HMS Grampus (N56)
HMS Grampus was the lead ship of her class of mine-laying submarine of the Royal Navy. She was built at Chatham Dockyard and launched on 25 February 1936, she served in the Second World War off China before moving to the Mediterranean Sea. She was sunk with all hands by the Regia Marina on 16 June 1940. On 16 June 1940, under the command of Lieutenant Commander C. A. Rowe, Grampus was laying mines in the Syracuse and Augusta, Sicily area, she was seen by the Italian Spica-class torpedo boat Circe, on anti-submarine patrol with Clio and Polluce. Within a short time, Grampus was destroyed. Wreckage came to the surface along with oil. Polluce was credited with the kill. There were no survivors; some sources give the date of this action as 24 June 1940. Akermann, Paul. Encyclopaedia of British Submarines 1901–1955. Penzance, Cornwall: Periscope Publishing. ISBN 1-904381-05-7. Bagnasco, Erminio. Submarines of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-962-6. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy.
London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475. Chesneau, Roger, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. McCartney, Innes. British Submarines 1939–1945. New Vanguard. 129. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 1-84603-007-2. HMS Grampus from uboat.net
Mastigoproctus giganteus, the giant whip scorpion called the giant vinegaroon or grampus, is a species of whip scorpions in the family Thelyphonidae. This species can grow to be 40–60 millimetres long, excluding the tail, they have six legs used for movement, two long antenniform front legs that they use to feel around for prey and detect vibrations, two large pedipalps modified into claws that they use to crush their prey. They have a long, whip-like tail, the origin of the common name whipscorpion. From the base of this tail they can spray a substance composed of 85% acetic acid in order to defend themselves. Acetic acid is the main component of vinegar, so the spray smells of vinegar, leading to the common name "vinegarroon". Mastigoproctus giganteus have eight eyes: two in a pair on the front of the head and three on each side of the head; these eyes are weak, so Mastigoproctus giganteus navigates by feeling with its long front legs and pedipalps. It lives in Mexico. Mastigoproctus giganteus preys on various insects and slugs.
Mastigoproctus giganteus giganteus Mastigoproctus giganteus scabrosus — Mexico Mastigoproctus giganteus mexicanus — Mexico
Dobsonflies are a subfamily of insects, part of the Megalopteran family Corydalidae. The larvae are aquatic, living in streams, the adults are found along streams as well; the nine genera of dobsonflies are distributed in the Americas and South Africa. The origin of the word "dobsonfly" is unclear. John Henry Comstock used the term in reference to these insects in his 1897 book Insect Life, but did not explain it, he mentioned that anglers used the word "hellgrammite" for the aquatic larvae they used as bait, but the origin of this term is unknown. Adult dobsonflies are some of the largest non-Lepidopteran insects of temperate zones such as the United States and Canada, with a wingspan of up to 18 cm in some species of Corydalus; the Asian Acanthacorydalis fruhstorferi can have a wingspan of up to 21.6 cm, making it the largest dobsonfly and the largest aquatic insect in the world by this measurement. The wings vary from a grayish to translucent shade, depending on the species, the anal region of the hindwing is wide and folded at rest.
Despite the large wings, adults are weak, fluttery fliers. The body is soft and coloration varies from yellow to dark shades of brown; the body does not surpass 7.5 cm in length, although the largest Asian Acanthacorydalis may reach 10.5 cm. Adult males of many—but not all—species are recognized by their long, curving mandibles. Examples of species with large-mandibled males include the genera Acanthacorydalis and Platyneuromus, while in Neoneuromus, Nevromus and Protohermes the sexes are similar. In Corydalus cornutus, a long-mandibled species, these can reach up to 4 cm in length and are used in competition for females, it is possible that the mandibles may have been selected as secondary sex characteristics used by females to evaluate males during courtship. Males can not use these mandibles to bite. Males of many species will produce "nuptial gifts" in the form of packages of nutrient-rich spermatophores that are eaten by the female partner after mating; this has been shown to be correlated to mandible size.
