A soap opera is an ongoing drama serial on television or radio, featuring the lives of many characters and their emotional relationships. The term soap opera originated from radio dramas being sponsored by soap manufacturers. BBC Radio's The Archers, first broadcast in 1950, is the world's longest-running radio soap opera; the first serial considered to be a "soap opera" was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20, 1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. Early radio series such as Painted Dreams were broadcast in weekday daytime slots five days a week. Most of the listeners would be housewives. Thus, the shows were consumed by a predominantly female audience; the first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, Em, which aired on the NBC Blue Network at 10:30 p.m. Eastern Time on January 27, 1931. A crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the defining features that makes a television program a soap opera, according to Albert Moran, is "that form of television that works with a continuous open narrative.
Each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode". In 2012, Los Angeles Times columnist Robert Lloyd wrote of daily dramas, "Although melodramatically eventful, soap operas such as this have a luxury of space that makes them seem more naturalistic. You spend more time with the minor characters. An individual episode of a soap opera will switch between several different concurrent narrative threads that may at times interconnect and affect one another or may run independent to each other; each episode may feature some of the show's current storylines, but not always all of them. In daytime serials and those that are broadcast each weekday, there is some rotation of both storyline and actors so any given storyline or actor will appear in some but not all of a week's worth of episodes. Soap operas bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time; when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development.
Soap opera episodes end on some sort of cliffhanger, the season finale ends in the same way, only to be resolved when the show returns for the start of a new yearly broadcast. Evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more to feature the entire cast in each episode, to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as "TV's richest market," noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series into hour-long broadcasts in order to maximize ad revenues; the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. The issue's cover notably featured its first daytime soap stars, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives, a married couple whose onscreen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press at large.
The main characteristics that define soap operas are "an emphasis on family life, personal relationships, sexual dramas and moral conflicts. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, or focus on a large extended family; the storylines follow personal relationships of these characters. "Soap narratives, like those of film melodramas, are marked by what Steve Neale has described as'chance happenings, missed meetings, sudden conversions, last-minute rescues and revelations, deus ex machina endings.'" These elements may be found from EastEnders to Dallas. Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are English. However, several South African soap operas started incorporating a multi-language format, the most prominent being 7de Laan, which incorporates Afrikaans, English and several other Bantu languages which make up the 11 Official Languages of South Africa. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, the characters are attractive, seductive and wealthy.
Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, are set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in those two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. Both UK and Australian soap operas feature comedic elements affectionate comic stereotypes such as the gossip or the grumpy old man, presented as a comic foil to the emotional turmoil that surrounds them; this diverges from US soap operas. UK soap operas make a claim to presenting "reality
Province of Brescia
The Province of Brescia is a Province in Lombardy, northern Italy. It has a population of some 1,265,325 and its capital is the city of Brescia. With an area of 4,785 km², it is the biggest province of Lombardy, it is the second province of the region for the number of inhabitants and fifth in Italy. It borders the province of Sondrio to the north and north west, the province of Bergamo to the west, the province of Cremona to the south west and south, the province of Mantua to the south, to the east the province of Verona and Trentino; the province stretches between Lake Iseo in the west, Lake Garda in the east, the Southern Rhaetian Alps in the north and the Lombardian plains in the south. The main rivers of the province are the Mella and the Chiese. Besides Brescia, other important towns in the province are Darfo Boario Terme, Desenzano del Garda, Palazzolo sull'Oglio, Ghedi, Rovato, Rezzato, Orzinuovi, Salò, Gardone Val Trompia and Lumezzane; the province of Brescia is the largest in the region, boasts three main lakes, Lake Garda, Lake Iseo and Lake Idro, plus several other smaller lakes, three valleys, Val Camonica, Val Trompia and Valle Sabbia, as well as a wide flat area south of the city, known as the Bassa Bresciana, several hilly areas surrounding the city landscape and extending eastwards towards Veneto and west to Franciacorta.
