Varney Air Lines
Varney Air Lines was an airline company that started service on April 6, 1926, as an air-mail carrier. Formed by Walter Varney, the airline was based in Boise, United States; the airline is one of the predecessors of United Airlines. In 1925, the Congress passed HR 7064 entitled "An Act to encourage commercial aviation and to authorize the Postmaster General to contract for Air Mail Service" which directed the U. S. Post Office Department to contract with private airlines to carry the mail over designated routes many of which connected with the Government operated Transcontinental Air Mail route between New York and San Francisco. Varney won the contract for CAM-5 as the only bidder. Boise Postmaster L. W. Thrailkill had the vision, he heard about the proposed northwest route and Varney’s plan and drew up a petition and got signatures from three dozen postmasters from the towns surrounding Boise. Its first flight under contract with the USPOD was from Pasco, Washington to Elko, Nevada with an intermediate stop in Boise.
That air freight contract grew into the birth of one of the world’s biggest airlines. Pasco at the time was a rail center, more or less midway between Portland and Spokane. Mail trains leaving those cities in the evening arrived in Pasco early the next morning. Mail could be transferred to and from the biplanes cutting coast to coast delivery by days; this was the logic for basing the CAM service in Pasco. Pilot Leon D. Cuddeback flew the first eastbound CAM-5 flight, leaving in the early dawn hours from Pasco, Washington. Between 4,000 and 6,000 cheering people sent the pilot off with 207 pounds of mail. Cuddeback flew; the first westbound flight that afternoon was much less successful, however, as it was forced 75-miles off course by a storm en route from Elko, Nevada, to Boise, before making a forced landing near Jordan Valley, Oregon. The mail plane and its pilot, Franklin Rose, remained missing for two days until pilot Rose managed to reach a telephone on April 8 after carrying the 98 pounds of mail for many miles out of the wilderness by foot and on a horse borrowed from a farmer.
The westbound flown mail arrived at the post office in Pasco late on the morning of April 9, three days after leaving Elko. Varney added a Breese-Wilde Model 5 and replaced its original Swallows with C-3 Stearmans and thereafter upgraded as new equipment became available. Subsequent aircraft included the larger M-2 "Bull" Stearman and the Boeing 40 dedicated mail planes, the more modern Boeing 247 twin-engine monoplane. Arriving in 1933, the 247 expanded Varney's ability to carry passengers as well as mail. Varney soon added Salt Lake City and Seattle to its route. In 1930, it was acquired by United Aircraft and Transport Corporation and folded into its airlines group including Pacific Air Transport, Boeing Air Transport, National Air Transport which were spun off, in May 1934, to form United Airlines. United claims 1926 as its founding date, thus claims to be the oldest commercial airline in the United States. United Airlines started jet service to Boise on October 16, 1964, is the only airline to serve Boise continuously since 1933.
With the Beeson terminal remodeling at the airport, the last Varney building was torn down in 2002. List of companies based in Idaho Swan Island Municipal Airport Notes Bibliography United Airlines Idaho Statesman Idaho State Historical Society History Link Washington State University Warhawk Air Museum Sue Paul Roni Adams
Howard Robard Hughes Jr. was an American business magnate, record-setting pilot, film director, philanthropist, known during his lifetime as one of the most financially successful individuals in the world. He first became prominent as a film producer, as an influential figure in the aviation industry. In life, he became known for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle—oddities that were caused in part by a worsening obsessive–compulsive disorder, chronic pain from a near-fatal plane crash, increasing deafness; as a maverick film tycoon, Hughes gained fame in Hollywood beginning in the late 1920s, when he produced big-budget and controversial films such as The Racket, Hell's Angels, Scarface. He controlled the RKO film studio. Hughes formed the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1932, hiring numerous designers, he spent the rest of the 1930s and much of the 1940s setting multiple world air speed records and building the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 Hercules. He acquired and expanded Trans World Airlines and acquired Air West, renaming it Hughes Airwest.
