Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, its 746,878 inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area. Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations, it has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945.
A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and transportation, it is the site of many European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, several cloud and fintech startups and other institutes. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe, it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013, its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.
Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe; the Römer area was rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for eve
Mainz is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 206,628 and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the Romans in the 1st Century BC during the Classical antiquity era, serving as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire and as the provincial capital of Germania Superior. Mainz became an important city in the 8th Century AD as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the capital of the Electorate of Mainz and seat of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, the Primate of Germany. Mainz is famous as the home of Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of the movable-type printing press, who in the early 1450s manufactured his first books in the city, including the Gutenberg Bible. Before the 20th century, the city was known in English as Mentz and in French as Mayence.
Mainz was damaged during World War II, with more than 30 air raids destroying about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings. Today, Mainz is a center of wine production. Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the left bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine; the population in the early 2012 was 200,957, an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5.8 million people. Mainz can be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway. Mainz is a river port city as the Rhine which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea. Mainz's history and economy are tied to its proximity to the Rhine handling much of the region's waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town.
The river provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate. After the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city; the Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area. While the Mainz legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC on the Kästrich hill, the associated vici and canabae were erected in direction to the Rhine. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine. Mainz experiences an oceanic climate; the Roman stronghold or castrum Mogontiacum, the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus as early as 13/12 BC. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier. Although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the Main, the name of Mainz is not from Main, the similarity being due to diachronic analogy.
Main is from the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum; the name appears to be Celtic and it is. However, it had become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance; the Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons, for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin magnus, used in aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus, "Alexander the Great" and Pompeius magnus, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth. Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine; the town of Mogontiacum grew up between the river. The castrum was the base of Legio XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica, XXII Primigenia, IV Macedonica, I Adiutrix, XXI Rapax, XIV Gemina, among others.
Mainz was a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica. Remains of Roman troop ships and a patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt. A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater is open to the public; the city was the provincial capital of Germania Superior, had an important funeral monument dedicated to Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from as far away as Lyon. Among the famous buildings were a bridge across the Rhine; the city was the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in 235. Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. From the last day of 405 or 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals, the Suebi, the Alans, other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine at Mainz. Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus; the way was open to the invasion of Gaul. Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, a testimony to Roman military judgemen
Prussian-Hessian Railway Company
The Royal Prussian and Grand-Ducal Hessian State Railways was a state-owned network of independent railway divisions in the German states of Prussia and Hesse in the early 20th century. It was not. On 1 April 1897, the management of the Royal Prussian State Railways took over the operations of the railways within the Grand Duchy of Hesse under the initial name "Prussian-Hessian Railway Operation and Financial Association". Ownership, sovereign rights, profits remained with the state of Hesse in accordance with a state treaty of 23 June 1896; the headquarters of the railway division was at Mainz. Hesse could influence the selection of staff for managerial posts, but engineering and operating procedures followed Prussian regulations alone. All staff wore the Prussian uniform, although the Hessians were allowed to wear a Hessian insignia in addition; the reason for this agreement was firstly the geographical situation of the state of Hesse — divided into two regions and interlocked with areas of Prussia — and secondly the aim of both states to nationalize the last big private railway company, the Hessian Ludwig Railway.
With 486,318 employees in 1907, Prussian-Hessian Railways was the largest company in the German empire. The Prussian-Hessian Railway Company was renamed following World War I to the Prussian State Railway, but was absorbed in 1920 with other German state railways into the Deutsche Reichsbahn. History of rail transport in Germany Prussian state railways M. Biermer: Die preußisch-hessische Eisenbahngemeinschaft = Sammlung nationalökonomischer Aufsätze und Vorträge in zwangloser Reihenfolge 2, Heft 8. Gießen, 1911. Großherzogliches Ministerium der Finanzen: Die hessischen Eisenbahnen in der Preußisch-Hessischen Eisenbahn-Betriebs- und Finanz-Gemeinschaft vom 1. April 1897 bis zum 31. März 1907 = Parlamentsdrucksache No. 732 for the 23rd Landtag 1905–1908 of the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Second Chamber. Darmstadt, 1908. Hager, Bernhard. "Aufsaugung durch Preußen" oder "Wohltat für Hessen"? Die preußisch-hessische Eisenbahngemeinschaft von 1896/97. In: Andreas Hedwig: "Auf eisernen Schienen, so schnell wie der Blitz".
