House of the Temple
The House of the Temple is a Masonic temple in Washington, D. C. United States that serves as the headquarters of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A. Designed by John Russell Pope, it stands at 1733 16th Street, N. W. in the Dupont Circle neighborhood, about one mile directly north of the White House. The full name of the Supreme Council is "The Supreme Council of the Inspectors General Knights Commander of the House of the Temple of Solomon of the Thirty-third degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America." It was modeled after the tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus. It contains a museum devoted to Albert Pike, who rewrote a number of the Scottish Rite rituals and headed its Supreme Council from 1859 until his death in 1891, whose remains are buried in the House of the Temple. On May 31, 1911, 110 years after the founding of the Supreme Council, Grand Commander James D. Richardson broke ground on the spot where the House of the Temple now stands in Washington, D.
C. Grand Master J. Claude Keiper, of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, laid the cornerstone in the northeast corner on October 18, 1911; the temple was designed by architect John Russell Pope, who modeled it after the tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The building was dedicated four years on October 18, 1915; the building's design was praised by contemporary architects, it won Pope the Gold Medal of the Architectural League of New York in 1917. In his 1920 book L'Architecture aux Etatis-Unis, French architect Jacques Gréber described it as "a monument of remarkable sumptuousness... the ensemble is an admirable study of antique architecture stamped with a powerful dignity." Fiske Kimball's 1928 book American Architecture describes it as "an example of the triumph of classical form in America". In the 1920s, a panel of architects named it "one of the three best public buildings" in the United States, along with the Nebraska State Capitol and the Pan American Union Building in Washington, D.
C. In 1932, it was ranked as one of the ten top buildings in the country in a poll of federal government architects. Confederate general and former Sovereign Grand Commander Albert Pike was the author of an 1871 book called Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, a book that describes in detail the 33 degrees of Scottish Rite Freemasonry, the stories and teachings associated with each rank, the rituals connected to each rank, other lodge proceedings. In 1944, the remains of Albert Pike were removed from Oak Hill Cemetery in the Georgetown section of Washington, D. C. and placed in the House of the Temple. The remains of Past Grand Commander John Henry Cowles were entombed in the temple in 1952, after his 31-year reign as Grand Commander; the Temple holds one of the largest collections of materials related to Scottish poet and Freemason Robert Burns in its library, the first public library in Washington, D. C; the House of the Temple is designated as a contributing property to the Sixteenth Street Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
From 1990 to 2011, the temple hosted a community garden on its grounds. The Temple Garden occupied about 0.25-acre, divided into about 70 small plots worked by nearby residents. In fall 2011, the Temple closed the garden in order to use the space to stage construction equipment for a rehabilitation project. In the 2009 novel The Lost Symbol by Dan Brown, the building is the setting for several key scenes. List of Masonic buildings List of museums in Washington, D. C. National Museum of Women in the Arts, a nearby building, a Masonic temple Julius Lansburgh Furniture Co. Inc. an office building, a Masonic temple Supreme Council, Scottish Rite official website House of the Temple, virtual tour "Inside the House of the Temple", photo gallery by U. S. News & World Report 12 photos Smithsonian Magazine
Prince Hall was an African American noted as an abolitionist for his leadership in the free black community in Boston and as the founder of Prince Hall Freemasonry. He was active in the back-to-Africa movement. Hall tried to gain New England's enslaved and free blacks a place in Freemasonry and the military, which were some of the most crucial spheres of society in his time. Hall is considered the founder of "Black Freemasonry" in the United States, known today as Prince Hall Freemasonry. Hall formed the African Grand Lodge of North America. Prince Hall was unanimously elected its Grand Master and served until his death in 1807. Steve Gladstone, author of Freedom Trail Boston, states that Prince Hall—known for his role in creating Black Freemasonry, championing equal education rights, fighting slavery—"was one of the most influential free black leaders in the late 1700s."There is confusion about his year of birth, place of birth and marriages–at least due to the multiple number of "Prince Halls" during this time period.
Prince Hall was born between 1735 and 1738. His place of birth and parents are unclear. Prince Hall mentioned in his writings that New England was his homeland, so there is a possibility he was born in England; the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in its Proceedings of 1906, opted for 1738, relying on a letter from Reverend Jeremy Belknap, a founder of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Prince Hall's birthday is traditionally celebrated on September 14. Hall's early years are unclear. Historian Charles H. Wesley theorized that by age 11 Prince Hall was enslaved to Boston tanner William Hall, by 1770 was a free, literate man and had been always accounted as a free man, it was through William Hall that Prince learned how to dress leather. Inside Prince Hall author and historian David L. Gray states that he was unable to find an official historical record of the manumission. Hall, identified as able to read and write, may have been self-taught or, like other enslaved people and free blacks in New England, he may have had assistance.
