Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California and it is one of the worlds oldest film studios. In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, over the next thirty-nine years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3,2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol MGM, is not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios, the studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and a film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up production, as well as keeping production going at UA.
It incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production, the studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt, MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the major creditor. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australias Seven Network in 1996, the debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGMs ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem and he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loews Theatres chain. With Loews lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters.
Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17,1924, Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production. MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years, in 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loews passed to Nicholas Schenck, in 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew familys holdings with Schencks assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision, Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds
Asked how to pronounce his name, he told The Literary Digest, In English, hersholt, in Danish, hairshult. Of his total credits,75 were silent films and 65 were sound films, Hersholt was born in Copenhagen, the son of Claire and Henry Hersholt, actors who worked with the Danish Folk Theatre. Hersholt toured Europe performing with his family when he was young and he graduated from the Copenhagen Art School. His first two films were made in Germany in 1906 and he emigrated to the US in 1913, and the remainder of his movies were made in America. Hersholts last role was in the 1955 movie Run for Cover, Hersholt wanted to do the role on radio, but could not get the rights. With the opening music of Rainbow on the River, Dr. Christian was introduced on CBS on 7 November 1937 on The Vaseline Program, or Dr. Christians Office. The small-town physicians good humor, innate common sense, and scientific training helped drive off a series of villainous types who tried to interfere with the lifestyle of Rivers End.
Various spin-offs were produced, as Hersholt co-wrote a Dr. Christian novel and made a series of six family films as Christian from 1939 to 1941, for instance Dr. Christian Meets the Women in 1940. In 1956, his Dr. Christian character made the transition to television, scripted by Gene Roddenberry, from the 30s through the 50s, Neil Reagan, brother of Ronald Reagan, directed the radio series Dr. Christian, starring Jean Hersholt. In 1939, Hersholt helped form the Motion Picture Relief Fund to support industry employees with medical care when they were down on their luck, hersholts large collection of Hans Christian Andersen books is now in the Library of Congress. He translated over 160 of Andersens fairy tales into the English language and these were published in 1949 in six volumes as The Complete Andersen, this work is. Rated as the translation, being one of the best in English. Hersholt was appointed a knight of the Order of the Dannebrog in 1948, Hersholt was married to his wife, Via, in 1914.
He was the paternal half-uncle of the late actor Leslie Nielsen, Hersholt died of cancer in Hollywood, and is interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. His grave is marked with a statue of Klods-Hans, a Hans Christian Andersen character who left home to find his way in the world — much as Hersholt himself had done. He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6501 Hollywood Boulevard for his work in motion pictures, Jean Hersholt at the Internet Movie Database Jean Hersholt, The Complete Andersen Jerry Haendiges Vintage Radio Logs, Dr. Christian Free OTR, Dr
Hedwig Baum was an Austrian writer. She is known for the novel Menschen im Hotel, one of her first international successes and it was made into a 1932 film and a 1989 broadway musical. Baum was born in Vienna into a Jewish family and her childhood was difficult, her father, was a bank clerk who died when she was about 12, and her mother Mathilde suffered from mental illness. She began her career as a musician playing the harp. She studied at the Vienna Conservatory and played in the Vienna Concert Society and she went on to perform in Germany in Kiel and Mannheim, in the years 1916–1923. She worked as a journalist for the magazine Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung and her first, short-lived marriage, in 1914, was to Max Prels, an Austrian journalist who introduced her to the Viennese cultural scene, some of her first short stories were published under his name. They divorced, and in 1916, she married Richard Lert and they had two sons and Peter. During World War I she worked for a time as a nurse.