Two genera and Chloronia, are unusual in that the males lack large mandibles and do not produce "nuptial gifts". The antennae of males are noticeably elongated longer than the mandibles. Corydalinae is distinguished from related clades by the following synapomorphies: quadrate head with a postocular spine and plane, non-pectinate antennae, four crossveins between the radius and the radial sector, distinctive male terminalia with a well developed ninth gonostylus. In regards to the larvae, entomologist John Henry Comstock wrote in his 1897 book Insect Life, "In spite of its disagreeable appearance it is in some respects interesting to students of Nature study." The larvae called hellgrammites, are better known than the adults due to their more findable nature. They are unusual in that although they are aquatic, taking in dissolved oxygen through abdominal lateral filaments and tracheal gills, they have spiracles that allow them to take in air directly when above water. Larvae of dobsonflies differ from those of their sister clade, the alderflies, in that they bear eight pairs of lateral processes as well as anal prolegs with a pair of terminal hooks used to hold themselves to substrate, in that they lack a terminal filament.
At the end of the abdomen is a pair of claw-like structures. Body color is dark brown. There are about sixty species of dobsonflies. Contreras-Ramos suggests nine genera within Corydalinae, divided into four lineages. Working from "most basal" to "most derived" lineages, there are: The Protohermes lineage, containing the genera Neurhermes and Protohermes, distributed from Northwest India to Indonesia and Japan; the Chloroniella lineage, containing the monotypic genus Chloroniella, found only in South Africa. The Nevromus lineage, containing the genera Acanthacorydalis and Neoneuromus, distributed from Northwest India to Southeast Asia; the Corydalus lineage, containing the genera Platyneuromus and Corydalus, distributed from southern Canada down to northern Argentina and south-east Brazil. The larvae of dobsonflies live along the rocky bottoms of streams. Chiefly active during the night, they ambush prey in the middle of riffles which supply plenty of oxygen and stir up prey, they are generalist predators.
Although the larvae spend most of their lives under rocks below water, locals along Virginia and Pennsylvania rivers have reported emergences, known as "hellgrammite crawlings," during thunderstorms. The adults are nocturnal, are seen as they hide under leaves in the canopy during the daytime. However, they do sometimes form aggregations under other structures along streams. Since the adults live only about a week, they are not known to eat anything, although they have been reported to drink sweet solution in captivity; the dobsonfly may be attracted by mercaptan, an indicator additive in natural gas and propane, may behave as an animal sentinel in the presence of these gasses. The metamorphosis from larva to adult in dobsonflies is one of the simplest of the holometabolous orders, yet the life cycle begins with an
Risso's dolphin is the only species of dolphin in the genus Grampus. It is known as the Monk dolphin among Taiwanese fishermen; some of the closest related species to these dolphins include: pilot whales, pygmy killer whales, melon-headed whales, false killer whales. Risso's dolphin is named after Antoine Risso, whose description formed the basis of the first public description of the animal, by Georges Cuvier, in 1812. Another common name for the Risso's dolphin is grampus, although this common name was more used for the orca; the etymology of the word "grampus" is unclear. It may be an agglomeration of the Latin grandis piscis or French grand poisson, both meaning big fish; the specific epithet griseus refers to the mottled grey colour of its body. Risso's dolphin has a large anterior body and dorsal fin, while the posterior tapers to a narrow tail; the bulbous head has a vertical crease in front. Infants are dorsally grey to brown and ventrally cream-colored, with a white anchor-shaped area between the pectorals and around the mouth.
In older calves, the nonwhite areas darken to nearly black, lighten. Linear scars from social interaction cover the bulk of the body. Older individuals appear white. Most individuals have two to seven pairs of all in the lower jaw. Length is 10 feet, although specimens may reach 13.12 feet. Like most dolphins, males are slightly larger than females; this species weighs 300–500 kilograms, making it the largest species called "dolphin". They are found worldwide in temperate and tropical waters in deeper waters rather, but close to land; as well as the tropical parts of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they are found in the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean and Red Seas, but not the Black Sea. They range as far north as the Gulf of Alaska and southern Greenland and as far south as Tierra del Fuego, their preferred environment is just off the continental shelf on steep banks, with water depths varying from 400–1,000 m and water temperatures at least 10 °C and preferably 15–20 °C. The population around the continental shelf of the United States is estimated to be in excess of 60,000.