Regionale und überregionale Aspekte der Eisenbahngeschichte. Hessian State Archives, Marburg, ISBN 978-3-88964-196-0, pp. 81–111
Grand Duchy of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine was a grand duchy in western Germany that existed from 1806 to the end of the German Empire in 1918. The grand duchy formed on the basis of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1806 as the Grand Duchy of Hesse. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, it changed its name in 1816 to distinguish itself from the Electorate of Hesse, which had formed from neighboring Hesse-Kassel. Colloquially, the grand duchy continued to be known by its former name of Hesse-Darmstadt, it joined the German Empire in 1871 and became a republic after German defeat in World War I in 1918. Hesse-Darmstadt was a member of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine during the Napoleonic Wars. Expanding during the mediatizations, Hesse-Darmstadt became an amalgamation of smaller German states, such as the Electorate of Cologne; the legal patchwork of the state culminated in a decree issued on 1 October 1806 by Louis I. The old territorial estates were abolished, which altered Hesse-Darmstadt "from a mosaic of patrimonial fragments into a centralized, absolute monarchy."
The Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt had received in 1803, was ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia during the Congress of Vienna. However, Hesse-Darmstadt was compensated with some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz; the neighboring Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel had backed Prussia against Napoleon and was absorbed into the Kingdom of Westphalia. At the Congress of Vienna, Hesse-Kassel was reestablished as the Electorate of Hesse. To distinguish the two Hessian states, the grand duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine in 1816. In 1867, the northern half of the Grand Duchy became a part of the North German Confederation, while the half of the Grand Duchy south of the Main remained outside. In 1871, it became a constituent state of the German Empire; the last Grand Duke, Ernst Ludwig, was forced from his throne at the end of World War I, the state was renamed the People's State of Hesse. After World War II, the majority of the state combined with Frankfurt am Main, the Waldeck area and the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau to form the new state of Hesse.
Excluded were the Montabaur district from Hessen-Nassau and that part of Hessen-Darmstadt on the left bank of the Rhine, which became part of the Rhineland-Palatinate state. Wimpfen—an exclave of Hessen-Darmstadt—became part of Baden-Württemberg, in the district of Sinsheim. After a plebiscite on 29 April 1951, Bad Wimpfen was transferred from Sinsheim district to Heilbronn District; this change to Heilbronn was carried out on 1 May 1952. Because of the disjointed nature of the state, it did not develop its own state railway to begin with, but set up joint railway projects with its neighbouring states: These were the: Main-Neckar Railway with Frankfurt and Baden Main-Weser Railway with Frankfurt and Kurhessen Frankfurt-Offenbach Local Railway with the Free City of FrankfurtIn addition the state encouraged numerous other projects by the owned Hessian Ludwig Railway Company. In 1876 the state founded its own company, the Grand Duchy of Hesse State Railways, which continued to expand the network until it was merged into the Prussian-Hessian Railway Company in 1897.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces: Starkenburg: Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main. Rhenish Hesse: Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna. Upper Hesse: North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg by the Free City of Frankfurt. List of rulers of Hesse Line of succession to the former Hessian throne Hessenlager Constitution of Hesse Das Großherzogtum Hessen 1806–1918 Großherzogtum Hessen 1910
History of rail transport in Germany
This article is part of the history of rail transport by country seriesThe history of rail transport in Germany can be traced back to the 16th century. The earliest form of railways, were developed in Germany in the 16th century. Modern rail history began with the opening of the steam-powered Bavarian Ludwig Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth on 7 December 1835; this had been preceded by the opening of the horse-drawn Prince William Railway on 20 September 1831. The first long-distance railway was the Leipzig-Dresden railway, completed on 7 April 1839; the forerunner of the railway in Germany, as in England, was to be found in association with the mining industry. Mine carts were used below ground for transportation using wooden rails, were steered either by a guide pin between the rails or by flanges on the wheels. A wagonway operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica; this line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. Such wagonways soon became popular in Europe. From 1787, a network of wagonways, about 30 kilometres long, was built above ground for the coal mines of the Ruhr in order to streamline the daily transportation of coal to loading quays on the River Ruhr; as elsewhere the railway network in the Ruhr was horse-drawn, was not available to the public as transport. Some of these tracks were using iron rails - hence the German term for railway, which means "iron way"; the Rauendahl Incline in Bochum and the Schlebusch-Harkort Coal Railway are examples of railways from those early days that can still be seen today. From 1827-1836, a wagonway was built in Austria and Bohemia from Budweis to Gmunden via Linz; the railways in Germany were given a significant impetus by the development of the first working locomotives in England and the opening of the first public railway, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, in 1825. In Germany before the first real railways opened, there were attempts to use locomotives for railway operations.