Hughes was included in Flying Magazine's list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation, ranked at No. 25. Today, his legacy is maintained through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Howard Hughes Corporation. Records locate the birthplace of Howard Hughes as Houston, Texas; the date remains uncertain due to conflicting dates from various sources. He claimed Christmas Eve as his birthday. A 1941 affidavit birth certificate of Hughes, signed by his aunt Annette Gano Lummis and by Estelle Boughton Sharp, states that he was born on December 24, 1905, in Harris County, Texas. However, his certificate of baptism, recorded on October 7, 1906 in the parish register of St. John's Episcopal Church in Keokuk, listed his date of birth as September 24, 1905, without any reference to the place of birth. Hughes was the son of Allene Stone Gano and of Howard R. Hughes Sr. a successful inventor and businessman from Missouri. He had English and some French Huguenot ancestry, was a descendant of John Gano, the minister who baptized George Washington.
His father patented the two-cone roller bit, which allowed rotary drilling for petroleum in inaccessible places. The senior Hughes made the shrewd and lucrative decision to commercialize the invention by leasing the bits instead of selling them, obtained several early patents, founded the Hughes Tool Company in 1909. Hughes' uncle was the famed novelist and film-director Rupert Hughes. At a young age, Hughes showed interest in technology. In particular, he had great engineering aptitude and built Houston's first "wireless" radio transmitter at age 11, he went on to be one of the first licensed ham-radio operators in Houston, having the assigned callsign W5CY. At 12, Hughes was photographed in the local newspaper, identified as the first boy in Houston to have a "motorized" bicycle, which he had built from parts from his father's steam engine, he was an indifferent student, with a liking for mathematics and mechanics. He took his first flying lesson at 14, attended Fessenden School in Massachusetts in 1921.
He attended math and aeronautical engineering courses at Caltech. The red-brick house where Hughes lived as a teenager at 3921 Yoakum St. Houston became the headquarters of the Theology Department of the University of St. Thomas, his mother Allene died in March 1922 from complications of an ectopic pregnancy. Howard Hughes Sr. died of a heart attack in 1924. Their deaths inspired Hughes to include the establishment of a medical research laboratory in the will that he signed in 1925 at age 19. Howard Sr.'s will had not been updated since Allene's death, Hughes inherited 75% of the family fortune. On his 19th birthday, Hughes was declared an emancipated minor, enabling him to take full control of his life. From a young age Hughes became a enthusiastic golfer, he scored near-par figures, played the game to a two-three handicap during his 20s, for a time aimed for a professional golf career. He golfed with top players, including Gene Sarazen. Hughes played competitively and gave up his passion for the sport to pursue other interests.
Hughes used to play golf every afternoon at LA courses including the Lakeside Golf Club, Wilshire Country Club, or the Bel-Air Country Club. Partners included Ozzie Carlton. After Hughes hurt himself in the late 1920s, his golfing tapered off, after his F-11 crash, Hughes was unable to play at all. Hughes withdrew from Rice University shortly after his father's death. On June 1, 1925 he married Ella Botts Rice, daughter of David Rice and Martha Lawson Botts of Houston, they moved to Los Angeles. They moved into the Ambassador Hotel, Hughes proceeded to learn to fly a Waco, while producing his first motion picture, Swell Hogan. Hughes enjoyed a successful business career beyond engineering and filmmaking, though many of his career endeavors involved varying entrepreneurial roles; the Summa Corporation was the name adopted for the business interests of Howard Hughes after he sold the tool division of Hughes Tool Company in 1972. The company serves as the principal holding company for Hughes' business investments.
It is involved in aerospace and defense, mass media and hospitality industries, but has maintained a strong presence in a wide variety of industries including real estate, petroleum drilling and oilfield services, entertainment
Battle of Britain
The Battle of Britain was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force defended the United Kingdom against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. It has been described as the first major military campaign fought by air forces; the British recognise the battle's duration as being from 10 July until 31 October 1940, which overlaps the period of large-scale night attacks known as The Blitz, that lasted from 7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941. German historians do not accept this subdivision and regard the battle as a single campaign lasting from July 1940 to June 1941, including the Blitz; the primary objective of the German forces was to compel Britain to agree to a negotiated peace settlement. In July 1940, the air and sea blockade began, with the Luftwaffe targeting coastal-shipping convoys and shipping centres, such as Portsmouth. On 1 August, the Luftwaffe was directed to achieve air superiority over the RAF with the aim of incapacitating RAF Fighter Command.