In the Pacific, a census recorded 175,000 individuals in eastern tropical waters and 85,000 in the west. No global estimate exists, they feed exclusively on neritic and oceanic squid nocturnally. Predation does not appear significant. Mass strandings are infrequent. Analysis carried out on the stomach contents of stranded specimens in Scotland showed that the most important species preyed on in Scottish waters is the curled octopus. A population is found off Santa Catalina Island where they coexist with pilot whales to feed on the squid population. Although these species have not been seen to interact with each other, they take advantage of the commercial squid fishing that takes place at night, they have been seen by fisherman to feed around their boats. They travel with other cetaceans, they surf the bow waves of gray whales, as well as ocean swells. Risso's dolphins have a stratified social organisation; these dolphins travel in groups of 10-51, but can sometimes form "super-pods" reaching up to a few thousand individuals.
Smaller, stable subgroups exist within larger groups. These groups tend to be similar in sex. Risso's experience fidelity towards their groups. Long-term bonds are seen to correlate with adult males. Younger individuals can leave and join groups. Mothers show a high fidelity towards a group of mother and calves. But, it is unclear whether or not these females stay together after their calves leave or remain in their natal pods. Risso’s dolphins do not require cutting teeth to process their cephalopod prey, which has allowed the species to evolve teeth as display weapons in mating conflicts. Gestation requires an estimated 13–14 months, at intervals of 2.4 years. Calving reaches seasonal peaks in the winter in the eastern Pacific and in the summer and fall in the western Pacific. Females mature sexually at ages 8–10, males at age 10–12; the oldest specimen reached 39.6 years. Risso's dolphins have been taken into captivity in Japan and the United States, although not with the regularity of bottlenose dolphins or orcas.
Hybrid Risso's-bottlenose dolphins have been bred in captivity. Like other dolphins and marine animals, there have been documentations of these dolphins getting caught in seine-nets and gillnets across the globe. A large number of these incidents have resulted in death. Small whaling operations have been cause of some of these deaths. Pollution has affected a large number of individuals who have ingested plastic. Samples from these animals shows contamination within their tissue; the Risso's dolphin populations of the North and Mediterranean Seas are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, since they have an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements. In addition, Risso's dolphin is covered by the Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic, North East Atlantic and North Seas, the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area, the Memorandum of Understanding
Nagoya Grampus is a Japanese association football club that plays in the J1 League, following promotion from the J2 League in 2017. Based in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture and founded as the company team of the Toyota Motor Corp. in 1939, the club shares its home games between Mizuho Athletic Stadium and the much larger Toyota Stadium. The team had its most successful season up to 1995 when it was managed by Arsène Wenger, well known for his exploits at Arsenal, they won the Emperor's Cup and finished second in the J. League, with Dragan Stojković and Gary Lineker on the team; the 1995 success was eclipsed on November 20, 2010, when the club won its first J. League trophy, under the management of Stojković; the team's name was derived from the two most prominent symbols of Nagoya: the two golden grampus dolphins on the top of Nagoya Castle, the Maru-Hachi, the city's official symbol. Toyota Motors SC was overshadowed by its colleague Toyota Automated Loom Works SC; when Toyota ALW were relegated to regional leagues in 1968, Toyota Motor saw an opportunity to rise at their expense.
In 1972 Toyota Motors were founding members of the JSL's Second Division and its inaugural champions. They remained in the JSL until the J. League's founding in 1993, they were relegated to the JSL Division 2 in 1977. After a brief return in 1987–88, they were promoted for good in 1989–90 and remained in the top flight for 26 years, until 2016. In 1996, future Arsenal manager Arsène Wenger led Grampus to the 1996 Emperor's Cup and a runners-up finish in the J. League, the club's best finish; the team's name "Nagoya Grampus Eight" was changed to just "Nagoya Grampus" at the start of the 2008 season. In 2008, Nagoya appointed former player Dragan Stojković as manager, they qualified for the AFC Champions League for the first time. Stojković has since led the club to winning the J. League in the 2010 season, featuring a squad consisting of Marcus Tulio Tanaka, Mu Kanazaki, Seigo Narazaki, Yoshizumi Ogawa, Keiji Tamada and Joshua Kennedy. After a poor 2016 season, Nagoya Grampus were relegated to J2 League for the first time in their history.
