A favourite or favorite was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In post-classical and early-modern Europe, among other times and places, the term was used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler, it was a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe in Spain, England and Sweden; the term is sometimes employed by writers who want to avoid terms such as "royal mistress", "friend", "companion", or "lover". Several favourites had sexual relations with the monarch, but the feelings of the monarch for the favourite ran the gamut from a simple faith in the favourite's abilities to various degrees of emotional affection and dependence, sometimes encompassed sexual infatuation; the term has an inbuilt element of disapproval and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "One who stands unduly high in the favour of a prince", citing Shakespeare: "Like favourites/ Made proud by Princes".
Favourites tended to incur the envy and loathing of the rest of the nobility, monarchs were sometimes obliged by political pressure to dismiss or execute them. Too close a relationship between monarch and favourite was seen as a breach of the natural order and hierarchy of society. Since many favourites had flamboyant "over-reaching" personalities, they led the way to their own downfall with their rash behaviour; as the opinions of the gentry and bourgeoisie grew in importance, they too strongly disliked favourites. Dislike from all classes could be intense in the case of favourites who were elevated from humble, or at least minor, backgrounds by royal favour. Titles and estates were given lavishly to favourites, who were compared to mushrooms because they sprang up overnight, from a bed of excrement; the King's favourite Piers Gaveston is a "night-grown mushrump" to his enemies in Christopher Marlowe's Edward II. Their falls could be more sudden, but after about 1650, executions tended to give way to quiet retirement.
Favourites who came from the higher nobility, such as Leicester, Lerma and Oxenstierna, were less resented and lasted longer. Successful minister-favourites usually needed networks of their own favourites and relatives to help them carry out the work of government – Richelieu had his "créatures" and Olivares his "hechuras". Oxenstierna and William Cecil, who both died in office trained their sons to succeed them; the favourite can not be distinguished from the successful royal administrator, who at the top of the tree needed the favour of the monarch, but the term is used of those who first came into contact with the monarch through the social life of the court, rather than the business of politics or administration. Figures like William Cecil and Jean-Baptiste Colbert, whose accelerated rise through the administrative ranks owed much to their personal relations with the monarch, but who did not attempt to behave like grandees of the nobility, were often successful. Elizabeth I had Cecil as Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from the time she ascended the throne in 1558 until his death 40 years later.
She had more colourful relationships with several courtiers. Only in her last decade was the position of the Cecils and son, challenged by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, when he fatally attempted a coup against the younger Cecil. Cardinal Wolsey was one figure who rose through the administrative hierarchy, but lived ostentatiously, before falling from power. In the Middle Ages in particular, many royal favourites were promoted in the church, English examples including Saints Dunstan and Thomas Becket. Cardinal Granvelle, like his father, was a trusted Habsburg minister who lived grandly, but he was not a favourite because most of his career was spent away from the monarch; some favourites came from humble backgrounds: Archibald Armstrong, jester to James I of England infuriated everyone else at court but managed to retire a wealthy man. Olivier le Daim, the barber of Louis XI, acquired a title and important military commands before he was executed on vague charges brought by nobles shortly after his master died, without the knowledge of the new king.
It has been claimed that le Daim's career was the origin of the term, as favori first appeared around the time of his death in 1484. Privado in Spanish was older, but was partly replaced by the term valido; such rises from menial positions became progressively harder.
The Shunzhi Emperor was the third emperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1644 to 1661. A committee of Manchu princes chose him to succeed his father, Hong Taiji, in September 1643, when he was five years old; the princes appointed two co-regents: Dorgon, the 14th son of the Qing dynasty's founder Nurhaci, Jirgalang, one of Nurhaci's nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan. From 1643 to 1650, political power lay in the hands of Dorgon. Under his leadership, the Qing Empire conquered most of the territory of the fallen Ming dynasty, chased Ming loyalist regimes deep into the southwestern provinces, established the basis of Qing rule over China despite unpopular policies such as the "hair cutting command" of 1645, which forced Qing subjects to shave their forehead and braid their remaining hair into a queue resembling that of the Manchus. After Dorgon's death on the last day of 1650, the young Shunzhi Emperor started to rule personally.