As the battle progressed, the Luftwaffe targeted factories involved in aircraft production and strategic infrastructure. It employed terror bombing on areas of political significance and on civilians; the Germans had overwhelmed France and the Low Countries, leaving Britain to face the threat of invasion by sea. The German high command knew the difficulties of a seaborne attack and its impracticality while the Royal Navy controlled the English Channel and the North Sea. On 16 July, Adolf Hitler ordered the preparation of Operation Sea Lion as a potential amphibious and airborne assault on Britain, to follow once the Luftwaffe had air superiority over the UK. In September, RAF Bomber Command night raids disrupted the German preparation of converted barges, the Luftwaffe's failure to overwhelm the RAF forced Hitler to postpone and cancel Operation Sea Lion. Germany proved unable to sustain daylight raids, but their continued night-bombing operations on Britain became known as the Blitz. Historian Stephen Bungay cited Germany's failure to destroy Britain's air defences to force an armistice as the first major German defeat in World War II and a crucial turning point in the conflict.
The Battle of Britain takes its name from a speech given by Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the House of Commons on 18 June: "What General Weygand called the'Battle of France' is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin." Strategic bombing during World War I introduced air attacks intended to panic civilian targets and led in 1918 to the amalgamation of British army and navy air services into the Royal Air Force. Its first Chief of the Air Staff Hugh Trenchard was among the military strategists in the 1920s like Giulio Douhet who saw air warfare as a new way to overcome the stalemate of trench warfare. Interception was nearly impossible with fighter planes no faster than bombers, their view was that the bomber will always get through, the only defence was a deterrent bomber force capable of matching retaliation. Predictions were made that a bomber offensive would cause thousands of deaths and civilian hysteria leading to capitulation, but widespread pacifism contributed to a reluctance to provide resources.
Germany was forbidden a military air force by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, therefore air crew were trained by means of civilian and sport flying. Following a 1923 memorandum, the Deutsche Luft Hansa airline developed designs for aircraft such as the Junkers Ju 52, which could carry passengers and freight, but be adapted into bombers. In 1926, the secret Lipetsk fighter-pilot school began operating. Erhard Milch organised rapid expansion, following the 1933 Nazi seizure of power, his subordinate Robert Knauss formulated a deterrence theory incorporating Douhet's ideas and Tirpitz's "risk theory", which proposed a fleet of heavy bombers to deter a preventive attack by France and Poland before Germany could rearm. A 1933–34 war game indicated a need for fighters and anti-aircraft protection as well as bombers. On 1 March 1935, the Luftwaffe was formally announced, with Walther Wever as Chief of Staff; the 1935 Luftwaffe doctrine for "Conduct of the Air War" set air power within the overall military strategy, with critical tasks of attaining air superiority and providing battlefield support for army and naval forces.
Strategic bombing of industries and transport could be decisive longer term options, dependent on opportunity or preparations by the army and navy, to overcome a stalemate or used when only destruction of the enemy's economy would be conclusive. The list excluded bombing civilians to destroy homes or undermine morale, as, considered a waste of strategic effort, but the doctrine allowed revenge attacks if German civilians were bombed. A revised edition was issued in 1940, the continuing central principle of Luftwaffe doctrine was that destruction of enemy armed forces was of primary importance; the RAF responded to Luftwaffe developments with its 1934 Expansion Plan A rearmament scheme, in 1936 it was restructured into Bomber Command, Coastal Command, Training Command and Fighter Command. The latter was under Hugh Dowding, who opposed the doctrine that bombers were unstoppable: the invention of radar at that time could allow early detection, prototype monoplane fighters were faster. Priorities were disputed, but in December 1937 the Minister in charge of defence coordination Sir Thomas Inskip decided in Dowding's favour, that "The role of our air force is not an early k
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines was a major American airline that existed from 1930 until 2001. It was formed as Transcontinental & Western Air to operate a route from New York City to Los Angeles via St. Louis, Kansas City, other stops, with Ford Trimotors. With American and Eastern, it was one of the "Big Four" domestic airlines in the United States formed by the Spoils Conference of 1930. Howard Hughes acquired control of TWA in 1939, after World War II led the expansion of the airline to serve Europe, the Middle East, Asia, making TWA a second unofficial flag carrier of the United States after Pan Am. Hughes gave up control in the 1960s, the new management of TWA acquired Hilton International and Century 21 in an attempt to diversify the company's business; as the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 led to a wave of airline failures, start-ups, takeovers in the United States, TWA was spun off from its holding company in 1984. Carl Icahn acquired control of TWA and took the company private in a leveraged buyout in 1988.
