Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia
Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia was a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, a poet and playwright of some renown. He wrote under the pen name "K. R.", initials of his given name and family name, Konstantin Romanov. The fourth child of the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia and his wife Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg, KR was born in the Constantine Palace, Saint Petersburg, his eldest sister Grand Duchess Olga married King George I of the Hellenes in 1867. From his early childhood KR was more interested in letters and music than in the military upbringing required for Romanov boys; the Grand Duke was sent to serve in the Imperial Russian Navy. KR was unsatisfied, left the navy to join the elite Izmailovsky Regiment of the Imperial Guard, where he served with distinction. KR was both an artist in his own right. A talented pianist, the Grand Duke was Chairman of the Russian Musical Society, counted Tchaikovsky among his closest friends, but KR was foremost a man of letters.
He founded several Russian literary societies. He translated foreign works into Russian, was proud of his Russian translation of Hamlet. An accomplished poet and playwright, KR took great interest in the direction of his plays; the Grand Duke appeared in his last play, "King of Judea," playing the role of Joseph of Arimathea. The Grand Duke's artistic slavophilism and devotion to duty endeared him to both Alexander III and Nicholas II; the former appointed KR as President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as Chief of All Military Colleges. He was made an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1902, with reference to his chairmanship of a Swedish-Russian surveying commission. KR and his wife were among the few Romanovs on intimate terms with Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra, who found KR's devotion to his family a welcome respite from the playboy lifestyle of many of the other Grand Dukes, he was a close friend of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth and wrote a poem about her expressing his admiration when she first came to Russia to be married.
He was one of the few members of the Imperial Family to go to Moscow to attend the funeral of Elizabeth's husband, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, killed by a terrorist's bomb. As exemplary and dedicated as KR's public life was, his private turmoil was intense. Had it not been for the publication of KR's strikingly candid diaries long after his death, the world would have never known that this most prolific of Grand Dukes, the father of nine children, was tormented by his homosexual feelings; as mentioned, KR's first homosexual experiences occurred in the Imperial Guards. The Grand Duke made great efforts to repress his feelings, but despite his love for his wife, KR could not resist the temptations offered to a person of his exalted state. KR claimed in his diary that between 1893 and 1899 he remained away from the practice of what he called his "main sin." Yet by the birth of his seventh child, KR had become a steady visitor to several of the male brothels of St. Petersburg. In 1904 he wrote in his diary that he "ordered my coachman...to go, continued on foot past the bath-house.
I intended to walk straight on... But without reaching the Pevchesky Bridge, I went in, and so I have surrendered again, without much struggle, to my depraved inclinations." The cycle of resistance and capitulation to temptation is a common theme of KR's diaries. By the end of 1904, KR became somewhat attached to an attractive young man by the name of Yatsko. "I sent for Yatsko and he came this morning. I persuaded him to be candid, it was strange for me to hear him describe the familiar characteristics: he has never felt drawn to a woman, has been infatuated with men several times. I did not confess to him. Yatsko and I talked for a long time. Before leaving he kissed my face and hands, he told me that since the first time we met, his soul has been filled with rapturous feelings towards me, which grow all the time. How this reminds me of my own youth." A few days KR and Yatsko met again, a relationship developed between the two. In KR's final years, he wrote of his homosexual urges less and less, whether from having reached some arrangement with his conscience, or from the natural advance of age and ill health.