He tried, with mixed success, to fight corruption and to reduce the political influence of the Manchu nobility. In the 1650s, he faced a resurgence of Ming loyalist resistance, but by 1661 his armies had defeated the Qing Empire's last enemies, seafarer Koxinga and the Prince of Gui of the Southern Ming dynasty, both of whom would succumb the following year; the Shunzhi Emperor died at the age of 22 of smallpox, a contagious disease, endemic in China, but against which the Manchus had no immunity. He was succeeded by his third son Xuanye, who had survived smallpox, who reigned for sixty years under the era name "Kangxi"; because fewer documents have survived from the Shunzhi era than from eras of the Qing dynasty, the Shunzhi era is a little-known period of Qing history. "Shunzhi" was the name of this ruler's reign period in Chinese. This title had equivalents in Manchu and Mongolian because the Qing imperial family was Manchu and ruled over many Mongol tribes that helped the Qing to conquer China.
The emperor's personal name was Fulin, the posthumous name by which he was worshipped at the Imperial Ancestral Temple was Shizu. In the 1580s, when China was ruled by the Ming dynasty, a number of Jurchen tribes lived northeast of Ming territory in the region, now known as China's Northeast, or "Manchuria". In a series of campaigns from the 1580s to the 1610s, the leader of the Jianzhou Jurchens, unified most Jurchen tribes under his rule. One of his most important reforms was to integrate Jurchen clans under flags of four different colors—yellow, white and blue—each further subdivided into two to form an encompassing social and military system known as the Eight Banners. Nurhaci gave control of these Banners to his grandsons. Around 1612, Nurhaci renamed his clan Aisin Gioro, both to distinguish his family from other Gioro lines and to allude to an earlier dynasty, founded by Jurchens, the Jin dynasty that had ruled northern China from 1115 to 1234. In 1616 Nurhaci formally announced the foundation of the "Later Jin" dynasty declaring his independence from the Ming.
Over the next few years he wrested most major cities in Liaodong from Ming control. His string of victories ended in February 1626 at the siege of Ningyuan, where Ming commander Yuan Chonghuan defeated him with the help of acquired Portuguese cannon. Wounded during the battle, Nurhaci died a few months later. Nurhaci's son and successor Hong Taiji continued his father's state-building efforts: he concentrated power into his own hands, modeled the Later Jin's government institutions on Chinese ones, integrated Mongol allies and surrendered Chinese troops into the Eight Banners. In 1629 he led an incursion to the outskirts of Beijing, during which he captured Chinese craftsmen who knew how to cast Portuguese cannon. In 1635 Hong Taiji renamed the Jurchens the "Manchus", in 1636 changed the name of his polity from "Later Jin" to "Qing". After capturing the last remaining Ming cities in Liaodong, by 1643 the Qing were preparing to attack the struggling Ming dynasty, crumbling under the combined weight of financial bankruptcy, devastating epidemics, large-scale bandit uprisings fed by widespread starvation.
When Hong Taiji died on 21 September 1643 without having named a successor, the fledgling Qing state faced a serious crisis. Several contenders—namely Nurhaci's second and eldest surviving son Daišan, Nurhaci's fourteenth and fifteenth sons Dorgon and Dodo, Hong Taiji's eldest son Hooge—started to vie for the throne. With his brothers Dodo and Ajige, Dorgon controlled the Plain and Bordered White Banners, Daišan was in charge of the two Red Banners, whereas Hooge had the loyalty of his father's two Yellow Banners; the decision about who would become the new Qing emperor fell to the Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers, the Manchus' main policymaking body until the emergence of the Grand Council in the 1720s. Many Manchu princes argued that Dorgon, a proven military leader, should become the new emperor, but Dorgon refused and insisted that one of Hong Taiji's sons should succeed his father. To recognize Dorgon's authority while keeping the throne in Hong Taiji's descent line, the members of the council named Hong Taiji's ninth son, Fulin, as the new emperor, but decided that Dorgon and Jirgalang would act as the five-year-old child's regents.