Baum took up boxing in the late 1920s and she trained with Turkish prizefighter Sabri Mahir at his Studio for Boxing and Physical Culture in Berlin. ”Positioning herself as a “New Woman, ” she asserted her independence in the traditionally male domain of boxing and challenged old gender categories. She writes that “Sabri put one limitation on women – no sparring in the ring, no black eyes, no bloody noses. Punching the ball was okay, though, to develop a pretty mean straight left, a quick one-two and she credited her strong work ethic to the skills instilled in Mahir’s studio. Baum began writing in her teens but did not turn to writing professionally until after the birth of her first son and her first book, Frühe Schatten, Die Geschichte einer Kindheit, was published when she was 31. Thereafter she published a new novel every year, with a career total of more than 50 books. Helene Willfüer, was her first major success, selling over 100,000 copies. Baum is considered one of the first modern bestselling authors, and her protagonists were often strong, independent women caught up in turbulent times.
Baum is most famous for her 1929 novel Menschen im Hotel and it was made into a stage play in Berlin in 1929, directed by Max Reinhardt, and an Academy Award winning film, Grand Hotel, in 1932. Baum emigrated to the United States with her family after being invited to write the screenplay for this film and she settled in the Los Angeles area and worked as a screenwriter for ten years, with moderate success. With the rise of National Socialism in Germany, her works were denigrated as sensationalist and amoral
Rafaela Ottiano was an Italian-born American stage and film actress. Born in Venice, she emigrated with her parents to the United States, Ottiano established herself as a stage actress in Europe before arriving in Hollywood in 1924 and appearing in American motion pictures. She appeared on Broadway in Sweeney Todd, the Mae West play Diamond Lil, Ottiano reprised her role as Rita when the play was adapted for the movie She Done Him Wrong, directed by Lowell Sherman. During her career in film, she appeared in approximately 45 motion pictures, opposite such actors as Barbara Stanwyck, Conrad Nagel, Peter Lorre, Zasu Pitts, Ottiano lived in the Times Square area during the Prohibition Era and never married. She died in 1942, in the Boston home of her late parents and she is buried at St. Michaels Cemetery in the Roslindale section of Boston, Massachusetts. Rafaela Ottiano at the Internet Movie Database Rafaela Ottiano at the Internet Broadway Database Rafaela Ottiano, The Venetian who Played the Villainess
Irving Grant Thalberg was an American film producer during the early years of motion pictures. He was called The Boy Wonder for his youth, innate commercial instincts, Thalberg had little interest in films as an art form, he notoriously remarked that filmmakers are like servant girls, they need a good slap on the backside now and then. He was born in Brooklyn, New York, and as a child was afflicted with a heart disease that doctors said would kill him before he reached the age of thirty. After graduating from school he took night classes in typing. Among the films he produced was The Hunchback of Notre Dame and he partnered with Louis B. Mayers studio and, after it merged with two studios, helped create Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. He was made head of production of MGM in 1925, at the age of twenty-six, and after three years MGM became the most successful studio in Hollywood as a result of his supervision. During his twelve years with MGM, until his death at age 37, he produced four hundred films, most of which bore his imprint.
Among those innovations were story conferences with writers, sneak previews to gain early feedback, in addition, he introduced horror films to audiences and coauthored the “Production Code, ” guidelines for morality followed by all studios. During the 1920s and 1930s, he synthesized and merged the world of stage drama, Thalberg created numerous new stars and groomed their screen images. He had the ability to combine quality with commercial success, and was credited with bringing his artistic aspirations in line with the demands of audiences. After his death, Hollywoods producers declared him to have been, despite his young age, President Roosevelt wrote, The world of art is poorer with the passing of Irving Thalberg. His high ideals and imagination went into the production of his masterpieces, the Irving G. Thalberg was born in Brooklyn, to German-Jewish immigrant parents and Henrietta. Shortly after birth, he was diagnosed with blue baby syndrome, the prognosis from the family doctor, and from specialists years later, was that he would possibly live to age twenty, or at most, age thirty.