KR married in 1884 in St Petersburg Princess Elisabeth of his second cousin. Upon her marriage, Elisabeth became the Grand Duchess Elizaveta Mavrikievna, she was known within the family as "Mavra." KR was, by all accounts, devoted to his wife and children, a loving father. He and his family made their home at Pavlovsk, a suburban palace of St. Petersburg, a favorite residence of KR's great-grandfather, the Emperor Paul I; the couple would have a total of nine children: Prince John Prince Gabriel Princess Tatiana Prince Konstantin Prince Oleg Prince Igor Prince Georgy Princess Natalia Princess Vera Prince John married Princess Helen of Serbia in 1911. Princess Tatiana married a Georgian prince, that same year. KR's children were the first to fall under the new Family Law promulgated by Emperor Alexander III, it stated that henceforth, only the ch
Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia
Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia, was the fifth child and the fourth son of Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Maria Alexandrovna. Chosen for a naval career, Alexei Alexandrovich started his military training at the age of 7. By the age of 20 he had been appointed lieutenant of the Imperial Russian Navy and had visited all Russia's European military ports. In 1871, he was sent as a goodwill ambassador to the United States and Japan. In 1883 he was appointed general-admiral, he had a significant contribution in the equipment of the Russian navy with new ships and in modernizing the naval ports. However, after the Russian defeat in the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, he was relieved of his command, he died in Paris in 1908. The Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich Romanov of Russia was born in Saint Petersburg on 14 January 1850, he was the son of empress Maria Alexandrovna. He was a younger brother of Grand Duchess Alexandra Alexandrovna, Tsarevich Nikolay Alexandrovich, Alexander III of Russia, Grand Duke Vladmir Alexandrovich.
He was an older brother of Duchess Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich and Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich. Alexei was chosen for a naval career since his childhood. At the age of 7 he received the rank of midshipman; the next year Konstantin Nikolayevich Posyet was appointed as his tutor. While the winters were dedicated to theoretical studies, during the summers he trained on Russian warships of the Baltic fleet stationed in Saint Petersburg harbour. Training exposed him to various sailing ships: in 1860 the yacht Shtandart on a cruise from Petergof to Livada in 1861–1863 the yacht Zabava under the flag of Counter-Admiral Posyet in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia, in 1864 the frigate Svetlana in the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea in 1866 the frigate Oslyabya during an extensive training cruise to the Azore Islands. On 18 September 1866 Alexei was promoted to lieutenant, he continued his navy career serving as officer aboard the frigate Alexander Nevsky on a cruise in across the Mediterranean to Piraeus, where he attended the wedding of his cousin Olga Konstantinovna.
In 1868 he went on a trip to southern Russia traveling by train from Saint Petersburg to Nikolayevsk, continuing by ship down the Volga to Astrakhan. He boarded a military ship for a cruise on the Caspian Sea to Baku, [Petrovsk and to Iran, he crossed the Caucasus and reached Poti where the Alexander Nevsky was moored. From there he sailed to Constantinople and the Azore Islands On the return voyage, the frigate was wrecked off the coast of Jutland during a storm on the North Sea. Though the ship was lost, the crew except five men could safely reach the shore. In January 1870 Alexei Alexandrovich reached the age of majority according to Russian legislation; the event was marked by taking two oaths: the military one and the oath of allegiance of the Grand Dukes of the Russian Imperial House. In June 1870 Alexei started the last part of his training; this included inland navigation on a cutter with a steam engine, on the route from Saint Petersburg to Arkhangelsk through the Mariinsk Canal system and the Northern Dvina River.
After visiting the schools and industrial facilities of Arkhangelsk, he started his navigation training in arctic conditions, aboard the corvette Varyag. This cruise took him to the Solovetsky Islands, continuing through the White Sea and Barents Sea to Novaya Zemlya; the route continued to the city of Murmansk, the ports of northern Norway and Iceland. He returned to Cronstadt at the end of September. In 1869/1870, Alexei had an affair with Alexandra Zhukovskaya, daughter of poet Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky, eight years older than he was, they had a son, born on 26 November 1871. Tsar Alexander II was opposed to this relationship; some historians claim that they were morganatically married and that the marriage was annulled by the Russian Orthodox Church, according to the "Fundamental Laws of the Imperial House", this marriage was illegal. However, articles 183 and 188, which prohibited marriages without the consent of the emperor, were included in the Fundamental Laws only by the 1887 revision under Tsar Alexander III.