Fulin was c
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Puyi or Pu Yi, of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the 12th and last emperor of the Qing dynasty. When he was a child, he reigned as the Xuantong Emperor in China and Khevt Yos Khaan in Mongolia from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the Xinhai Revolution. From 1 July to 12 July in 1917, he was restored to the throne as emperor by the warlord Zhang Xun. In 1932, after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the puppet state of Manchukuo was established by Japan, he was chosen to become "Emperor" of the new state using the era-name of Datong. In 1934, he was declared the Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo and ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, Puyi was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years, wrote his memoirs and became a titular member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress. Puyi's name is romanized in English as either "Puyi" or "Pu-yi".
This naming is in accordance with the Manchu tradition of avoiding the use of a person's clan name and given name together, but is in complete contravention of Chinese tradition, whereby the given name of a ruler was considered taboo and ineffable. However, after Puyi lost his imperial title in 1924, he was styled "Mr. Puyi" in Chinese, his clan name "Aisin Gioro" was used. Puyi adopted other names – his zi was "Yaozhi", his hao was "Haoran". Puyi is known to have used a Western given name, "Henry", chosen by him from a list of English kings given to him by his English-language teacher, Scotsman Reginald Johnston, after Puyi asked for an English name; when he ruled as Emperor of the Qing Dynasty from 1908 to 1912 and during his brief restoration in 1917, Puyi's era name was "Xuantong", so he was known as the "Xuantong Emperor" during those two periods of time. As Puyi was the last ruling Emperor of China, he is known as "The Last Emperor" in China and throughout the rest of the world; some refer to him as "The Last Emperor of the Qing Dynasty".
Due to his abdication, Puyi is known as "Xun Di" or "Fei Di". Sometimes a "Qing" is added in front of the two titles to indicate his affiliation with the Qing Dynasty; when Puyi ruled the puppet state of Manchukuo and assumed the title of Chief Executive of the new state, his era name was "Datong". As Emperor of Manchukuo from 1934 to 1945, his era name was "Kangde", so he was known as the "Kangde Emperor" during that period of time. Chosen by Empress Dowager Cixi on her deathbed, Puyi became emperor at the age of 2 years and 10 months in December 1908 after the Guangxu Emperor died on 14 November. Titled the Xuantong Emperor, Puyi's introduction to the life of an emperor began when palace officials arrived at his family residence to take him. On the evening of 13 November 1908, without any advance notice, a procession of eunuchs and guardsmen led by the palace chamberlain left the Forbidden City for the Northern Mansion to inform Prince Chun that they were taking away his three-year-old son Puyi to be the new emperor.
The toddler Puyi screamed and resisted as the officials ordered the eunuch attendants to pick him up. Puyi's parents said nothing; as Puyi cried, screaming that he did not want to leave his parents, he was forced into a palanquin that took him back to the Forbidden City. Puyi's wet nurse Wang Wen-Chao was the only person from the Northern Mansion allowed to go with him, she calmed the distraught Puyi down by allowing him to suckle one of her breasts. Upon arriving at the Forbidden City, Puyi was taken to see Cixi. Puyi wrote: I still have a dim recollection of this meeting, the shock of which left a deep impression on my memory. I remember finding myself surrounded by strangers, while before me was hung a drab curtain through which I could see an emaciated and terrifying hideous face; this was Cixi. It is said that I started to tremble uncontrollably. Cixi told someone to give me some sweets, but I threw them on the floor and yelled "I want nanny, I want nanny", to her great displeasure. "What a naughty child" she said.