Due to the altitude and morphological variety and the presence of large lakes, the province includes all kinds of biomes in Europe: from something similar to the maquis shrubland up to the perennial snow of Adamello. The three main valleys on the territory of Brescia are the Val Camonica, crossed by the river Oglio and inserted in the northwestern part of the province from Adamello to Lake Iseo. All the three valleys have the point of union the Croce Domini Pass, which takes the name from the "cross" formed by the union of the three basins. Within the province there are eight lakes; the main lake basin, in both dimensional and cultural terms, is Lake Garda, shared with the Veneto and Trentino regions, which with its 370 km² of surface is the biggest lake in Italy. Because of its size, the lake has a considerable influence on the climate and the surrounding environment, generating a micro-geographic area in a more mitigated climate both in summer and winter. Lake Iseo is the second lake of the area, is situated at about 180 m above sea level, in an area called Sebino, between Val Camonica and Franciacorta, which divides the provinces of Bergamo and Brescia.
Lake Idro, the third lake within the provincial territory, is located in Valle Sabbia, on the border between Brescia and the province of Trento, differs from the other two main lakes for its modest size. The waters of the lake are exploited for the irrigation of crops in contiguous territories, as well as for the production of energy through a small power plant located in the municipality of Vobarno. Other small lakes in the province are: Lago della Vacca, Lago d'Arno, Lago Aviolo, Lago Baitone, Lago Moro and Lago di Valvestino. There are about 45 watercourses crossing the territory of the province, but all of them are torrents; the only watercourses that can be defined as real rivers are just three: Oglio and Mella. Highest point: Mount Adamello, Saviore dell'Adamello Highest settlement: Tonale Pass, Ponte di Legno Northernmost municipality: Ponte di Legno Southernmost municipality: Fiesse Easternmost municipality: Limone sul Garda Westernmost municipality: Pontoglio Rock Drawings in Valcamonica.
Castle of Brescia. Lake Garda, Lake Iseo and Lake Idro; the Province of Brescia is an administrative body of intermediate level between a municipality and Lombardy region. The three main functions devolved to the Province of Brescia are: zoning; as an administrative institution, the Province of Brescia has its own elected bodies. From 1945 to 1995 the President of the Province of Brescia was chosen by the members of the Provincial Council, elected every five years by citizens. From 1995 to 2014, under provisions of the 1993 local administration reform, the President of the Province was chosen by p
Veneto is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is ranking fifth in Italy; the region's capital is Venice. Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until the 5th century AD. After a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice until 1797. Venice ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Besides Italian, most inhabitants speak Venetian, divided into five varieties. Since 1971 the Statute of Veneto has referred to the region's citizens as "the Venetian people". Article 1 defines Veneto as an "autonomous Region", "constituted by the Venetian people and the lands of the provinces of Belluno, Rovigo, Venice and Vicenza", while maintaining "bonds with Venetians in the world". Article 2 sets forth the principle of the "self-government of the Venetian people" and mandates the Region to "promote the historical identity of the Venetian people and civilisation".
Despite these affirmations, approved by the Italian Parliament, Veneto is not among the autonomous regions with special statute, differently from its north-eastern and north-western neighbours, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol respectively. Veneto is home to a notable nationalist movement, known as Venetian Venetism; the region's largest party is a founding component of the Lega Nord. The current President of Veneto is Luca Zaia, re-elected in 2015 with 50.1% of the vote. Zaia II Government includes Forza Italia and is externally supported by Independence We Veneto and the Brothers of Italy. An autonomy referendum took place in 2017: 57.2% of Venetians turned out, 98.1% voting "yes" to "further forms and special conditions of autonomy". Having been for a long period in history a land of mass emigration, Veneto is today one of the greatest immigrant-receiving regions in the country, with 487,493 foreigners, notably including Romanians, Chinese and Albanians. Veneto is the 8th largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2.