Boško Gjurovski left his post as manager. On 4 January 2017, Yahiro Kazama was appointed as the clubs new manager. On 3 December 2017, Nagoya Grampus drew 0-0 against Avispa Fukuoka in the promotion playoff final, securing promotion back to J1 League at the first time of asking due to their higher regular season position than Avispa Fukuoka. Since Nagoya were dealt a 5–0 defeat to the Kashima Antlers at the Kashima Soccer Stadium on 16 May in the 1993 J. League season opener, Nagoya suffered a losing streak of 22 consecutive games to the Kashima Antlers at the Kashima Soccer Stadium which included Emperor's Cup and J. League Cup games. Nagoya got their first victory over the Kashima Antlers at the Kashima Soccer Stadium on 23 August of the 2008 J. League season, some 15 years later. KeyTms. = Number of teams Pos. = Position in league Attendance/G = Average league attendance Source: J. League Data Site As of 2 March 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Information correct as of match played 1 December 2018. Only competitive matches are counted. Notes:P – Total of played matches W – Won matches D – Drawn matches L – Lost matches GS – Goal scored GA – Goals against%W – Percentage of matches won ‡ As caretaker manager Nationality is indicated by the corresponding FIFA country code. Toyota Motor SC All Japan Senior Football Championship: 21968, 1970Japan Soccer League Division 2: 11972Konica Cup: 11991Nagoya Grampus J1 League:Champions: 2010Emperor's Cup:Champions: 1995, 1999Japanese Super Cup:Champions: 1996, 2011 J. League Player of the Year Dragan Stojković Seigo Narazaki J. League Top Scorer Ueslei Joshua Kennedy J. League Best Eleven Dragan Stojković Ueslei Seigo Narazaki Marques Yoshizumi Ogawa Joshua Kennedy Danilson Córdoba Marcus Tulio Tanaka Takahiro Masukawa Jungo Fujimoto J. League Rookie of the Year Yoshizumi Ogawa J.
League Manager of the Year Arsène Wenger Dragan Stojković The following players have been selected by their country in the World Cup, while playing for Nagoya Grampus: Takashi Hirano Dragan Stojković Seigo Narazaki Keiji Tamada Joshua Kennedy Marcus Tulio Tanaka Tōkai Football League: 1966–71 Division 2: 1972 Division 1: 1973–77 Division 2: 1978–86 Division 1: 1987 Division 2: 1988–89 Division 1: 1990–91 Division 1: 1992–2016 Division 2: 2017 Division 1: 2018: 33 seasons in the top tier, 12 seasons in the second tier and 6 seasons in the Regional Leagues. In the Captain Tsubasa manga series, one character was player of Nagoya Grampus and is the goalkeeper Ken Wakashimazu, player of Yokohama Flügels before the closing of the Yokohama team. In 2013, the midfielder Shingo Aoi wear the Nagoya Grampus jersey in a Yoichi Takahashi tribute to the 20 years of J. League. Grampus-kun Official website
In Central European folklore, Krampus is a horned, anthropomorphic figure described as "half-goat, half-demon", during the Christmas season, punishes children who have misbehaved, in contrast with Saint Nicholas, who rewards the well-behaved with gifts. Krampus is one of the companions of Saint Nicholas in several regions including Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Northern Italy including South Tyrol and the Province of Trento and Slovenia; the origin of the figure is unclear. In traditional parades and in such events as the Krampuslauf, young men dressed as Krampus participate. Krampus is featured on holiday greeting cards called Krampuskarten; the history of the Krampus figure has been theorized as stretching back to pre-Christian Alpine traditions. In a brief article discussing the figure, published in 1958, Maurice Bruce wrote: There seems to be little doubt as to his true identity for, in no other form is the full regalia of the Horned God of the Witches so well preserved; the birch – apart from its phallic significance – may have a connection with the initiation rites of certain witch-covens.