The rules valid in 1870 did not prohibit morganatic marriages, but excluded their offspring from the succession to the throne. There is no evidence either to the divorce. There is no evidence that Alexei requested the permission to marry; as Alexandra Zhukovskaya was not an aristocrat and, the daughter of an illegitimate son of a Russian landowner and a Turkish slave, such a marriage would have been unthinkable. Upset by his son's affair, Alexander II refused to grant Alexandra Zhukovskaya a title, which would have recognized the Grand Duke's paternity if illegitimate. Other European courts refused to grant her a title; as a solution of last resort, on 25 March 1875 Alexandra was able to secure the title of Baroness Seggiano from the Republic of San Marino, with the right to transmit the title to her son and his firstborn male descendants. It was only in 1883, that Alexander III, Alexei's elder brother, granted the Baron Seggiano the title of Count Belevsky, in 1893 approved his coat of arms.
After the official visit to Saint Petersburg of an American squadron under the command of Admiral David Farragut in 1867, a high level visit of the Russian Navy was envisaged by the Russian Government. After lengthy negotiations, it was decided that the Russian delegation would be headed by the Grand Duke; the official announcement of the visit was made on 29 June 1871 by Nikolay Karlo
Leon Benois was a Russian architect from the Benois family. He was the son of architect Nicholas Benois, the brother of artists Alexandre Benois and Albert Benois, he built the Roman Catholic cathedral of Notre-Dame in St Petersburg, the mausoleum of the Grand Dukes of Russia in the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, among many other works. Benois served as Dean of the Imperial Academy of Arts and edited the architecture magazine "Zodchiy", he gave his name to Leonardo da Vinci's painting Madonna Benois which he inherited from his father-in-law and presented to the Hermitage Museum. Painter Nadia Benois was his daughter, Sir Peter Ustinov was his grandson. Benois family Cathedral of Notre-Dame de St Petersburg Biography of Leonty Benois The Grove Dictionary of Art
Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg
The Peter and Paul Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, Russia, it is the first and oldest landmark in St. Petersburg, built between 1712 and 1733 on Hare Island along the Neva River. Both the cathedral and the fortress were built under Peter the Great and designed by Domenico Trezzini; the cathedral's bell tower is the world's tallest Orthodox bell tower. Since the belfry is not standalone, but an integral part of the main building, the cathedral is sometimes considered the highest Orthodox Church in the world. There is another Cathedral of Paul Church in St. Petersburg, located in Petergof; the current building, the first stone church in St. Petersburg, was designed by Trezzini and built between 1712 and 1733, its gold-painted spire reaches a height of 123 metres and features at its top an angel holding a cross. This angel is one of the most important symbols of St. Petersburg; the cathedral's architecture features a unique iconostasis.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church the iconostasis is a flat wall or screen with three doors through it, the central Holy Doors used only for solemn entrances, the two side doors, by which the clergy and others enter and leave the sanctuary. However, at St. Peter and Paul, the iconostasis rises to form a sort of tower over the sanctuary; the cathedral has a gift of the Flemish city of Mechelen, Flanders. The cathedral is dedicated to the patron saints of the fortress; the current cathedral is the second one on the site. The first, built soon after Peter's founding of the city, was consecrated by Archbishop Iov of Novgorod the Great in April 1704; the cathedral was the cathedral church of the city until 1859 The current cathedral church of St. Petersburg is the Kazan Cathedral on Nevsky Prospect; the cathedral was closed in 1919 and turned into a museum in 1924. It is still a museum; the cathedral houses the remains of all the Russian emperors and empresses from Peter the Great to Nicholas II and his family, who were laid to rest in July 1998.