"Take him away to play." His father, Prince Chun, became Prince Regent. During Puyi's coronation in the Hall of Supreme Harmony on 2 December 1908, the young emperor was carried onto the Dragon Throne by his father. Puyi was frightened by the scene before him and the deafening sounds of ceremonial drums and music, started crying, his father could do nothing except comfort him: "Don't cry, it'll be over soon." Puyi did not see Princess Consort Chun, for the next seven years. He developed a special bond with his wet
This is a Manchu name. The Guangxu Emperor, personal name Zaitian, was the 11th emperor of the Qing dynasty, the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, his reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager Cixi's influence, only from 1889 to 1898. He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, but was abruptly stopped when the empress dowager launched a coup in 1898, after which he was put under house arrest until his death, his regnal name, "Guangxu", means "glorious succession". Zaitian was the second son of Yixuan, his primary spouse Yehenara Wanzhen, a younger sister of Empress Dowager Cixi. On 12 January 1875, the Tongzhi Emperor, died without a son to succeed him. Breaking the imperial convention that a new emperor must always be of a generation after that of the previous emperor, candidates were considered from the generation of the Tongzhi Emperor. Empress Dowager Ci'an suggested choosing one of Prince Gong's sons to be the next emperor, but was overruled by her co-regent, Empress Dowager Cixi.
Instead, Cixi nominated Zaitian and the imperial clan agreed with her choice because Zaitian was younger than other adoptable children of the same generation. Zaitian was named heir and successor to his late uncle, the Xianfeng Emperor, rather than his cousin and predecessor, the Tongzhi Emperor, so as to maintain the father-son succession law, he ascended to the throne at the age of four and adopted "Guangxu" as his regnal name, therefore he is known as the "Guangxu Emperor". He was adopted by Cixi. For her part, she remained as regent under the title "Holy Mother, Empress Dowager" while her co-regent Empress Dowager Ci'an was called "Mother Empress, Empress Dowager". Beginning in 1876, the Guangxu Emperor was taught by Weng Tonghe, involved in the disastrous upbringing of the Tongzhi Emperor yet somehow managed to be exonerated of all possible charges. Weng instilled in the Guangxu Emperor a duty of filial piety toward the Empress Dowagers Cixi and Ci'an. In 1881, when the Guangxu Emperor was nine, Empress Dowager Ci'an died unexpectedly, leaving Empress Dowager Cixi as sole regent for the boy.
In Weng's diaries during those days, Guangxu was seen with swollen eyes, had poor concentration and was seeking consolation from Weng. Weng too expressed his concern that Cixi was the one, suffering from chronic ill health, not Ci'an. During this time, the imperial eunuchs abused their influence over the boy emperor; the Guangxu Emperor had reportedly begun to hold some audiences on his own as an act of necessity. In 1887, the Guangxu Emperor was old enough to begin to rule in his own right, but the previous year, several courtiers, including Prince Chun and Weng Tonghe, had petitioned Empress Dowager Cixi to postpone her retirement from the regency. Despite Cixi's agreement to remain as regent, by 1886 the Guangxu Emperor had begun to write comments on memorials to the throne. In the spring of 1887, he partook in his first field-plowing ceremony, by the end of the year he had begun to rule under Cixi's supervision. In February 1889, in preparation for Cixi's retirement, the Guangxu Emperor was married.
Much to the emperor's dislike, Cixi selected Jingfen, to be empress. She became known as Empress Longyu, she selected a pair of sisters, who became Consorts Jin and Zhen, to be the emperor's concubines. The following week, with the Guangxu Emperor married, Cixi retired from the regency. After the Guangxu Emperor began formal rule, Empress Dowager Cixi continued to influence his decisions and actions, despite residing several months of the year at the Summer Palace. Weng Tonghe observed that while the emperor attended to day-to-day state affairs, in more difficult cases the emperor and the Grand Council sought Cixi's advice. In fact, the emperor journeyed to the Summer Palace to pay his respects to his aunt and to discuss state affairs with her. In March 1891, the Guangxu Emperor received the foreign ministers to China at an audience in the "Pavilion of Purple Light", in what is now part of Zhongnanhai, something, done by the Tongzhi Emperor in 1873; that summer, under pressure from the foreign legations and in response to revolts in the Yangtze River valley that were targeting Christian missionaries, the emperor issued an edict ordering Christians to be placed under state protection.