The chains could have been introduced in a Christian attempt to'bind the Devil' but again they could be a remnant of pagan initiation rites. Discussing his observations in 1975 while in Irdning, a small town in Styria, anthropologist John J. Honigmann wrote that: The Saint Nicholas festival we are describing incorporates cultural elements distributed in Europe, in some cases going back to pre-Christian times. Nicholas himself became popular in Germany around the eleventh century; the feast dedicated to this patron of children is only one winter occasion in which children are the objects of special attention, others being Martinmas, the Feast of the Holy Innocents, New Year's Day. Masked devils acting boisterously and making nuisances of themselves are known in Germany since at least the sixteenth century while animal masked devils combining dreadful-comic antics appeared in Medieval church plays. A large literature, much of it by European folklorists, bears on these subjects.... Austrians in the community we studied are quite aware of "heathen" elements being blended with Christian elements in the Saint Nicholas customs and in other traditional winter ceremonies.
They believe Krampus derives from a pagan supernatural, assimilated to the Christian devil. The Krampus figures persisted, by the 17th century Krampus had been incorporated into Christian winter celebrations by pairing Krampus with St. Nicholas. Countries of the former Habsburg Empire have borrowed the tradition of Krampus accompanying St. Nicholas on 5 December from Austria. In recent years, the myth that the Krampus was the son of Hel, Norse goddess of the underworld, has been popularised on the internet appearing in articles in National Geographic and Smithsonian Magazine. However, this connection is the invention of the American fantasy artist and author Gerald Brom, whose 2012 novel Krampus the Yule Lord features Krampus as the main protagonist; the same idea appeared shortly afterwards in two online games by the Norwegian games producer Funcom. In the aftermath of the 1923 election in Austria, the Krampus tradition was prohibited by the Dollfuss regime under the Fatherland's Front and the Christian Social Party.
In the 1950s, the government distributed pamphlets titled "Krampus Is an Evil Man". Towards the end of the century, a popular resurgence of Krampus celebrations occurred and continues today; the Krampus tradition is being revived in Bavaria as well, along with a local artistic tradition of hand-carved wooden masks. Although Krampus appears in many variations, most share some common physical characteristics, he is hairy brown or black, has the cloven hooves and horns of a goat. His long, pointed tongue lolls out, he has fangs. Krampus carries chains, thought to symbolize the binding of the Devil by the Christian Church, he thrashes the chains for dramatic effect. The chains are sometimes accompanied with bells of various sizes. Of more pagan origins are the Ruten, bundles of birch branches that Krampus carries and with which he swats children; the Ruten may have had significance in pre-Christian pagan initiation rites. The birch branches are replaced with a whip in some representations. Sometimes Krampus appears with a basket strapped to his back.
Some of the older versions make mention of naughty children being taken away. This quality can be found in other Companions of Saint Nicholas such as Zwarte Piet; the Feast of St. Nicholas is celebrated in parts of Europe on 6 December. On the preceding evening of 5 December, Krampus Night or Krampusnacht, the wicked hairy devil appears on the streets. Sometimes accompanying St. Nicholas and sometimes on his own, Krampus visits businesses; the Saint appears in the Eastern Rite vestments of a bishop, he carries a golden ceremonial staff. Unlike North American versions of Santa Claus, in these celebrations Saint Nicholas concerns himself only with the good children, while Krampus is responsible for the bad. Nicholas dispenses gifts, while Krampus supplies the Ruten bundles. A seasonal play that spread throughout the Alpine regions was known as the Nikolausspiel. Inspired by Paradise plays, which focused on Adam and Eve's encounter with a tempter, the Nicholas plays featured competition for the human souls and played on the question of morality.