TWA became saddled with debt, sold its London routes, underwent Chapter 11 restructuring in 1992 and 1995, was further stressed by the explosion of TWA Flight 800 in 1996. In 2001, TWA was acquired by American Airlines. American laid off many former TWA employees in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks and closed its St. Louis hub in 2003. TWA was headquartered at one time in Kansas City and planned to make Kansas City International Airport its main domestic and international hub, but abandoned this plan in the 1970s; the airline developed its largest hub at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, its main transatlantic hub was the TWA Flight Center at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, an architectural icon designed by Eero Saarinen, completed in 1962. TWA's corporate history dates from the July 16, 1930, the forced merger of Transcontinental Air Transport, Western Air Express, Maddux Air Lines and Pittsburgh Aviation Industries Corporation to form Transcontinental & Western Air on 1 Oct. 1930.
The companies merged at the urging of Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown, looking for bigger airlines to give airmail contracts to. The airline brought high-profile aviation pioneers who would give the airline the panache of being called "The Airman's Airline". TAT had the marquee expertise of Charles Lindbergh and was offering a 48-hour combination of plane and train trip across the United States. WAE had the expertise of Jack Frye. TWA became known as "The Lindbergh Line", with the "Shortest Route Coast to Coast". On October 25, 1930, the airline offered one of the first all-plane scheduled service from coast to coast; the route took 36 hours. In summer 1931, TWA moved its headquarters from New York to Missouri. On 31 March 1931, the airline suffered after the 1931 Transcontinental & Western Air Fokker F-10 crash near Matfield Green, Kansas; the crash killed all eight including University of Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne. The cause of the crash was linked to the wooden wings; as a consequence, all of the airline's Fokker F.10s were grounded, destroyed.
TWA needed a replacement aircraft. TWA was forced to sponsor the development of a new airplane design. Specifications included the ability to fly the high altitude route between Winslow and Albuquerque, New Mexico with one engine inoperative. Other specifications included the capacity to carry 12 passengers, an 1080 mile range. On September 20, 1932, the development contract was signed with Douglas Aircraft Company and the DC-1 was delivered to TWA in December 1933, the sole example of its type; this was followed by the delivery of 32 Douglas DC-2s that started operations in May 1934 on its Columbus-Pittsburgh-Newark route. Most were phased out by 1937 as the DC-3 started service, but several DC-2s would be operational through the early years of World War II. Throughout 1934, Tommy Tomlinson set load and distance records with the DC-1. TWA used their Northrop Gamma as an "experimental Overweather Laboratory", in a desire to fly at altitudes above the weather. On 18 February 1934, Frye and Eastern Air Lines Eddie Rickenbacker, flew a DC-1 from Glendale, California, to Newark, New Jersey, setting a transcontinental record of 13 hours and 4 minutes.
On 17 April Frye was elected president. TWA started using the DC-3 on 1 June 1937; the fleet included 8 day versions. In 1934, following charges of favoritism in the contracts, the Air Mail scandal erupted, leading to the Air Mail Act of 1934, which dissolved the forced Transcontinental/Western merger and ordered the United States Army Air Service to deliver the mail. However, Transcontinental opted to retain the T&WA name. With the company facing financial hardship, Lehman Brothers and John D. Hertz took over ownership of the company; the Army fliers had a series of crashes, it was decided to privatize the delivery with the provision that no former companies could bid on the contracts. T&WA added the suffix "Inc." to its name. It was awarded 60% of its old contracts back in May 1934, won back the rest within a few years. On 29 January 1937, TWA contracted with Boeing for five Boeing 307 Stratoliners, which included a pressurized cabin. However, the TWA board refused to authorize the expenditure.