Among the emperors and empresses buried here was Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia for 34 years. Of the post-Petrine rulers, only Peter II and Ivan VI are not buried here. Peter II is buried in the Cathedral of Michael the Archangel in the Moscow Kremlin. On September 28, 2006, 78 years after her death, Maria Feodorovna, Empress of Russia, was reinterred in the Cathedral of St Peter and Paul. Wife of Tsar Alexander III, mother of Nicholas II, Maria Feodorovna died on 13 October 1928 in exile in her native Denmark and was buried in Roskilde Cathedral in Denmark. In 2005, the governments of Denmark and Russia agreed that the empress's remains should be returned to Saint Petersburg in accordance with her wish to be interred next to her husband; the bell tower is the dominant feature of the fortress. It serves several functions as part of the structure: It is an architectural symbol, an important part of its shape and of the Peter and Paul Fortress, it is a part of the imperial tomb - the tombs are on the ground floor.
It is a lightning rod protecting the cathedral. It is a viewing platform upon which excursions meet each hour from 12:00 till 18:00, it houses a carillon upon. When renovators were cleaning the angel on the spire in 1997, they found a note in a bottle left in one of the folds of the angel's gown. In the note, renovators from 1953 apologized for, it is said that the renovators in 1997 left another message for future generations, but the contents of that message have not been revealed. When Tsar Peter the Great visited the Netherlands in 1698, he heard the perfect tuned Hemony carillons in Amsterdam and Leiden singing all 24 hours of the day, every quarter of an hour automatically. In 1717 he visited Flanders incognito and climbed the tower of the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, where he must have heard one of the two Hemony carillons in one of the towers of this cathedral, he was impressed by the sound of a carillon and wanted one like these for his new cathedral in St. Petersburg. So he ordered it in 1720 from the Netherlands.
In Amsterdam the only bellfounder in that time was Jan Albert de Grave. He was married to the widow of Claude Fremy; this Claude Fremy was a pupil of Hemony. So Jan Albert de Grave was the bellfounder who made these bells; some years he made a carillon for Potsdam. The people in St. Petersburg could only listen to this well tuned instrument for a short time. In 1756 the tower burned down after a thunderstorm. All bells were lost. In 1757, only one year after this disaster a new carillon was ordered from Holland; this time by a bell-founder in Hoorn named Johan Nicolaas Derck. He cast the bells and clockmaker Barend Oortkras from the Hague brought them to St. Petersburg to install them; when he arrived, the tower was not rebuilt yet. Oortkras stayed in St. Petersburg, but in 1764 he died in poverty b
House of Romanov
The House of Romanov was the reigning royal house of Russia from 1613 to 1917. The Romanovs achieved prominence as boyars of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Tsardom of Russia under the reigning Rurik dynasty, which became extinct upon the death of Tsar Feodor I in 1598; the Time of Troubles was caused by the resulting succession crisis, where several pretenders and imposters fought for the crown during the Polish–Muscovite War. On 21 February 1613, Michael Romanov was elected Tsar of Russia by the Zemsky Sobor, establishing the Romanovs as Russia's second reigning dynasty. Michael's grandson Peter I established the Russian Empire in 1721, transforming the country into a great power through a series of wars and reforms; the direct male line of the Romanovs ended when Elizabeth of Russia died in 1762 leading the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the German House of Oldenburg that reigned in Denmark, to ascend to the crown under Peter III. Known as the House of Romanov, descendants after Elizabeth are sometimes referred to as "Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov".
The abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on 15 March 1917 as a result of the February Revolution ended 304-years of Romanov rule, establishing the Russian Republic under the Russian Provisional Government in the lead up to the Russian Civil War. In 1918, the Tsar and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks and the 47 survivors of the House of Romanov's 65 members went into exile abroad. In 1924, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, the senior surviving male-line descendant of Alexander II of Russia by primogeniture, claimed the headship of the defunct Imperial House of Russia. Since 1991, the succession to the former Russian throne has been in dispute due to disagreements over the validity of dynasts' marriages between the lines of Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia and Prince Nicholas Romanovich Romanov, succeeded by Prince Andrew Romanov, it remains unclear whether any ukase abolished the surname of Michael Romanov after his accession to the Russian throne in 1613, although by tradition members of reigning dynasties use surnames, being known instead by dynastic titles.