It is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and is bordered to the east by Friuli-Venezia Giulia, to the south by Emilia-Romagna, to the west by Lombardy and to the north by Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. At its northernmost corner it borders on Austria; the north-south extension of Veneto is 210 km from the Austrian border to the mouth of the River Po. By area, 29% of its surface is mountainous; the highest massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada-massif at 3,342 m. Other dolomitic peaks are the Pale di San Martino; the Venetian Prealps range between 700 m and 2,200 m. A distinctive characteristic of the Pre-alps are the cave formations, including chasms and sink holes. Fossil deposits are abundant there; the Po Valley, covering 57% of Veneto, extends from the mountains to the Adriatic sea, broken only by some low hills: Euganean Hills, Berici Hills Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. The plain itself is subdivided into the lower plain; the lower plain is both a mainstay of agricultural production and the most populated part of the region.
Several rivers flow through the region: the Po, Brenta, Livenza and Tagliamento. The eastern shore of the largest lake in Italy, Lake Garda, belongs to Veneto; the coastline covers 200 km, of which 100 km are beaches. The coasts of the Adriatic Sea are characterised by the Venetian Lagoon, a flat terrain with ponds and islands; the Po Delta to the south features dunes along the coastline. The inland portion contains cultivable land reclaimed by a system of canals and dykes. Fish ponds have been created there as well; the delta and the lagoon are a stopping-point for migratory birds. Veneto's morphology is characterised by its: mountains: 5,359.1 km2,. The climate changes from one area to another: while it is continental on the plains, it is milder along the Adriatic coast; the lowlands are covered by thick fog. Between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According to ancient historians, who wanted to link Venetic origins to legend of Roman origins in Troy, the Veneti came from Paphlagonia in Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy, led by prince Antenor, a comrade of Aeneas.
Other historians links Venetic origins with Celts. In the 7th–6th centuries BC th
Cheese crystals are whitish, semi-solid to solid crunchy to gritty crystalline spots and aggregates that can form on the surface and inside of cheese. Cheese crystals are characteristic of many long-aged hard cheeses. Hard cheeses where cheese crystals are common and valued include comté, aged cheddar, grana cheeses like parmesan, grana padano, Pecorino Romano, as well as old gouda. However, in some cheeses, like industrial cheddar, they are considered a production defect. Cheese crystals can consist of different substances. Most found are calcium lactate crystals on younger cheese, on the surface, on cheddar. Depending on the cheese and its age, these crystals can consist of both enantiomers. For grana padano, grainy amino acid crystals inside the cheese consisting of tyrosine and of leucine and isoleucine have been reported. In general, any substance that has a low solubility in water and a tendency to crystallize could form crystals as the cheese dries out during aging
Parmigiano-Reggiano is an Italian hard, granular cheese. The name "Parmesan" is used generically for the same cheese made outside the traditional areas of production in Italy, although this is prohibited in trading in the European Economic Area under European law, it is named after the producing areas, which comprise the provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Mantua, Italy. Under Italian law, only cheese produced in these provinces may be labelled "Parmigiano-Reggiano", European law classifies the name, as well as the translation "Parmesan", as a protected designation of origin. Parmigiano is the Italian adjective for Parma and Reggiano is the adjective for Reggio Emilia. Outside the EU, the name "Parmesan" can be used for the same cheese made outside this area, or for cheeses similar to Parmigiano-Reggiano, with only the full Italian name unambiguously referring to Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, it has been called the "King of Cheeses" and a "practically perfect food". Parmigiano-Reggiano is made from unpasteurized cow's milk.
The whole milk of the morning milking is mixed with the skimmed milk of the previous evening's milking, resulting in a part skim mixture. This mixture is pumped into copper-lined vats. Starter whey is added, the temperature is raised to 33–35 °C. Calf rennet is added, the mixture is left to curdle for 10–12 minutes; the curd is broken up mechanically into small pieces. The temperature is raised to 55 °C with careful control by the cheese-maker; the curd is left to settle for 45–60 minutes. The compacted curd is collected in a piece of muslin before being divided in two and placed in molds. There is 1100 L of milk per vat, producing two cheeses each; the curd making up each wheel at this point weighs around 45 kg. The remaining whey in the vat was traditionally used to feed the pigs from which Prosciutto di Parma was produced; the barns for these animals were just a few yards away from the cheese production rooms. The cheese is put into a stainless steel, round form, pulled tight with a spring-powered buckle so the cheese retains its wheel shape.