For example, in 1815, Johann Friedrich Krigar built a copy of the Blenkinsop steam engine at the Royal Iron Foundry, for Königshütte in Upper Silesia. This engine failed to meet expectations due to its poor performance. In the first half of the 19th century, opinions about the emerging railways in Germany varied widely. While business-minded people like Friedrich Harkort and Friedrich List saw in the railway the possibility of stimulating the economy and overcoming the patronization of little states, were starting railway construction in the 1820s and early 1830s, others feared the fumes and smoke generated by locomotives or saw their own livelihoods threatened by them; the political disunity of three dozen states and a pervasive conservatism made it difficult to build railways in the 1830s but the growing importance of the Zollverein made the construction of a coherent infrastructure a necessity. The initial impetus to build was hampered by complicated negotiations on land ownership. However, by the 1840s, trunk lines did link the major cities.
During the 1820s, the nobility favoured costly and economically inefficient canal projects over railways. In the 1830s, the growing liberal middle classes supported railways as a progressive innovation with benefits for the German people in general as well as for the shareholders in the joint stock companies that built and operated the railroads. Though private concerns such as the Nuremberg-Fürth Railway were superseded by state railway companies in the 1840s, the government companies copied many of the private companies' methods and organizational structures. Economist Friedrich List, speaking for the liberals, summed up the advantages to be derived from the development of the railway system in 1841: First, as a means of national defence, it facilitates the concentration and direction of the army. 2. It is a means to the improvement of the culture of the nation.... It brings talent and skill of every kind to market. 3. It secures the community against dearth and famine, against excessive fluctuation in the prices of the necessaries of life.
4. It promotes the spirit of the nation, as it has a tendency to destroy the Philistine spirit arising from isolation and provincial prejudice and vanity, it binds nations by ligaments, promotes an interchange of food and of commodities, thus making it feel a unit. The iron rails become a nervous system, which, on the one hand, strengthens public opinion, and, on the other hand, strengthens the power of the state for police and governmental purposes; the German middle class played a key role because the more powerful nobility favored costly and economically inefficient canal projects over railroads. In the 1830s, the assertive middle classes started to supported railways as a progressive innovation with benefits for the people in general as well as for the middle class executives and shareholders in the joint stock companies that built and operated the railroads. Private companies such as the Nuremberg-Fürth railroad were superseded by government railroad companies in the 1840s, but the management remained the same and used the previous companies' m
The Vogelsberg Railway is a single-track main line from Gießen via Alsfeld to Fulda in the German state of Hesse. The name of the Vogelsberg Railway was used for the now closed and dismantled branch line between Stockheim and Lauterbach. In contrast to today’s Vogelsberg railway the original line ran through the middle of the Vogelsberg Mountains, but today it is called the Oberwald Railway; the line is 105.9 km long. Its speed limit, since it was upgraded in 2011, is 120 km/h instead of the previous 90 km/h, it has 109 level crossings. One of the reasons for the many bends of the line is to link the many communities on the route. Secondly, many slopes are overcome during the course of the 106 kilometre route, of which only 13 km is level; the project to connect the Main-Weser Railway and the Bebra Railway had been considered since the 1860s: in 1863, the parliament of the Grand Duchy of Hesse had considered relevant plans. The licence for its construction and operation was granted on behalf of the Grand Duchy of Hesse on 4 April 1868 and the Upper Hessian Railway Company was founded as a public company, with assistance from the Frankfurt banking house, Erlanger & Söhne.