The Guangxu Emperor, while growing up had been instilled with the importance of frugality. In 1892, he tried to implement a series of draconian measures to reduce expenditures by the Imperial Household Department, which proved to be one of his few administrative successes, but it was only a partial victory, as he had to approve higher expenditures than he would have liked to meet Cixi's needs. 1894 saw the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War. During the war though the Guangxu Emperor was nominally the sovereign ruler of the Qing Empire, officials ignored him and instead sent their memorials to Cixi for her approval. Two sets of Grand Council memoranda were created, one for the emperor and the other for the empress dowager, a practice that continued until it was rendered unnecessary by the events in the autumn of 1898. Following the Qing Empire's defeat and forced agreement to the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the Guangxu Emperor expressed his wish to abdicate; the emperor and the Qing government faced further humiliation in late 1897 when the German Empire used the murders of two priests in Shandong Province as an excuse to occupy Jiaozhou Bay, prompting a "scramble for concessions" by other foreign powers.
Following the war and the scramble for
The Jiaqing Emperor, personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China. Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km northwest of the walls of Beijing, his personal name, "Yongyan", was changed to "Yongyan" when he became the emperor. The Chinese character for yong in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒; this novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family. Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor, his mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai, a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner.
The Qianlong Emperor had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank". In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia, he made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, on the throne for 61 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the era name "Jiaqing" in February 1796, hence he is known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a Taishang Huang after his abdication. After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father.
Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates. At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most the large-scale White Lotus and Miao rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury; the Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century power. However, due in part to large outflows of silver from the country as payment for the opium smuggled into China from British India, the economy declined. Members of the Qing imperial family tried to assassinate him twice – in 1803 and in 1813; the princes involved in the attempts on his life were executed. Other members of the imperial family, numbering in the hundreds, were sent into exile; the Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt.
He changed the name instead to Việt Nam. Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming; the Great Qing Code includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses". In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity, it was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and beys; the Jiaqing Emperor granted the title Wujing Boshi to the descendants of Han Yu. On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Rehe Traveling Palace, 230 km northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court was in summer quarters; the Draft History of Qing did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke as the emperor was quite obese.
He was succeeded by his second son, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor. Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km southwest of Beijing, in the Chang mausoleum complex. Parents: Hongli, Gaozong Empress Xiaoyichun, of the Weigiya clan 貴人→令嬪→令妃→令貴妃→皇貴妃 Consorts and Issue: Empress Xiaoshurui, of the Hitara clan 嫡福晉→皇后 Second daughter Minning, second son Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank, fourth daughter Married Manibadala of the Tumed Borjigit clan in November/December 1802 Miscarriage at three months Empress Xiaoherui, of the Niohuru clan 側福晉→貴妃→皇貴妃→皇后..恭慈皇太后 Seventh daughter Miankai, Prince Dunke of the First Rank, third son Mianxin, Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank, fourth son Imperial Noble Consort Heyu, of the Liugiya clan 格格→諴妃→諴貴妃..諴禧皇貴妃 Prince Mu of the Second Rank (穆郡王.
Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong, birth name Zeng Zicheng, courtesy name Bohan, was a Chinese statesman, military general, Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty. He is best known for raising and organizing the Xiang Army to aid the Qing military in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion and restoring the stability of the Qing Empire. Along with other prominent figures such as Zuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhang of his time, Zeng set the scene for the Tongzhi Restoration, an attempt to arrest the decline of the Qing dynasty. Zeng was known for his strategic perception, administrative skill and noble personality on Confucianist practice, but for the ruthlessness of his repression of rebellions, he exemplified loyalty in an era of chaos, but is regarded as laying the foundation to the rise of modern warlordism in China. William T. Rowe describes him as the "de facto representative of Qing control in most of central and south China" during the 1850's and 60's. Born Zeng Zicheng in Xiangxiang, Hunan Province in 1811, Zeng was the grandson of Zeng Yuping, a farmer with social and political ambitions.
