Grand Canal (Venice)

The Grand Canal is a channel in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into the basin at San Marco, it is 3.8 km long, 30 to 90 m wide, with an average depth of 5 metres. The banks of the Grand Canal are lined with more than 170 buildings, most of which date from the 13th to the 18th century, demonstrate the welfare and art created by the Republic of Venice; the noble Venetian families faced huge expenses to show off their richness in suitable palazzos. Amongst the many are the Palazzi Barbaro, Ca' Rezzonico, Ca' d'Oro, Palazzo Dario, Ca' Foscari, Palazzo Barbarigo and to Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, housing the Peggy Guggenheim Collection; the churches along the canal include the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute. Centuries-old traditions, such as the Historical Regatta, are perpetuated every year along the Canal; because most of the city's traffic goes along the Canal rather than across it, only one bridge crossed the canal until the 19th century, the Rialto Bridge.

There are three more bridges, the Ponte degli Scalzi, the Ponte dell'Accademia, the controversial Ponte della Costituzione from 2008, designed by Santiago Calatrava, connecting the train station to Piazzale Roma, one of the few places in Venice where buses and cars can enter. As was usual in the past, people can still take a ferry ride across the canal at several points by standing up on the deck of a simple gondola called a traghetto, although this service is less common than a decade ago. Most of the palaces emerge from water without pavement. One can only tour past the fronts of the buildings on the grand canal by boat; the Grand Canal follows the course of an ancient river flowing into the lagoon. Adriatic Veneti groups lived beside the formerly-named "Rio Businiacus" before the Roman age, they relied on fishing and commerce. Under the rule of the Roman empire and of the Byzantine empire the lagoon became populated and important, in the early 9th century the doge moved his seat from Malamocco to the safer "Rivoaltus".

Increasing trade followed the doge and found in the deep Grand Canal a safe and ship accessible canal-port. Drainage reveals that the city became more compact over time: at that time the Canal was wider and flowed between small, tide-subjected islands connected by wooden bridges. Along the Canal, the number of "fondaco" houses increased, buildings combining the warehouse and the merchant's residence. A portico facilitates the ships' unloading. From the portico a corridor flanked by storerooms reaches a posterior courtyard. On the first floor a loggia as large as the portico illuminates the hall into which open the merchant's rooms; the façade is thereby divided into two more solid sides. A low mezzanine with offices divides the two floors; the fondaco house had lateral defensive towers, as in the Fondaco dei Turchi. With the German warehouse, the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, it reflects the high number of foreign merchants working in Venice, where the republic supplied them with storerooms and lodging and controlled their trading activity.

More public buildings were built along the Canal at Rialto: palaces for commercial and financial Benches and a mint. In 1181 Nicolò Barattieri constructed a pontoon bridge connecting Rialto to Mercerie area, replaced by a wooden bridge with shops on it. Warehouses for flour and salt were more peripheral. From the Byzantine empire, goods arrived together with sculptures, friezes and capitals to decorate the fondaco houses of patrician families; the Byzantine art merged with previous elements resulting in a Venetian-Byzantine style. Along the Grand Canal, these elements are well preserved in Ca' Farsetti, Ca' Loredan and Ca' da Mosto, all dating back to the 12th or 13th century. During this period Rialto had an intense building development, determining the conformation of the Canal and surrounding areas; as a matter of fact, in Venice building materials are precious and foundations are kept: in the subsequent restorations, existing elements will be used again, mixing the Venetian-Byzantine and the new styles.

Polychromy, three-partitioned façades, diffuse openings, rooms disposition formed a particular architectural taste that continued in the future. The Fourth Crusade, with the loot obtained from the sack of Constantinople, other historical situations, gave Venice an Eastern influence until the late 14th century. Venetian Gothic architecture found favor quite late, as a splendid flamboyant Gothic beginning with the southern façade of the Doge's Palace; the verticality and the illumination characterizing the Gothic style are found in the porticos and loggias of fondaco houses: columns get thinner, elongated arches are replaced by pointed or ogee or lobed ones. Porticos rise intertwining and drawing open marbles in quatrefoils or similar figures. Façades were plastered in brilliant col

Josef Kates

Dr. Josef Kates, born Josef Katz, was a Canadian engineer whose achievements include designing the first digital game-playing machine, the world's first automated traffic signalling system. Born the fifth of six children in an Austrian-Jewish family, Josef Kates was the son of Baruch and Anna Katz, his parents ran an import-export business in Vienna. Kates fled to Italy to escape the Nazis after the Anschluss in 1938 and in 1939, joined the rest of his family which had fled to England. Kates enlisted in the British Army but, before he could see service, he and other Germans and Austrians resident in Britain were interned as enemy aliens. Kates was deported to Canada where he remained interned for two years until he and most of his fellow Jewish internees were recognised by the government as "victims of Nazi aggression" and released. At the camps in New Brunswick and Quebec, Kates fished, worked as a lumberjack, knitted socks and studied for his high school diploma through McGill University's high school matriculation program, placing first in Quebec's province-wide exams.