During his high school years in Brooklyn, he began having attacks of chest pains and this affected his ability to study, though until that time he was a good student. When he was 17, he contracted fever, and was confined to bed for a year. His mother, Henrietta, to prevent him falling too far behind other students, brought him homework from school and she hoped that the schoolwork and reading would distract him from the tantalizing sounds of children playing outside his window. With little to him, he read books as a main activity
John Barrymore was an American actor on stage and radio. After a success as Hamlet in London in 1925, Barrymore left the stage for 14 years, in the silent film era, he was well received in such pictures as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Sherlock Holmes and The Sea Beast. During this period, he gained his nickname, the Great Profile and his stage-trained voice proved an asset when sound films were introduced, and three of his works, Grand Hotel, Twentieth Century and Midnight have been inducted into the National Film Registry. Barrymores personal life has been the subject of attention before. He struggled with alcohol abuse from the age of 14, was married and divorced four times, Much of his work involved self-parody and the portrayal of drunken has-beens. His obituary in The Washington Post observed that with the passing of the years – and as his life became more public – he became, despite his genius in the theater. Barrymore was born John Sidney Blyth in Philadelphia, and was known by family, although the Barrymore family bible puts his date of birth as February 15,1882, his birth certificate shows February 14.
He was the youngest of three children and his siblings were Lionel, and Ethel. Barrymores mother, Georgie Drew Barrymore, was born into a prominent theatrical family, Barrymores maternal grandparents were Louisa Lane Drew, a well-known 19th-century American actress and the manager of the Arch Street Theatre, and John Drew, an actor whose specialty was comedy. Barrymores maternal uncles were two more thespians, John Drew, Jr. and Sidney, Much of Barrymores early life was unsettled. In October 1882, the family toured in the US for a season with Polish actress Helena Modjeska, the following year his parents toured again with Modjeska but left the children behind. Modjeska was influential in the family, and she insisted that all three children be baptized into the Catholic Church, in 1884 the family traveled to London as part of Augustin Dalys theatrical company, returning to the US two years later. As a child, Barrymore was sometimes badly behaved, and he was sent away to schools in an attempt to instill discipline, the strategy was not always successful, and he attended elementary schools in four states.
He was sent first to the annex of the Convent of Notre Dame in Philadelphia. I wanted to be an artist and he was expelled from the school in 1891 and was sent to Seton Hall Preparatory School in New Jersey, where Lionel was already studying. Barrymore was unhappy at Seton and was withdrawn, after which he attended several public schools in New York. In 1892, his grandmother Louisa Drews business began to suffer, the loss of their mothers income prompted both Ethel and Lionel to seek work as professional actors. Barrymores father was absent from the family home while on tour, and when he returned he would spend time at The Lambs
Greta Garbo, was a Swedish-born American film actress during the 1920s and 1930s. Garbo was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actress and received an Academy Honorary Award in 1954 for her luminous, Garbo launched her career with a secondary role in the 1924 Swedish film The Saga of Gosta Berling. Her performance caught the attention of Louis B, chief executive of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, who brought her to Hollywood in 1925. She immediately stirred interest with her first silent film, released in 1926, a later, her performance in Flesh. Garbos first talking film was Anna Christie, MGM marketers enticed the public with the catch-phrase Garbo talks. That same year she starred in Romance, for her performances in these films she received the first of three Academy Award nominations for Best Actress. In 1932, her popularity allowed her to dictate the terms of her contract and her success continued in films such as Mata Hari and Grand Hotel. Many critics and film historians consider her performance as the doomed courtesan Marguerite Gautier in Camille to be her finest, the role gained her a second Academy Award nomination.
Garbos career soon declined and she was one of the many stars labeled Box Office Poison in 1938, from on, Garbo declined all opportunities to return to the screen. Shunning publicity, she began a life, and neither married nor had children. Greta Lovisa Gustafsson was born in Södermalm, Stockholm and she was the third and youngest child of Anna Lovisa —a housewife who worked at a jam factory—and Karl Alfred Gustafsson, a laborer. Garbo had a brother, Sven Alfred, and an older sister. Her parents met in Stockholm where her father visited from Frinnaryd and he moved to Stockholm to become independent and worked in various odd jobs—street cleaner, factory worker and butchers assistant. He married Anna, who had moved from Högsby. The Gustafssons were impoverished and lived in a three-bedroom cold-water flat at Blekingegatan No.32 and they brought up their three children in a working class district regarded as the citys slum. Garbo would recall, It was eternally grey—those long winters nights and my father would be sitting in a corner, scribbling figures on a newspaper.