Frye approached another flying enthusiast, Howard Hughes, to buy stock in 1937. Hughes Tool Company purchased 99,293 shares at $8.25 a share, giving Hughes control, Noah Dietrich was placed on the board. Hughes
James Francis Cagney Jr. was an American actor and dancer, both on stage and in film. Known for his energetic performances, distinctive vocal style, deadpan comic timing, he won acclaim and major awards for a wide variety of performances, he is best remembered for playing multifaceted tough guys in films such as The Public Enemy, Taxi!, Angels with Dirty Faces, White Heat, finding himself typecast or limited by this reputation earlier in his career. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him eighth among its list of greatest male stars of the Golden Age of Hollywood. Orson Welles said of Cagney, " maybe the greatest actor who appeared in front of a camera". Stanley Kubrick considered him to be one of the best actors in history. In his first professional acting performance, Cagney danced costumed as a woman in the chorus line of the revue Every Sailor, in 1919, he spent several years in vaudeville as a dancer and comedian, until he got his first major acting part in 1925. He secured several other roles, receiving good notices, before landing the lead in the 1929 play Penny Arcade.
After rave reviews, Warner Bros. signed him for an initial $500-a-week, three-week contract to reprise his role. Cagney's seventh film, The Public Enemy, became one of the most influential gangster movies of the period. Notable for a famous scene in which Cagney pushes a grapefruit against Mae Clarke's face, the film thrust him into the spotlight, he became one of Hollywood's leading stars and one of Warner Bros.' Biggest contracts. In 1938, he received his first Academy Award for Best Actor nomination for his subtle portrayal of the tough guy/man-child Rocky Sullivan in Angels with Dirty Faces. In 1942, Cagney won the Oscar for his energetic portrayal of George M. Cohan in Yankee Doodle Dandy, he was Leave Me. Cagney retired from dancing in 1961 to spend time on his farm with his family, he came out of retirement 20 years for a part in the movie Ragtime to aid his recovery from a stroke. Cagney walked out on Warner Bros. several times over the course of his career, each time returning on much improved personal and artistic terms.
In 1935, he won. This was one of the first times, he worked for an independent film company for a year while the suit was being settled, establishing his own production company, Cagney Productions, in 1942 before returning to Warner four years later. In reference to Cagney's refusal to be pushed around, Jack L. Warner called him "the Professional Againster". Cagney made numerous morale-boosting troop tours before and during World War II and served as president of the Screen Actors Guild for two years. James Francis "Jimmy" Cagney was born on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City, his biographers disagree as to the actual location: either on the corner of Avenue D and 8th Street or in a top-floor apartment at 391 East 8th Street, the address that his birth certificate indicates. His father, James Francis Cagney Sr. was of Irish descent. At the time of his son's birth, he was a bartender and amateur boxer, though on Cagney's birth certificate, he is listed as a telegraphist, his mother was Carolyn Elizabeth.
Cagney was the second of seven children. He was sickly as a young child—so much so that his mother feared he would die before he could be baptized, he attributed his sickness to the poverty his family had to endure. The family moved twice while he was still young, first to East 79th Street, to East 96th Street, he was confirmed at St. Francis de Sales Roman Catholic Church in Manhattan, where he would have his funeral service; the red-haired, blue-eyed Cagney graduated from Stuyvesant High School in New York City, in 1918, attended Columbia College of Columbia University, where he intended to major in Art. He took German and joined the Student Army Training Corps but dropped out after one semester, returning home upon the death of his father during the 1918 flu pandemic. Cagney held a variety of jobs early in his life, giving all his earnings to his family: junior architect, copy boy for the New York Sun, book custodian at the New York Public Library, bellhop and night doorkeeper. While Cagney was working for the New York Public Library, he met Florence James, who helped him into an acting career.
Cagney believed in hard work stating, "It was good for me. I feel sorry for the kid, he has to come face-to-face with the realities of life without any mama or papa to do his thinking for him."He started tap dancing as a boy and was nicknamed "Cellar-Door Cagney" after his habit of dancing on slanted cellar doors. He was a good street fighter, defending his older brother Harry, a medical student, when necessary, he engaged in amateur boxing, was a runner-up for the New York state lightweight title. His coaches encouraged him to turn professional, he played semiprofessional baseball for a local team, entertained dreams of playing in the Major Leagues. His introduction to films was unusual; when visiting an aunt who lived in Brooklyn opposite Vitagraph Studios, Cagney would climb over the fence to watch the filming of John Bunny movies. He became involved in amateur dramatics, starting as a scenery boy for a Chinese pantomime at Lenox Hill Neighborhood House, one of the first settleme