radio station WFIL, adopting the Dick Clark handle. WFIL had an affiliated television station with the same call sign, which began broadcasting a show called Bob Horn's Bandstand in 1952. Clark was responsible for a similar program on the company's radio station, served as a regular substitute host when Horn went on vacation. In 1956, Horn was subsequently dismissed. On July 9, 1956, Clark became the show's permanent host. Bandstand was picked up by the ABC television network, renamed American Bandstand, debuted nationally on August 5, 1957; the show took off, due to Clark's natural rapport with the live teenage audience and dancing participants as well as the non-threatening image he projected to television audiences. As a result, many parents were introduced to roll music.
According to Hollywood producer Michael Uslan, "he was able to use his unparalleled communication skills to present rock'n roll in a way, palatable to parents."In 1958, The Dick Clark Show was added to ABC's Saturday night lineup. By the end of year, viewership exceeded 20 million, featured artists were "virtually guaranteed" large sales boosts after appearing. In a surprise television tribute to Clark in 1959 on This Is Your Life, host Ralph Edwards called him "America’s youngest starmaker," and estimated the show had an audience of 50 million. Clark moved the show from Philadelphia to Los Angeles in 1964; the move was related to the popularity of new "surf" groups based in Southern California, including The Beach Boys and Jan and Dean. The show ran daily Monday through Friday until 1963 weekly on Saturdays until 1987. Bandstand was revived in 1989, with Clark again serving as host. By the time of its cancellation, the show had become longest-running variety show in TV history. In the 1960s, the show's emphasis changed from playing records to including live performers.
During this period, many of the leading rock groups of the 1960s had their first exposure to nationwide audiences. A few of the many artists introduced were Ike and Tina Turner, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, The Beach Boys
Aaron Copland was an American composer, composition teacher, a conductor of his own and other American music. Copland was referred to by his peers and critics as "the Dean of American Composers"; the open changing harmonies in much of his music are typical of what many people consider to be the sound of American music, evoking the vast American landscape and pioneer spirit. He is best known for the works he wrote in the 1930s and 1940s in a deliberately accessible style referred to as "populist" and which the composer labeled his "vernacular" style. Works in this vein include the ballets Appalachian Spring, Billy the Kid and Rodeo, his Fanfare for the Common Man and Third Symphony. In addition to his ballets and orchestral works, he produced music in many other genres, including chamber music, vocal works and film scores. After some initial studies with composer Rubin Goldmark, Copland traveled to Paris, where he first studied with Isidor Philipp and Paul Vidal with noted pedagogue Nadia Boulanger.
He studied three years with Boulanger, whose eclectic approach to music inspired his own broad taste. Determined upon his return to the U. S. to make his way as a full-time composer, Copland gave lecture-recitals, wrote works on commission and did some teaching and writing. He found composing orchestral music in the modernist style he had adapted abroad a financially contradictory approach in light of the Great Depression, he shifted in the mid-1930s to a more accessible musical style which mirrored the German idea of Gebrauchsmusik, music that could serve utilitarian and artistic purposes. During the Depression years, he traveled extensively to Europe and Mexico, formed an important friendship with Mexican composer Carlos Chávez and began composing his signature works. During the late 1940s, Copland became aware that Stravinsky and other fellow composers had begun to study Arnold Schoenberg's use of twelve-tone techniques. After he had been exposed to the works of French composer Pierre Boulez, he incorporated serial techniques into his Piano Quartet, Piano Fantasy, Connotations for orchestra and Inscape for orchestra.
Unlike Schoenberg, Copland used his tone rows in much the same fashion as his tonal material—as sources for melodies and harmonies, rather than as complete statements in their own right, except for crucial events from a structural point of view. From the 1960s onward, Copland's activities turned more from composing to conducting, he became a frequent guest conductor of orchestras in the U. S. and the UK and made a series of recordings of his music for Columbia Records. Aaron Copland was born in Brooklyn, New York, on November 14, 1900, he was the youngest of five children in a Conservative Jewish family of Lithuanian origins. While emigrating from Russia to the United States, Copland's father, Harris Morris Copland and worked in Scotland for two to three years to pay for his boat fare to the US, it was there that Copland's father may have Anglicized his surname "Kaplan" to "Copland", though Copland himself believed for many years that the change had been due to an Ellis Island immigration official when his father entered the country.
Copland was however unaware until late in his life that the family name had been Kaplan, his parents never told him this. Throughout his childhood and his family lived above his parents' Brooklyn shop, H. M. Copland's, at 628 Washington Avenue, on the corner of Dean Street and Washington Avenue, most of the children helped out in the store, his father was a staunch Democrat. The family members were active in Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes, where Aaron celebrated his Bar Mitzvah. Not athletic, the sensitive young man became an avid reader and read Horatio Alger stories on his front steps. Copland's father had no musical interest, his mother, Sarah Mittenthal Copland, played the piano, arranged for music lessons for her children. Of his siblings, oldest brother Ralph was the most advanced musically, proficient on the violin, his sister Laurine had the strongest connection with Aaron. A student at the Metropolitan Opera School and a frequent opera-goer, Laurine brought home libretti for Aaron to study.