After a day or two, the buckle is released and a plastic belt imprinted numerous times with the Parmigiano-Reggiano name, the plant's number, month and year of production is put around the cheese and the metal form is buckled tight again. The imprints take hold on the rind of the cheese in about a day and the wheel is put into a brine bath to absorb salt for 20–25 days. After brining, the wheels are transferred to the aging rooms in the plant for 12 months; each cheese is placed on wooden shelves that can be 24 cheeses high by 90 cheeses long or 2160 total wheels per aisle. Each cheese and the shelf underneath it is cleaned manually or robotically every seven days; the cheese is turned at this time. At 12 months, the Consorzio Parmigiano-Reggiano inspects every wheel; the cheese is tested by a master grader who taps each wheel to identify undesirable cracks and voids within the wheel. Wheels that pass the test are heat branded on the rind with the Consorzio's logo; those that do not pass the test used to have their rinds marked with lines or crosses all the way around to inform consumers that they are not getting top-quality Parmigiano-Reggiano.
Traditionally, cows have to be fed only on producing grass fed milk. Only natural whey culture is allowed as a starter, together with calf rennet; the only additive allowed is salt, which the cheese absorbs while being submerged for 20 days in brine tanks saturated to near total salinity with Mediterranean sea salt. The product is aged an average of two years; the cheese is produced daily, it can show a natural variability. True Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese has a sharp, complex fruity/nutty taste with a strong savory flavor and a gritty texture. Inferior versions can impart a bitter taste; the average Parmigiano-Reggiano wheel is about 18–24 cm high, 40–45 cm in diameter, weighs 38 kg. All producers of Parmesan cheese belong to the Consorzio del Formaggio Parmigiano-Reggiano, founded in 1928. Besides setting and enforcing the standards for the PDO, the Consorzio sponsors marketing activities; as of 2017, about 3.6M wheels of parmesan are produced every year. Most workers in the Italian dairy industry belong to the Italian General Confederation of Labour.
As older dairy workers retire, younger Italians have tended to work in offices. Immigrants have filled that role, with 60% of the workers in the Parmesan industry now immigrants from India all Sikhs. Parmigiano-Reggiano is grated over pasta dishes, stirred into soups and risottos, eaten on its own, it is shaved or grated over other dishes like salads. Slivers and chunks of the hardest parts of the crust are sometimes simmered in soup, they can be roasted and eaten as a snack. According to legend, Parmigiano-Reggiano was created in the course of the Middle Ages in Bibbiano, in the province of Reggio Emilia, its production soon spread to the Modena areas. Historical documents show that in the 13th and 14th centuries, Parmigiano
Province of Vercelli
Vercelli is a province in the Piedmont region of northern Italy. Its capital is Vercelli; as of 2015, it has an area of 2,081 square kilometres and a total population of some 176,000. It is an area known for the cultivation of rice. In 2003, UNESCO added the Sacred Mountain of Varallo to the World Heritage List. Other historical sights include the Basilica of Sant'Andrea in Vercelli. There are numerous natural sights in the Valsesia area. Communes of the Province of Vercelli Official website Official web site for European Sacred Mountains
Province of Asti
The Province of Asti is a province in the Piedmont region of northern Italy. Its capital is the city of Asti. To the northwest it borders on the Metropolitan City of Turin. To the east it borders on the province of Alessandria, while in the south it shares a short border with the Ligurian province of Savona, it has an area of 1,504.5 square kilometres, and, As of 2017, a total population of 215,871. The Province of Asti was re-established on 1 April 1935 by Royal Decree No. 297 of King Victor Emmanuel III. It was detached from the existing Province of Alessandria into which it had been absorbed upon the creation of that province in 1859; the Province of Asti is among the institutions awarded the Gold Medal for Military Valor for its contribution to the partisan struggle during the last two years of the Second World War. There are 118 municipalities in the province; the largest by population are: Piemonte Official website MonferratoArte A historical and bibliographical directory of artists active in the extra-urban Churches of the Diocese of Casale Monferrato, which includes twenty parishes within the Province of Asti