After his release in 1942, he moved to Toronto where he met Lillian Kroch, marrying her in 1944. They had four children: Louis, Naomi and Philip A, he was educated at Goethe-Realschule. Kates started his career working for the Imperial Optical Company of Toronto in 1942, was in charge of precision optics for Royal Canadian Navy equipment until he left in 1944, he spent time working for Rogers Vacuum Tube Company, for the next four years in the development and manufacturing of radar and radio tubes. He began work in 1948 at the University of Toronto Computation Centre, where he participated in the design and building of UTEC, the first pilot model of a computer built in Canada. Kates built the first digital game playing machine, the 13-foot tall Bertie the Brain, exhibited at the 1950 Canadian National Exhibition; the game was a version of Tic-tac-toe, with adjustable difficulty levels. The game machine controlled the lighting of an overhead display to show the progress of the game, was built using a special electron tube, the Additron Tube, which Kates had invented.

The Additron Tube did the work of ten existing radio tubes, reducing the size and complexity of the machine. With the advent of transistors, which were much smaller and required less power, the tube was not put into commercial use. Kates designed Toronto's automated traffic signalling system in 1954 - the first in the world. Kates founded and became the President of KCS Ltd in Toronto between 1954 and 1966, which merged with the consulting arm of Peat, Mitchell & Co. to become Kates, Marwick & Co. in Canada, with other corporations in the US and the UK, for which he acted as a co-managing partner. He served as a computer consultant to many American firms and organizations, he was involved in the creation of Setak Computer Services Corp. Ltd., based in Toronto. Setak's employee Barry W. Ramer went on to found Barry W. Ramer & Partners Ltd. and Ramer Data Consulting Ltd. Management Consulting in Calgary Alberta. In 1974 he founded Josef Kates Associates Inc.. In 1968, he was appointed to the Science Council of Canada, served as its chairman from 1975 to 1978.

Kates was chairman, CEO and director of Teleride Sage Ltd. and IRD Teleride followed until his retirement. In 2014, at the age of 93, Kates designed a proposed improvement for Toronto Transit Commission subway system, his wife, Lillian Kroch, died of cancer in 1993 after 50 years of marriage. In 1995, Kates married Kay Hill. Kates died in Toronto on June 16, 2018. Canadian Good Roads Association (now Transportation Association of Canada University of Waterloo LL. D. Medal from the Engineering Institute of Canada Julian Smith Medal Engineering Institute of Canada Canadian Association of Management Consultants Doctor of Mathematics Member of the Order of Canada Intelligent Transportation systems association of Canada Lifetime achievement Award, 2013 Mount Sinai Hospital Technion University, Israel Donalda Club Canadian Board of the Weizmann Institute Simone Gigliotti, Monica Tempian ed.: The young victims of the Nazi regime, ch. 2: Andrea Strutz, "Detour to Canada". The fate of juvenil Austrian-jewish refugees after the Anschluss of 1938.

Bloomsbury, London 2016 Andrea Strutz: Effects of the cultural capital in careers of young Austrian refugees in Canada. A biographical approach to their life, in Klaus-Dieter Ertler, Patrick Imbert ed.: Cultural Challenges of Migration in Canada- Les défis culturels de la migration au Canada. Serie: Canadiana - Literaturen/Kulturen, Literatures/Cultures, vol. 12. Peter Lang, Berne 2013 ISBN 9783631626344 pp 175 – 193

Faro District

Faro District is the southernmost district of Portugal, coincident with the Algarve. The administrative centre, or capital, is the city of Faro; the district is composed of 16 municipalities: Albufeira Alcoutim Aljezur Castro Marim Faro Lagoa Lagos Loulé Monchique Olhão Portimão São Brás de Alportel Silves Tavira Vila do Bispo Vila Real de Santo António Faro, Portugal Algarve Senhora do Verde, a village in the district of Faro