Copland in the summer went to various camps. Most of his early exposure to music was at Jewish weddings and ceremonies, occasional family musicales. Copland began writing songs at the age of eight and a half, his earliest notated music, about seven bars he wrote when age 11, was for an opera scenario he created and called Zenatello. From 1913 to 1917 he took piano lessons with Leopold Wolfsohn, who taught him the standard classical fare. Copland's first public music performance was at a Wanamaker's recital. By the age of 15, after attending a concert by composer-pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Copland decided to become a composer. After attempts to further his music study from a correspondence course, Copland took formal lessons in harmony and composition from Rubin Goldmark, a noted teacher and composer of American music. Goldmark, with whom Copland studied between 1917 and 1921, gave the young Copland a solid foundation in the Germanic tradition; as Copland stated later: "This was a stroke of luck for me.
I was spared the floundering that so many musicians have suffered through incompetent teaching." But Copland commented that the maestro had "little sympathy for the advanced musical idioms of the day" and his "approved" composers ended with
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was an American composer and leader of a jazz orchestra, which he led from 1923 until his death over a career spanning more than fifty years. Born in Washington, D. C. Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s onward and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club in Harlem. In the 1930s, his orchestra toured in Europe. Although considered to have been a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a liberating principle and referred to his music as part of the more general category of American Music rather than to a musical genre such as jazz; some of the jazz musicians who were members of Ellington's orchestra, such as saxophonist Johnny Hodges, are considered to be among the best players in the idiom. Ellington melded them into the best-known orchestral unit in the history of jazz; some members stayed with the orchestra for several decades. A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington wrote more than one thousand compositions.
Ellington recorded songs written by his bandsmen, for example Juan Tizol's "Caravan", "Perdido", which brought a Spanish tinge to big band jazz. In the early 1940s, Ellington began a nearly thirty-year collaboration with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion. With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or suites, as well as additional short pieces. Following an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, in July 1956, Ellington and his orchestra enjoyed a major revival and embarked on world tours. Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in several films, scored several, composed a handful of stage musicals. Ellington was noted for his inventive use of the orchestra, or big band, for his eloquence and charisma, his reputation continued to rise after he died, he was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize Special Award for music in 1999. Ellington was born on April 29, 1899, to James Edward Ellington and Daisy Ellington in Washington, D.
C. Both his parents were pianists. Daisy played parlor songs and James preferred operatic arias, they lived with his maternal grandparents at 2129 Ida Place, NW, in the West End neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Duke's father was born in Lincolnton, North Carolina, on April 15, 1879, moved to Washington, D. C. in 1886 with his parents. Daisy Kennedy was born in Washington, D. C. on January 4, 1879, the daughter of a former American slave. James Ellington made blueprints for the United States Navy; when Ellington was a child, his family showed racial pride and support in their home, as did many other families. African Americans in D. C. worked to protect their children from the era's Jim Crow laws. At the age of seven, Ellington began taking piano lessons from Marietta Clinkscales. Daisy surrounded her son with dignified women to reinforce his manners and teach him to live elegantly. Ellington's childhood friends noticed that his casual, offhand manner, his easy grace, his dapper dress gave him the bearing of a young nobleman, began calling him "Duke."
Ellington credited his friend Edgar McEntree for the nickname. "I think he felt that in order for me to be eligible for his constant companionship, I should have a title. So he called me Duke."Though Ellington took piano lessons, he was more interested in baseball. "President Roosevelt would come by on his horse sometimes, stop and watch us play", he recalled. Ellington went to Armstrong Technical High School in Washington, D. C, he gained his first job selling peanuts at Washington Senators baseball games. In the summer of 1914, while working as a soda jerk at the Poodle Dog Café, Ellington wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag", he created the piece by ear, as he had not yet learned to write music. "I would play the'Soda Fountain Rag' as a one-step, two-step, waltz and fox trot", Ellington recalled. "Listeners never knew. I was established as having my own repertoire." In his autobiography, Music is my Mistress, Ellington wrote that he missed more lessons than he attended, feeling at the time that playing the piano was not his talent.
Ellington started sneaking into Frank Holiday's Poolroom at the age of fourteen. Hearing the poolroom pianists play ignited Ellington's love for the instrument, he began to take his piano studies seriously. Among the many piano players he listened to were Doc Perry, Lester Dishman, Louis Brown, Turner Layton, Gertie Wells, Clarence Bowser, Sticky Mack, Blind Johnny, Cliff Jackson, Claude Hopkins, Phil Wurd, Caroline Thornton, Luckey Roberts, Eubie Blake, Joe Rochester, Harvey Brooks. Ellington began listening to, imitating ragtime pianists, not only in Washington, D. C. but in Philadelphia and Atlantic City, where he vacationed with his mother during the summer months. He would sometimes hear strange music played by those who could not afford much sheet music, so for variations, they played the sheets upside down. Henry Lee Grant, a Dunbar High School music teacher, gave him private lessons in harmony. With the additional guidance of Washington pianist and band leader Oliver "Doc" Perry, Ellington learned to read sheet music, project a professional style, improve his technique.
Ellington was inspired by his first encounters with stride pianists James P. Johnson and Luckey Roberts. In New York he took advice from Will Marion Cook, Fats Waller, Sidney Bechet. Ellington started to play gigs in cafés and clubs in and aro