This was complemented by a treaty between the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Prussia, as the line ran through Prussian territory. The project was developed jointly with the Lahn-Kinzig Railway and implemented in the next two years; the sparsely populated areas crossed by the line and the absence of significant long-distance freight traffic meant that the Vogelsberg railway was limited to regional traffic. That meant that the line was built as a single track line, although various engineering structures were prepared for the building of a second track; the Upper Hessian Railway Company was nationalised in 1876 and its operations were taken over by the Grand Duchy of Hesse State Railways. In the course of the discussions about connections from Fulda to the new Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway that were considered in the first half of the 1970s, one option would have connected from Fulda to the new line running north via a two track grade-separated junction east of Unterbimbach on the Vogelsberg railway.
The high-speed line was built directly to Fulda station. The single track, along with the lack of crossing facilities and outdated equipment were in the past a common cause of delays, so various construction projects were planned; the Federal government made funds of €30 million for an upgrade of the line in the period from 2003 to 2007. This work was not implemented. On 10 June 2008, a meeting in Grünberg of the neighbouring municipalities and the cities of Fulda and Gießen adopted an issues paper produced by DB Netz and agreed to try to get improvements made to the Vogelsberg Railway. Among other things, the infrastructure would be improved to make it possible to offer an attractive service, despite the limited resources. From 2012, the operations of services would be put to open tender. In September 2009, the CEO of Deutsche Bahn, Rüdiger Grube announced that €24.6 million would be spent up to 2011 from the economic stimulus package on the Vogelsberg railway. Renzendorf and Wallenrod stations were abandoned under the new plan of operations.
The modernisation work started with partial line closures from 19 July to 15 August 2010 on the Alsfeld–Fulda section, continuing from 11 May to 24 October on the Mücke–Alsfeld section. From 27 December 2010 to 9 January 2011 renewal was scheduled for the Gießen–Grünberg section, including two bridges, but was not possible because of the weather conditions; this work was carried out from 16 April to 1 May 2011 together with work on the Alsfeld–Wallenrod section. From 2 to 8 May 2011 there was work on the Mücke–Alsfeld section to renew parts of the embankment; the work was completed in the summer of 2011, when in addition signals at 61 level crossings were adapted to increase the top speed to 120 km/h. In the past passenger services were provided by trains hauled by locomotives of classes 211, of 212 and 216 or by Uerdingen railbuses. Class 628 diesel multiple units operated from the late 1980s; when locomotive-hauled trains were still ran, they were hauled by class 215 or 218 locomotives, but only DMUs have run on the line since the beginning of the millennium.
Since December 2011, passenger services have been operated by the Hessische Landesbahn with LINT 41 DMUs, which replaced some of the class 628s in October 2011. Until December 2011, Regional-Express services operated on the Vogelsberg line to between Gießen and Fulda every two hours on weekdays and every four hours on Sundays. Under the December 2006 timetable some of these trains ran to Limburg via the Lahn Valley Railway. Regionalbahn services operated on the Gießen–Alsfeld and Alsfeld–Fulda sections every two hours on weekdays. Since the timetable change 2011/2012 on 11 December 2011, the Vogelsberg line has been served hourly by Regionalbahn services between Gießen and Fulda; these services are operated by the Hessische Landesbahn GmbH with LINT 41 diesel multiple units. Since the 2016/2017 timetable change on 11 December 2016, services on the Vogelsberg Railway and the subsequent Lahn Valley Railway have run as RB 45; because the track is single track and its full capacity is used by passenger trains it is hardly possible to operate special trains or freight traffic.
