Money Shot (album)
Money Shot is the third studio album by Puscifer, released on October 30, 2015. On July 29, 2015, the album was announced via the release of the first single, "Grand Canyon"; the vinyl version features an exclusive mix of "Simultaneous" featuring Daniel Ash. On November 25, 2016 a remix album with versions of tracks from Money Shot was released, entitled Money Shot Your Re-Load. Writing for Exclaim, Calum Slingerland noted that while the record is more focused compositionally than its predecessor, Conditions of My Parole, the increased presence of vocalist Carina Round and the consistent desert-weary feel of the work are undeniable positives. All songs written by Mat Mitchell & Carina Round, except where noted. Adapted from the album credits. Maynard James Keenan – lead vocals Carina Round – lead vocals Mat Mitchell – bass, keyboards, banjo Jeff Friedl – drums Jon Theodore – drums Matt McJunkins – bass Juliette Commagere – keyboards, background vocals Tim Alexander – drums
Valles Marineris is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region. At more than 4,000 km long, 200 km wide and up to 7 km deep, Valles Marineris is one of the largest canyons of the Solar System, surpassed in length only by the rift valleys of Earth. Valles Marineris is located along the equator of Mars, on the east side of the Tharsis Bulge, stretches for nearly a quarter of the planet's circumference; the canyon system starts in the west with Noctis Labyrinthus. It has been suggested that Valles Marineris is a large tectonic "crack" in the Martian crust. Most researchers agree that this formed as the crust thickened in the Tharsis region to the west, was subsequently widened by erosion. Near the eastern flanks of the rift, there appear to be channels that may have been formed by water or carbon dioxide, it has been proposed that Valles Marineris is a large channel formed by the erosion of lava flowing from the flank of Pavonis Mons. There have been many different theories about the formation of Valles Marineris that have changed over the years.
Ideas in the 1970s were erosion by water or thermokarst activity, the melting of permafrost in glacial climes. Thermokarst activity may contribute, but erosion by water is a problematic mechanism because liquid water cannot exist in most current Martian surface conditions, which experience about 1% of Earth's atmospheric pressure and a temperature range of 148 K to 310 K. Many scientists agree. Valles Marineris may have been enlarged by flowing water at this time. Another hypothesis by McCauley in 1972 was that the canyons formed by withdrawal of subsurface magma. Around 1989 Tanaka and Golombek proposed a theory of formation by tensional fracturing; the most agreed upon theory today is that Valles Marineris was formed by rift faults like the East African Rift made bigger by erosion and collapsing of the rift walls. It has been proposed that Valles Marineris was formed by flowing lava; the formation of Valles Marineris is thought to be tied with the formation of the Tharsis Bulge. The Tharsis Bulge was formed from the Noachian in three stages.
The first stage consisted of a combination of volcanism and isostatic uplift. Stage two consisted of a loss of isostatic equilibrium; the crust failed to hold up Tharsis and radial fractures formed, including at Valles Marineris. Stage three consisted of more volcanism and asteroid impacts; the crust, having reached its failure point, just stayed in place and younger volcanoes formed. Tharsis volcanism involved low viscosity magma, forming shield volcanoes similar to those of the Hawaiian Island chain, because there is minor or no current active plate tectonics on Mars, the hotspot activity led to long histories of repeated volcanic eruptions at the same spots, creating some of the largest volcanoes in the solar system, including the biggest, Olympus Mons. Landslides have left numerous deposits on the floor of Valles Marineris and contributed to widening it. Possible triggers of landslides are quakes caused by tectonic impact events. Both types of events release seismic waves that accelerate the ground below the surface.
Mars is much less tectonically active than Earth, Mars-quakes are unlikely to have provided seismic waves of the required magnitude. Most sizable craters on Mars date to the Late Heavy Bombardment, 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago, are older than the landslide deposits in Valles Marineris. However, three craters have been identified, on the basis of their proximity and dates, as ones whose formation may have caused some of the landslides. Noctis Labyrinthus, on the western edge of the Valles Marineris Rift System, north of the Syria Planum and east of Pavonis Mons, is a jumbled terrain composed of huge blocks which are fractured, it contains canyons that run in different directions surrounding large blocks of older terrain. Most of the upper parts of the blocks are composed of younger fractured material thought to be of volcanic origin associated with the Tharsis bulge; the other tops are composed of older fractured material thought to be volcanic in origin, but differentiated from the younger material by more ruggedness and more impact craters.