From January 1762, the monarchs of the Russian Empire claimed the throne as relatives of Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, who had married Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Thus they were no longer Romanovs by patrilineage, belonging instead to the Holstein-Gottorp cadet branch of the German House of Oldenburg that reigned in Denmark; the 1944 edition of the Almanach de Gotha records the name of Russia's ruling dynasty from the time of Peter III as "Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov". However, the terms "Romanov" and "House of Romanov" occurred in official references to the Russian imperial family; the coat-of-arms of the Romanov boyars was included in legislation on the imperial dynasty, in a 1913 jubilee, Russia celebrated the "300th Anniversary of the Romanovs' rule". After the February Revolution of March 1917, a special decree of the Provisional Government of Russia granted all members of the imperial family the surname "Romanov"; the only exceptions, the morganatic descendants of the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, took the surname Il'insky.
The Romanovs share their origin with two dozen other Russian noble families. Their earliest common ancestor is one Andrei Kobyla, attested around 1347 as a boyar in the service of Semyon I of Moscow. Generations assigned to Kobyla an illustrious pedigree. An 18th-century genealogy claimed that he was the son of the Old Prussians prince Glanda Kambila, who came to Russia in the second half of the 13th century, fleeing the invading Germans. Indeed, one of the leaders of the Old Prussians rebellion of 1260–1274 against the Teutonic order was named Glande; this legendary version of the Romanov's origin is contested by a more plausible version of their descent from a boyar family from Novgorod. His actual origin may have been less spectacular. Not only is Kobyla Russian for "mare", some of his relatives had as nicknames the terms for horses and other domestic animals, thus suggesting descent from one of the royal equerries. One of Kobyla's sons, a member of the boyar Duma of Dmitri Donskoi, was nicknamed Koshka.
His descendants took the surname Koshkin changed it to Zakharin, which family split into two branches: Zakharin-Yakovlev and Zakharin-Yuriev. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the former family became known as Yakovlev, whereas grandchildren of Roman Yurievich Zakharyin-Yuriev changed their name to "Romanov". Feodor Nikitich Romanov was descended from the Rurik dynasty through the female line, his mother, Evdokiya Gorbataya-Shuyskaya, was a Rurikid princess from the Shuysky branch, daughter of Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky. The family fortunes soared when Roman's daughter, Anastasia Zakharyina, married Ivan IV, the Rurikid Grand Prince of Moscow, on 3 February 1547. Since her husband had assumed the title of tsar, which means "Caesar", on 16 January 1547, she was crowned the first tsaritsa of Russia, her mysterious death in 1560 changed Ivan's character for the worse. Suspecting the boyars of having poisoned his beloved, Tsar Ivan started a reign of terror against them. Among his children by Anastasia, the elder was murdered by the tsar in a quarrel.
Throughout Feodor's reign, the Tsar's brother-in-law, Boris Godunov, his Romanov cousins con
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum; the word derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Mausolea were, still may be, large and impressive constructions for a deceased leader or other person of importance. However, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were ranged in necropoles or along roadsides: the via Appia Antica retains the ruins of many private mausolea for miles outside Rome. However, when Christianity became dominant, mausoleums were out of use. Mausolea became popular in Europe and its colonies during the early modern and modern periods.
A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed. A mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure; this contains the body or bodies within sarcophagi or interment niches. Modern mausolea may act as columbaria with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located on private land. In the United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church; the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and cinerary urn spaces for interments in the lower level of the building. It is known as the "crypt mausoleum". In Europe, these underground vaults are sometimes called catacombs. Mausoleum of Mohammed V Bourguiba mausoleum El Alia Cemetery, Mausoleum of the Late President, Algeria; the Dr. John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in South Sudan. Mastabas dating from ancient Egypt. Agostinho Neto's Mausoleum in Angola. Mausolée du Président Mathieu Kerekou, Benin. Omar Bongo's Mausoleum in Gabon.