USFC Grampus was a fisheries research ship operated by the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries called the United States Fish Commission, its successor, the United States Bureau of Fisheries, beginning in 1886. She was a schooner of revolutionary design in terms of speed and safety and influenced the construction of commercial fishing schooners. Fishery scientists of the late 19th century believed that successful spawning was the most significant factor in the productivity of fisheries, the Fish Commission had placed the fisheries research ship USFC Fish Hawk in service in 1880 to serve as a floating fish hatchery that could move up and down the coast in accordance with the timing of American shad runs. Grampus was constructed to fill a need the Fish Commission perceived for a ship with a well in which marine fishes could be kept alive and transported from the fishing grounds to fish hatcheries on the coast of the United States, where fisheries researchers could collect their eggs for use in the hatcheries and further ensure productive fisheries.
Grampus was to bring back fish for biological study of the fish themselves. Grampus needed to be seaworthy and fast, so as to be able to collect fish from European waters and bring back to the United States fish such as sole, turbot and brill – which were important to the European commercial fishing industry but did not occur in the waters off North America – so that they could be introduced into waters off the United States. Grampus was to demonstrate the method of beam trawling used by European fishermen in the North Sea but not in the United States at the time to catch groundfish, to spur the use of beam trawling by American commercial fishermen in the hope of increasing the monetary value of the American catch and to provide additional employment for men aboard American fishing vessels; the Fish Commission believed that groundfish species native to the waters off North America could be profitably fished though they differed from the species found in European waters, Grampus was to use beam trawling to test this idea.
The Fish Commission wanted to develop a comprehensive understanding of the migration of food fishes in the spring and autumn as they travelled to and from their summer feeding grounds, chose to construct Grampus as a sailing ship because it wanted her to be able to remain at sea for weeks or months at a time to follow the migration continuously and investigate it without having to come into port for coal, as a steamer would. Grampus had to be seaworthy enough to remain on duty and not lose contact with the migrating fish during bad weather. Grampus had to be designed and equipped to capture fish that did not swim near the surface in order to investigate fisheries and she needed to be able to capture and investigate minute life such as plankton, which supported the food fish population. Grampus needed a windlass in order to work her gear, the Fish Commission opted for a steam windlass. United States Navy Lieutenant Commander Zera Luther Tanner, an influential inventor and oceanographer of the era, commanding officer of the Fish Commission's fisheries research ship USFC Albatross, the first commanding officer of Fish Hawk, received the task of determining what type of steam apparatus Grampus should carry.
He chose a steam windlass with engines of 35-horsepower. Operating the windlass required the installation of a boiler, steam pump, iron water tanks, associated piping. In addition to meeting the Fish Commission's research and fish culture requirements, Grampus's design reflected ideas for improvement in the design of the then-conventional New England commercial fishing schooners so as to improve both speed and safety. In the mid-1880s, these schooners tended to be wide and sharp so as to allow the greatest possible speed by reducing drag through the water and allowing the ship to carry a considerable amount of sail. In order to keep the hulls shallow, the schooners were "very wide aft, with a heavy, clumsy stern and fat counters, the run being hollowed out excessively so as to produce in the after section a series of abrupt horizontal curves." The two masts came to nearly the same height above the waterline, the schooners carried a large jib extending from the bowsprit end to the foremast. This traditional schooner design had a number of drawbacks.
The shallow hull did not, in fact, contribute to speed, the wide stern design hindered fast sailing. The ships' shallowness of hull gave them a high center of gravity that made them prone to capsizing and sinking in heavy seas with significant or total loss of life among their crews; the foremast rising to the same height as the mainmast meant either that the jib when raised to the top of the foremast caused an inefficient, asymmetrical sail pattern, or that the upper parts of the foremast were left unused. The large jib created problems, moving the sails' center of effort too far forward when the schooner shortened sail and the mainsail was reefed, making the ship harder to handle. Moreover, handling the large jib required crew members to work on the bowsprit in bad weather, a dangerous practice that resulted in men being swept overboard and drowned. To address these issues, although similar in design to the traditional New England schooner differed in significant ways, she had a hull about two feet deeper than traditional schooners of similar length, giving her greater stability.
She had a stra