He was a descendant of the philosopher Zengzi, a student of Confucius. He studied in Yuelu Academy in Changsha Prefecture, where he passed the prefectural examination in 1833, only a year after his father, Zeng Linshu, he passed the provincial examination a year and by 1838, at age 27, he had passed the imperial examination, a prestigious achievement in China. He had earned the jinshi degree, the highest level in the civil service examinations, which led to his appointment to the Hanlin Academy, a body of outstanding Chinese literary scholars who performed literary tasks for the imperial court, it was at the Hanlin Academy where Zeng changed his given name to "Guofan", which sounded more prestigious. Zeng served in Beijing for more than 13 years, remained devoted to the interpretation of the Confucian classics, he moved quickly up the ranks with the aid of his teacher, Mujangga. In 1843, Zeng was appointed as the chief literary examiner in Sichuan Province. Six years he was made Senior Deputy Secretary of the Board of Rites.
When holding the office of Military Examiner, he was compelled by the death of his mother to return to Hunan Province to carry out filial mourning, supposed to last three years. Around the time, the Taiping rebels had overrun Hunan Province and captured the cities and strongholds on both shores of the Yangtze River. By a special decree, Zeng was ordered to assist the provincial governor in raising a volunteer force, and, on his own initiative, he built a fleet of war junks and multiple arsenals, with which he attacked the rebels; this force became known as the Xiang Army. In training and commanding the Xiang Army, Zeng emphasized "family ties, individual responsibility, flexible yet responsible disciple, enhanced military pay, respect for intellectuals serving in the army, a strong bond between officers and soldiers." In his first engagement with the rebels, Zeng was defeated, but his lieutenants were more successful. They recovered the provincial capital and destroyed the rebel fleet. Following up these victories of his subordinates, Zeng recaptured Wuchang and Hanyang, near Hankou, was rewarded for his success by being appointed vice-president of the Board of War.
The Xiang Army under Zeng contained some integrated Hangzhou drill groups. In 1853, other triumphs led to Zeng being made a baturu, to his being decorated with a yellow riding-jacket. Meanwhile, in his absence, the rebels retook burnt the protecting fleet; the tide turned, however, on May 1, 1854 Zeng defeated the Taiping at Xiangtan and in July at Yuezhou. Zeng succeeded in clearing the country round Poyang Lake, subsequently in ridding Jiangsu Province of the rebels. In January–February 1855 the Xiang Army sufferers a disastrous defeat at Jiujiang, leading to Zeng attempting suicide, his father died in 1857, after a brief mourning he was ordered to take supreme command in Zhejiang Province, to cooperate with the governor of Fujian Province in defence. Subsequently, the rebels were driven westwards, Zeng would have started in pursuit had he not been called on to clear Anhui Province of rebel forces. In June 1860, he was appointed Viceroy of Liangjiang and Imperial Commissioner, overseeing military affairs.
At this time, for some time he had been fortunate in having the active support of Zuo Zongtang, who at a period recovered Kashgar for the Qing Empire, of Li Hongzhang. Like all true leaders of men, Zeng knew how to reward good service, when occasion offered he appointed the former to the governorship of Zhejiang and the latter to that of Jiangsu. In 1862, he was appointed Assistant Grand Secretary of State. At this time, the Qing imperial forces, assisted by the Ever Victorious Army, had checked the progress of the Taiping Rebellion, Zeng was able to carry out a scheme which he had long formulated of besieging Tianjing, the rebel capital. While Charles George Gordon of the Ever Victorious Army was clearing the cities on the lower waters of the Yangtze River with support from Li Hongzhang, Zeng drew closer his besieging lines around the city. In July 1864, Tianjing fell into Zeng's hands, he was rewarded with the noble peerage "First Class Marquis Yiyong" and the right to wear the double-eyed peacock's feather.
He, Zuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhang were collectively called "Zeng, Zuo, Li" – the military leaders who suppressed the Taiping Rebellion. After the suppression of the rebellion, the Nian Rebellion related to