Léon M'ba's Memorial Mausoleum in Gabon. Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum Mausoleum of Late President Levy Mwanawasa, Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata at Embassy Park in Lusaka, Zambia. Domoni Mosque Mausoleum Indoor inside first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah's Mausoleum. Marien Ngouabi's mausoleum and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo. Mausoleum of the late president Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Kabila's mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; the pyramids of ancient Egypt and Nubian pyramids are types of mausolea. Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Egypt. Unknown Soldier Memorial Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Al Hussein Mosque, Cairo – Holy Shrine and mausoleum, purported grave of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson. Qalawun Mausoleum is the Mausoleum of Qalawun, Located in Cairo, Egypt, it was regarded by scholars as the second most beautiful medieval mausoleum to be built.
Jedars - thirteen ancient monumental Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret. Palm Grove Cemetery, Liberia. National Hall, Mausoleum of the Late President William Tubman in Monrovia, Liberia. Late President Eyadema's Family Mausoleum in Togo. Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi. Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried. Meles Zenawi's grave in Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. King Sobhuza II Memorial Park, Swaziland. Julius Nyerere's mausoleum in Tanzania. Amilcar Cabral's mausoleum in Guinea-Bissau. Mausoleum of the Late President of Kenya Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in Nairobi, Kenya. Camayanne Mausoleum and contains the tombs of Guinea national hero Samori Ture, Sekou Toure and Alfa Yaya. Nnamdi Azikiwe's Burial Site In Onitsha, Nigeria. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's tomb, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Obafemi Awolowo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Sani Abacha, Nigeria. National Heroes Acre in Harare, Zimbabwe. Taj Mahal at Agra, India Qutb Shahi Tombs at Hyderabad, India Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, India Humayun's Tomb at Delhi, India Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor biggest underground mausoleum The pyramids of ancient China are types of mausolea.
Qianling Mausoleum in China, houses the remains of Emperor Gaozong of Tang and the ruling Empress Wu Zetian, along with 17 others in auxiliary tombs. Mausoleum of Genghis Khan in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia. Thirteen Imperial Mausoleums of Ming Dynasty Emperors, Beijing Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing Fuling Tomb, Shenyang Zhao Mausoleum Eastern Qing Tombs Western Qing Tombs Tomb of Jahangir at Shahdara, near Lahore, Pakistan. Mazar-e-Quaid at Karachi, Pakistan Data Durbar at Lahore, Pakistan Mausoleum of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Bandaranaike family Estate in Horagolla Bandaranaike Samadhi, Sri Lanka Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi Kumsusan Palace of the Sun or Kim Il-sung Mausoleum, Democratic People's Republic of Korea Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, Beijing. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Nanjing. National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei. National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei. Mausoleum of Late President Lord Chiang Kai-shek, Taoyuan. Mausoleum of Late President Chiang Ching-kuo, Taoyuan.
Astana Giribangun Suharto family complex in traditional Javanese architectural style in Matesih, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Imogiri co
Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia
Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia, was a son of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, a grandson of Emperor Alexander II and a first cousin of Nicholas II, Russia’s last Tsar. Grand Duke Kirill followed a career in the Russian navy serving during twenty years in the Naval Guards, he took part in the Russo-Japanese War surviving the sinking of the battleship Petropavlovsk at Port Arthur in April 1904. In 1905, he married Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, they wed in defiance of Tsar Nicholas II prohibition. In retaliation, the Tsar stripped Kirill of his offices and honors initially banishing the couple from Russia, they had two daughters and settled in Paris before being allowed to visit Russia in 1909. In 1910 they moved to Russia. During World War I, Grand Duke Kirill was appointed Commander of the Naval Depot of the Guards in 1915 and in 1916, he achieved the rank of rear Admiral in the Imperial Navy. During the February Revolution of 1917, Kirill marched to the Tauride Palace at the head of the Naval Guards swearing allegiance to the Russian Provisional Government.