Freight traffic is confined to the Gießen -- Fulda -- Großenlüder sections. Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen, ed
Prussian state railways
The term Prussian state railways encompasses those railway organisations that were owned or managed by the State of Prussia. The words "state railways" are not capitalized because Prussia did not have an independent railway administration; the official name of the Prussian rail network was Königlich Preußische Staatseisenbahnen until 1896, Königlich Preußische und Großherzoglich Hessische Staatseisenbahn until the end of the First World War, Preußische Staatsbahn until its nationalization in 1920. A common mistake is the use of the abbreviation K. P. E. V. in supposed reference to a mythical "Royal Prussian Railway Administration". No such entity existed and Prussian railway cars acquired the K. P. E. V. Logo through an error originating in their Cologne division; the first Prussian railways were private concerns, beginning with the Berlin-Potsdam Railway in 1838 and, therefore known as the "Stammbahn". The state of Prussia first financed railways around 1850; these were the Royal Westphalian Railway Company and the Prussian Eastern Railway or Prussian Ostbahn.
In 1875 they funded two more important new railways: the Prussian Northern Railway or Prussian Nordbahn and the Marienfelde–Zossen–Jüterbog Military Railway. After the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, various private, commercially oriented lines were brought under Prussian control through annexation, outright purchase or the provision of financial support depending on their situation. Between 1880 and 1889 most of the private lines were nationalised thanks to Prussia's strong financial situation making it the biggest company in Germany in 1907. Prussia nationalized its railways in 1880 in an effort both to lower rates on freight service and to equalize those rates among shippers. Instead of lowering rates as far as possible, the government ran the railways as a profitmaking endeavour, the railway profits became a major source of revenue for the state; the nationalization of the railways slowed the economic development of Prussia because the state favoured the backward agricultural areas in its railway building.
Moreover, the railway surpluses substituted for the development of an adequate tax system. The individual railways acted as if they were independent operations and developed their own rolling stock; the extent of this independence is illustrated in an 1893 street plan of Berlin that shows the Silesian station and a few hundred yards apart from each other the main workshops for the Royal Berlin Division and the Royal Bromberg Division of the Ostbahn. At the end of the First World War the network of the state-owned Prussian railways had a total length of 37,500 kilometres; the history of the Prussian state railways ended in 1920 with the nationalization and absorption of the various German state railways into the Imperial Railways the Deutsche Reichsbahn. For a detailed listing see the List of Prussian locomotives and railbuses For the most part the locomotives listed in the Prussian classification system were not built under state direction, but independently procured by the individual railway companies.
In many cases they were only brought into the Prussian railway inventory when the ownership of their respective railway organisations was transferred to the state authorities. This explains their unusually high numbers with about 80 classes and variants, the overwhelming majority of which were constructed between 1877 and 1895. In 1889, Prussian standards were laid down in order that the number of classes could be reduced in the future; the division of locomotives into class variants and different designs showed a clear predominance of tank engines. These were procured in varying, large quantities some 9000 in all; that reflects a structure that consisted of unconnected branch lines for which no long-range locomotives – i.e. tender locomotives – had to be built. In terms of pure numbers, goods locomotives dominated, representing some 12,000 out of a total fleet of around 30,000 in Prussian state ownership. According to Hütter and Pieper the original classification system for Prussian locomotives was drawn from the Prussian Eastern Railway.
Under that, the locomotives only had running numbers without class designation. From the locomotive's running number however its purpose could be deduced based on the following allocation of numbers: Because each railway division numbered its locomotives independently using this scheme, there was a locomotive number 120, for example everywhere; as a result, the name of the division was used with the number in order to distinguish them. The full designation for a locomotive with the number'120' went something like "Hannover 120" or "Cöln linksrheinisch 120"; however it soon became evident that the numbering structure was too limited, because over time more locomotives entered service than its sequence of numbers had allowed for. In addition, new types of engine were produced, for which no numbers had been allocated, for example four-couplers; this resulted in locomotives being allocated unused numbers outside of their designated sequence. This all led to the introduction of a new system in 1906.
For express train, passenger train, goods train and tank locomotives