The sides of the blocks are composed of undivided material thought to be basement rock. The space between the blocks is composed of either rough or smooth floor material; the rough floor material tends to be in the eastern portion of the Noctis Labyrinthus and is thought to be debris from the walls or maybe eolian features covering rough topography and landslides. The smooth floor material is thought to be composed of fluvial or basaltic material and/or eolian features covering an otherwise rough and jumbled terrain. Terrains such as Noctis Labyrinthus are found at the head of outflow channels, like the one explored by the Pathfinder mission and
Waimea Canyon State Park
Waimea Canyon known as the Grand Canyon of the Pacific, is a large canyon ten miles long and up to 3,000 feet deep, located on the western side of Kauaʻi in the Hawaiian Islands of the United States. Waimea is Hawaiian for a reference to the erosion of the canyon's red soil; the canyon was formed by a deep incision of the Waimea River arising from the extreme rainfall on the island's central peak, Mount Waiʻaleʻale, among the wettest places on earth. The canyon is carved into the post-shield calc-alkaline lavas of the canyon basalt; the lavas of the canyon provide evidence for massive faulting and collapse in the early history of the island. The west side of the canyon is all thin, west-dipping lavas of the Napali Member, while the east side is thick, flat-lying lavas of the Olokele and Makaweli Members; the two sides are separated by an enormous fault along which a large part of the island moved downwards in a big collapse. The canyon has a unique geologic history as it was formed not only by the steady process of erosion but by a catastrophic collapse of the volcano that created Kauaʻi.
Like the other Hawaiian islands, Kauaʻi is the top of an enormous volcano rising from the ocean floor. With lava flows dated to about 5 million years ago, Kauaʻi is the oldest of the large Hawaiian islands. 4 million years ago, while Kauaʻi was still erupting continuously, a portion of the island collapsed. This collapse formed a depression which filled with lava flows. In the time since, rainwater from the slopes of Mount Waiʻaleʻale have eroded Waimea Canyon along one edge of the collapse. On the east side of the canyon, the cliff walls are built from thick lava flows that pooled in the depression. Over time, the exposed basalt has weathered from its original black to bright red. Waimea Canyon State Park is a popular tourist attraction on the island, it provides a wilderness area with numerous hiking trails. It can be accessed from Waimea on Hawaiʻi state road 550, 18 miles long and leads up to Koke'e State Park; the island of Niihau, only a short distance west of Kauai at that point, can be seen from the highway.
Yale University: Geology of the Waimea Canyon Hawaii State Parks: Waimea Canyon State Park "Waimea Canyon, Kauaʻi". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2006-05-30
Grand Canyon Village, Arizona
Grand Canyon Village is a census-designated place located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, in Coconino County, Arizona, in the United States. Its population was 2,004 at the 2010 Census. Located in Grand Canyon National Park, it is wholly focused on accommodating tourists visiting the canyon, its origins trace back to the railroad completed from Williams, Arizona, to the canyon's South Rim by the Santa Fe Railroad in 1901. Many of the structures in use today date from that period; the village contains numerous landmark buildings, its historic core is a National Historic Landmark District, designated for its outstanding implementation of town design. Grand Canyon Village is located at 36°02′57″N 112°09′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 13.4 square miles, all of it land. It is located 180 miles north of Phoenix, 168 miles from Las Vegas, although the journey by car from the latter is longer, at 280 miles; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,460 people, 651 households, 345 families residing in the CDP.
The population density was 108.6 people per square mile. There were 791 housing units at an average density of 100.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 73.70% White, 1.58% Black or African American, 18.84% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.27% Pacific Islander, 1.85% from other races, 2.88% from two or more races. 10.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 651 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.1% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.9% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 0.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.84. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 41.2% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 2.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.1 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $42,083, the median income for a family was $53,676. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $23,565 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,923. About 1.7% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. The area is served by the Grand Canyon Unified School District. Grand Canyon Shuttle operates airport shuttles 24/7 on the North and South Rim from Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport; the Grand Canyon Railway connects the Grand Canyon Depot in Grand Canyon Village with the Williams Depot in Williams, Arizona. Connections are offered to Amtrak's Williams Junction station; the National Park Service operates free shuttle buses on the South Rim. The following is a brief description the images of some of the historic structures and plaques in the Grand Canyon Village; the Grand Canyon Railroad Depot – the depot was built in 1901 and is within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District.