During the rule of the provisional governmental in the summer 1917, Kirill escaped to Finland where his wife gave birth to the couple's only son. In exile they lived for some years among his wife's relatives in Germany, from the late 1920s on an estate they bought in Saint-Briac. With the execution of his cousins Tsar Nicholas II and Grand Duke Michael, Kirill assumed the headship of the Imperial Family of Russia and, as next in line to the throne as the Guardian of the Throne in 1924. Kirill proclaimed himself emperor in exile in 1926, he worked for the restoration of the monarchy from exile for the rest of his life, but his claims were contested by some factions of the monarchy movement in a division that continues until today. He wrote a book of My Life in Russia's Service, published after his death, his granddaughter, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, is the current claimant to the headship of the House of Romanov. Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia was born on 12 October 1876 in Tsarskoye Selo, at his parents' country residence, the Vladimir Villa.
His father was the third son of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. His mother was née Duchess Marie Alexandrine of Mecklenburg; as a grandson in the male line to a Russian Tsar, he was titled Grand Duke, with the style Imperial Highness. Kirill's parents and sophisticated, were influential figures in Russian society. Grand Duke Vladimir was cultured and a great patrons of the arts, while Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna was a renowned hostess in the Imperial capital. Both left a big imprint in the lives of Kirill and his siblings. Grand Duke Kirill was six months old when his eldest brother, died in childhood, he had three younger siblings: Boris and Elena. The four surviving children were close to their parents, who were devoted to them. Kirill Vladimirovich grew up between his parents' residence in St Peterburg, the Vladimir Palace, their country retreat, the Vladimir Villa in Tsarkoe Selo; until he was fourteen years of age, Grand Duke Kirill was educated at home by private tutors. His education was supervised by a retired artillery officer.
He received military training and religion instruction, learned the languages spoken by the Romanovs: Russian, English and German. During breaks from his daily lessons, he trained in a gym with his brothers at the Vladimir Palace, he traveled extensively with his parents visiting many European countries, including Spain. A love for music and carpentry work remained in him for the rest of his life. From an early age, Grand Duke Kirill had a love for the sea and his parents encouraged him to follow a career in the Imperial Navy. At age fifteen, in the autumn 1891, he began his training for the naval college, he began his naval career as a midshipman on the ship Moriak in the summer of 1892. He returned to his home in Tsarkoe Selo in the winter 1892 and spent the following year studying for his examinations at the naval college. Between the summer 1893 and the autumn 1893, he was back at sea training in the ship Prince Pojarsky. After joining his father on a long trip to Spain, in the summer 1894, he joined his third training ship, the frigate Vovin.
He concluded his training on the ship Vernyl on the Baltic sea in the summer of 1895. Grand Duke Kirill's uncle, Tsar Alexander III, died on 1 November 1894 and Kirill's cousin, Nicholas II, became the new Tsar. During the coronation festivities in Moscow, Kirill fell in love with his paternal first cousin, Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, they flirted with each other at the balls and celebrations, but Victoria Melita was married to Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, the only brother of Tsarina Alexandra. After graduating from the Sea Cadet Corps and Nikolaev Naval Academy, on 1 January 1904, Kirill was promoted to Chief of Staff to the Russian Pacific Fleet in the Imperial Russian Navy. With the start of the Russo-Japanese War, he was assigned to serve as First Officer on the battleship Petropavlovsk, but the ship was blown up by a Japanese mine at Port Arthur in April 1904. Kirill escaped with his life, was invalided out of the service suffering from burns, back injuries and shell shock.
Grand Duke Kirill married his first cousin, Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 8 October 1905 without any consent from Tsar Nicholas II. Victoria's father was Alfr