On the other side of the room my mother is repairing ragged old clothes and we children would be talking in very low voices, or just sitting silently. We were filled with anxiety, as if there were danger in the air, such evenings are unforgettable for a sensitive girl
Ballet /ˈbæleɪ/ is a type of performance dance that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread, highly technical form of dance with its own based on French terminology. It has been influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres. Becoming a ballet dancer requires years of training, Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have historically incorporated their own cultures to evolve the art. Ballet may refer to a dance work, which consists of the choreography. A well-known example of this is The Nutcracker, a ballet that was originally choreographed by Marius Petipa. Ballets are choreographed and performed by trained artists, the word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th and 16th centuries before being spread from Italy to France by an Italian aristocrat, Catherine de Medici, in France, ballet developed even further under her aristocratic influence.
The dancers in these early court ballets were mostly noble amateurs, Ballets in this period were lengthy and elaborate and often served a political purpose. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers and restricted freedom of movement. The ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides, French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Known as the Sun King, Louis symbolized the brilliance of France, in 1661 Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse to establish standards and certify dance instructors. In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, Lully is considered the most important composer of music for ballets de cour and instrumental to the development of the form. Ballet went into decline in France after 1830, though it continued to develop in Denmark, the arrival in Europe on the eve of First World War of the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev, revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era.
The Russian choreographer Michel Fokine challenged tradition and called for reforms that reinvigorated ballet as an art form, in the 20th century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, and subgenres of ballet have evolved. In the United States, choreographer George Balanchine developed what is now known as neoclassical ballet, other developments include contemporary ballet and post-structural ballet. Also in the century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance. Stylistic variations have emerged and evolved since the Italian Renaissance, classical variations are primarily associated with geographic origin
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Tully Marshall was an American character actor with nearly a quarter century of theatrical experience behind before he made his first film appearance in 1914. Marshall was born William Phillips in Nevada City, California and he attended private schools and Santa Clara College, from which he graduated with an engineering degree. Marshall began acting on the stage at 19, appearing in Saratoga at the Winter Garden in San Francisco on March 8,1883 and he played a wide variety of roles on Broadway from 1887. His Broadway credits include The Clever Ones, for several years, Marshall played with a variety of stock theater troupes, including both acting and being stage manager for E. H. Sotherns company. In 1909, appearing in Clyde Fitchs drama The City, he was the first actor to say Goddamn on Broadway, in 1914, Marshall arrived in Hollywood. His screen debut was in Paid in Full, by the time D. W. Griffith cast him as the High Priest of Bel in Intolerance, he had already appeared in a number of silent films.
His career continued to thrive during the era and he remained busy for the remaining three decades of his life. He played a vast array of drunken trail scouts, lovable grandpas, unforgiving fathers, sinister attorneys, Marshall was married to screenwriter and playwright Marion Fairfax. Marshall died on March 10,1943, age 78, after an attack at his home in Encino. His grave is located in Hollywood Forever Cemetery, Tully Marshall at the Internet Broadway Database Tully Marshall at the Internet Movie Database Literature on Tully Marshall
Robert McWade, was an American stage and film actor. From 1903 to 1927, he appeared in at least 38 Broadway productions, his last being The Devil In The Cheese, with Bela Lugosi, McWade appeared in 83 films between 1924 and 1938, for example 42nd Street with Dick Powell and Ruby Keeler. His father was notable stage actor Robert McWade Sr. and his brother was character actor Edward McWade. He was born in Buffalo, New York and died in Culver City, Robert McWade at the Internet Movie Database Robert McWade at the Internet Broadway Database