It is one of three remaining railroad depots in the United States built with logs as the primary material. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on September 6, 1974, reference #74000343, it was declared a National Historic Landmark on May 28, 1987. The Horace M. Albright Training Center – the training center was established in 1963, is located on Albright Street within the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, it is the primary training facility for new permanent NPS employees. El Tovar Hotel -- was operated by the Fred Harvey Company, it is located in the Grand Canyon National Park, Rte 8A. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on September 6, 1974, reference #74000334, it was declared a National Historic Landmark on May 28m 1987. El Tovar Stables – were built in 1904 and is located in the Grand Canyon National Park, Rte 8A, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on September 6, 1974, reference #74000336. AT& SF Employee residence – the employee residences were built between 1924 and 1933.
The residence pictured is located on Apache Street in the Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon Power House – the power house was built in 1926 and located in the Grand Canyon National Park, it was Designated a National Landmark and listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987, reference #87001411. The Bright Angel Lodge – the lodge was built in 1935, it was designed by architect Mary Jane Colter and is located within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District. The Buck O’Neil Cabin – the cabin was built in 1890 by William “Buckey” O’Neil. Among the occupations which O’Neil had during his lifetime were that author and judge in Arizona, he was a member of the Rough Riders and in Cuba he was killed in action. The cabin is the oldest extant structure on the South Rim; the Hopi House – built in 1904, by the Fred Harvey Company and designed by architect Mary Jane Colter. It is located within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District, it was Designated a National Landmark and listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987, reference #87001436.
The Look-Out Studio – designed by architect Mary Jane Colter it was built in 1914. It is located within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District, it was Designated a National Landmark and listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987, reference #87001436. The Kolb Studio – a historic structure situated on the edge of the South Rim of the Grand Canyon in Grand Canyon Villagewithin Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile; the canyon and adjacent rim are contained within Grand Canyon National Park, the Kaibab National Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, the Hualapai Indian Reservation, the Havasupai Indian Reservation and the Navajo Nation. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area, visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery. Nearly two billion years of Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. While some aspects about the history of incision of the canyon are debated by geologists, several recent studies support the hypothesis that the Colorado River established its course through the area about 5 to 6 million years ago.
Since that time, the Colorado River has driven the down-cutting of the tributaries and retreat of the cliffs deepening and widening the canyon. For thousands of years, the area has been continuously inhabited by Native Americans, who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves; the Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon a holy site, made pilgrimages to it. The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540; the Grand Canyon is a river valley in the Colorado Plateau that exposes uplifted Proterozoic and Paleozoic strata, is one of the six distinct physiographic sections of the Colorado Plateau province. It is not the deepest canyon in the world. However, the Grand Canyon is known for its visually overwhelming size and its intricate and colorful landscape. Geologically, it is significant because of the thick sequence of ancient rocks that are well preserved and exposed in the walls of the canyon; these rock layers record much of the early geologic history of the North American continent.
Uplift associated with mountain formation moved these sediments thousands of feet upward and created the Colorado Plateau. The higher elevation has resulted in greater precipitation in the Colorado River drainage area, but not enough to change the Grand Canyon area from being semi-arid; the uplift of the Colorado Plateau is uneven, the Kaibab Plateau that Grand Canyon bisects is over one thousand feet higher at the North Rim than at the South Rim. All runoff from the North Rim flows toward the Grand Canyon, while much of the runoff on the plateau behind the South Rim flows away from the canyon; the result is deeper and longer tributary washes and canyons on the north side and shorter and steeper side canyons on the south side. Temperatures on the North Rim are lower than those on the South Rim because of the greater elevation. Heavy rains are common on both rims during the summer months. Access to the North Rim via the primary route leading to the canyon is limited during the winter season due to road closures.
The Grand Canyon is part of the Colorado River basin which has developed over the past 70 million years, in part based on apatite /He thermochronometry showing that Grand Canyon reached a depth near to the modern depth by 20 Ma. A recent study examining caves near Grand Canyon places their origins beginning about 17 million years ago. Previous estimates had placed the age of the canyon at 5–6 million years; the study, published in the journal Science in 2008, used uranium-lead dating to analyze calcite deposits found on the walls of nine caves throughout the canyon. There is a substantial amount of controversy because this research suggests such a substantial departure from prior supported scientific consensus. In December 2012, a study published in the journal Science claimed new tests had suggested the Grand Canyon could be as old as 70 million years. However, this study has been criticized by those who support the "young canyon" age of around six million years as " attempt to push the interpretation of their new data to their limits without consideration of the whole range of other geologic data sets."The canyon is the result of erosion which exposes one of the most complete geologic columns on the planet.
The major geologic exposures in the Grand Canyon range in age from the 2-billion-year-old Vishnu Schist at the bottom of the Inner Gorge to the 230-million-year-old Kaibab Limestone on the Rim. There is a gap of about a billion years between the 500-million-year-old stratum and the level below it, which dates to about 1.5 billion years ago. This large unconformity indicates a long period. Many of the formations were deposited in warm shallow seas, near-shore environments, swamps as the seashore advanced and retreated over the edge of a proto-North America. Major exceptions include the Permian Coconino Sandstone, which contains abundant geological evidence of aeolian sand dune deposition. Several parts of the Supai Group were deposited in non–marine environments; the great depth of the Grand Canyon and the height of its strata can be attributed to 5–10 thousand feet of uplift of the Colorado Plateau, starting about 65 million years ago. This uplift has steepened the stream gradient of the Colorado River
Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone
Not to be confused with Grand Canyon or any other Grand Canyons. The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is the first large canyon on the Yellowstone River downstream from Yellowstone Falls in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming; the canyon is 24 miles long, between 800 and 1,200 ft deep and from.25 to.75 mi wide. Although trappers and prospectors who visited the Yellowstone region had knowledge of the canyon earlier, the first significant descriptions were publicized after the Cook–Folsom–Peterson Expedition of 1869 and the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition of 1870; when Charles W. Cook first viewed the canyon after traveling west from the Lamar Valley on September 20, 1869, he subsequently wrote these words in his journal: I was riding ahead, the two pack animals following, Mr. Folsom and Mr. Peterson on their saddle horses. I remembered seeing what appeared to be an opening in the forest ahead, which I presumed to be a park, or open country. While my attention was attracted by the pack animals, which had stopped to eat grass, my saddle horse stopped.
I turned and looked forward from the brink of the great canyon, at a point just across from what is now called Inspiration Point. I sat there in amazement, while my companions came up, after that, it seemed to me that it was five minutes before anyone spoke. A year during the Washburn expedition, on August 30–31, 1870, Lt. Gustavus C. Doane described the canyon with a bit more scientific detail: As we approached the Grand Cañon a dull roaring sound warned us that the falls were near at hand.... I had descended the cañon at a point where the creek joined the river, precipitated into a gorge just above its juncture in a lovely cascade of three falls, in the aggregate 100 feet in height; this was named Crystal Cascade, the stream Cascade Creek. In the bed of the gorge were to be found an infinite variety of volcanic specimens, feldspar, granites, basalts, composite crystals. There were beautiful clay stone specimens, of which we afterward learned the origin. At the foot of the gorge and on the margin of the Yellowstone stood a high promontory of concretionary lava filled with volcanic butternuts.
Many of these were loose, could be taken out of the rock with the hand. This formation is rare, but occurs in the great basin. From the outer point of this promontory can be seen the foot of the upper fall of the Yellowstone, I climbed to the summit to obtain a view. In scenic beauty, the upper cataract far excels the lower, it has life, while the lower one follows its channel. This deepens rapidly. Several of the party descended into the chasm a short distance below the fall, but could not reach its foot.... The walls of the cañon are of gypsum, in some places having an incrustation of lime white as snow, from which the reflected rays of the sun produce a dazzling effect, rendering it painful to look into the gulf. In others the rock is crystalline and wholly sulphur, of a dark yellow color, with streaks of red and black, caused by the percolations of hot mineral waters, of which thousands of springs are seen, in many instances, flowing from spouts high up on the walls on either side; the combinations of metallic lusters in the coloring of the walls is wonderful, doubtless, anything of the kind on the face of the globe.
The ground slopes to the cañon on the opposite or east side, from it to the low valley on the west. Three miles below the fall the chasm is 1,050 feet deep. In some places masses of the rock have crumbled and slid down in a talus of loose material at the foot. On the caps of these dizzy heights, mountain sheep and elk rest during the night.... We had come down the ravine at least four miles, looking upward the fearful wall appeared to reach the sky, it was about 3 o'clock p.m. and stars could be distinctly seen, so much of the sunlight was cut off from entering the chasm. Tall pines on the extreme verge appeared the height of three feet; the cañon, as before said, was with a plateau on either side, about half way down. This plateau, about a hundred yards in width, looked from below like a mere shelf against the wall. There are other canons longer and deeper than this one, but none combining grandeur and immensity with peculiarity of formation and profusion of volcanic or chemical phenomena. In 1890, Bozeman resident H.
F. Richardson was given a permit to operate a ferry across the Yellowstone River near the site of today's Chittenden Bridge and take tourists down into the canyon below the lower falls on Uncle Tom's Trail. Although the original trail no longer exists, there is still a steep stairway down to the base of the lower falls, called Uncle Tom's Trail. Uncle Tom's Trail is a 3-mile hike. Agate Creek 44°51′01″N 110°21′38″W Artist Point 44°43′16″N 110°28′46″W Calcite Spring 44°54′24″N 110°23′42″W Cascade Creek 44°43′00″N 110°29′58″W Inspiration Point 44°43′31″N 110°28′13″W Grand View 44°43′36″N 110°28′48″W Lookout Point 44°43′24″N 110°29′03″W Overhanging Cliff 44°53′44″N 110°23′22″W Point Sublime 44°43′28″N 110°27′39″W Seven Mile Hole 44.75363°N 110.40450°W / 44.75363.
Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne
The Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne is the notable canyon section of the river valley of the Tuolumne River, located within Yosemite National Park, in Tuolumne County and the Sierra Nevada, California. As defined by the United States Geological Survey, the canyon begins at Glen Aulin and ends directly above Hetch Hetchy Valley; the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne starts at Glen Aulin below the confluence of Cold Canyon, Conness Creek, the Tuolumne River. Here, the valley walls become steeper; the water forms deep pools. After the waterfall that marks the end of Glen Aulin, the canyon becomes deeper again, "V"-shaped in cross-section; the walls are not as bare as those of Yosemite Valley. The flora of the valley bottom is a haphazard melange of chaparral, manzanita scrub and oak woodland characteristic of the foothills and lowlands with a coniferous forest reminiscent of that found above the canyon rim; this vegetation clings and clambers up every ledge of the valley walls to the top, giving it a lusher appearance than Yosemite Valley, though this area in fact experiences a drier climate.
Many dramatic waterfalls are found in the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne. Whereas Yosemite Valley's celebrated falls occur on tributary streams along the sides, these lie on the main river itself. Many watercourses do join the Tuolumne River, but their canyons form deep clefts in the sides of the Grand Canyon and descend to its bottom; the Tuolumne’s own bed, beginning above Glen Aulin, is fashioned as a great staircase punctuated by waterfalls. The greatest of these is 800-foot Waterwheel Falls, named for a dramatic circular plume of water that appears when the river and the winds run high. A few kilometres below Glen Aulin, the walls of the lower canyon pinch together to form a narrow chasm of less than 1 kilometre in length, the Muir Gorge. A short way below the Muir Gorge, the Grand Canyon widens again, much as it does at Glen Aulin, though here it is deeper; this broad plain bears the name of "Pate Valley." Some 6 kilometres below here, Hetch Hetchy Reservoir claims the Tuolumne River. A trail runs along the Tuolumne River from its headwaters to below Pate Valley.
It is diligently built, but due to the nature of the terrain it is rocky and difficult. The walking distance from the Tioga Road to the Glen Aulin High Sierra Camp is 10 kilometres. White Wolf campground, southeast of Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, is within day-hiking distance of the canyon rim, but the return trip from the bottom is long and steep. Between the eastern tip of the reservoir and the point where the trail begins the climb to White Wolf, the valley is a trackless wilderness