Hall joined the Congregational Church in 1762 at 27 years of age. He married an enslaved woman named Sarah Ritchie who died in 1769. Hall married Flora Gibbs of Gloucester in 1770. David Gray states. An article about Prince for Africans in America by PBS states that Prince Hall married a woman named Delia, a servant outside William Hall's household, had a son named Primus in 1756. In his research into the life of Prince Hall and the origin of Prince Hall Freemasonry, Inside Prince Hall, author David L. Gray found that there is no record of a marriage of Prince Hall to Delia, nor record of a son, Primus. In Boston, Hall worked as a peddler and leatherworker, owning his own leather shop. In April 1777, he created five leather drumheads for an artillery regiment of Boston. Hall was a homeowner who paid taxes. Hall encouraged freed blacks to serve the American colonial military, he believed that if blacks were involved in the founding of the new nation, it would aid in the attainment of freedom for all blacks.
Hall proposed. He and fellow supporters petition compared Britain's colonial rule with the enslavement of blacks, their proposal was declined. England issued a proclamation. Once the British Army filled its ranks with black troops, the Continental Army reversed its decision and allowed blacks into the military, it is believed, but not certain, that Hall was one of the six "Prince Halls" from Massachusetts to serve during the war. Having served during the Revolutionary War, many African Americans expected, but did not receive, racial equality when the war ended. With the intention of improving the lives of fellow African Americans, Prince Hall collaborated with others to propose legislation for equal rights, he hosted community events, such as educational forums and theatre events to improve the lives of black people. Many of the original members of the African Masonic Lodge had served during the Revolutionary War. Prince Hall was interested in the Masonic fraternity because Freemasonry was founded upon ideals of liberty and peace.
Prior to the American Revolutionary War, Prince Hall and fourteen other free black men petitioned for admittance to the white Boston St. John's Lodge, they were turned down. Having been rejected by colonial Freemasonry, Hall and 15 others sought and were initiated into Masonry by members of Lodge No. 441 of the Grand Lodge of Ireland on March 6, 1775. The Lodge was attached to the British forces stationed in Boston. Hall and other freedmen founded African Lodge No. 1 and he was named Grand Master. The black Masons had limited power. Unable to create a charter, they applied to the Grand Lodge of England; the grand master of the Mother Grand Lodge of England, H. R. H; the Duke of Cumberland, issued a charter for the African Lodge No. 1 renamed African Lodge No. 459 September 29, 1784. The lodge was the country's first African Masonic lodge. Due to the African Lodge's popularity and Prince Hall's leadership, the Grand Lodge of England made Hall a Provincial Grand Master on January 27, 1791, his responsibilities included reporting on the condition of lodges in the Boston area.
Six years on March 22, 1797 Prince Hall organized a lodge in Philadelphia, called African Lodge #4
Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition
The Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition was the name of an antisemitic exhibition, opened on 22 October 1941 during World War II in Belgrade, the capital of the Nazi Germany-established Militärverwaltung in occupied Serbia. Financed by the Germans and opened with the support of collaborationist leader Milan Nedić, it featured an estimated 200,000 brochures, 108,000 copies of nine different types of envelopes, 100,000 flyers, 60,000 copies of twenty different posters, 176 different propaganda films, seen during The Eternal Jew exhibitions in Munich and Vienna in 1937. Despite nominally being anti-Masonic, its purpose was to promote antisemitic ideas and intensify hatred of Jews. Certain displays were intended to dehumanize the Jewish people and justify their extermination by the Germans. Others resembled anti-Jewish propaganda from the period of the Russian Empire and repeated the claims put forward in the book The Protocols of the Elders of Zion; the exhibition was organized by former members of the fascist movement known as Zbor and sought to expose an alleged Judeo-Masonic/Communist conspiracy for world domination through several displays featuring antisemitic propaganda.
Four stamps commemorating the exhibition were issued by Serbian collaborationist authorities in January 1942, depicting Judaism as being the source of all evil in the world and portraying a "strong and victorious Serbia triumphing over the plot of world domination." An estimated 80,000 people, including collaborationist leader Milan Nedić and some of his ministers, visited the exhibition prior to its closure on 19 January 1942. On 6 April 1941, Axis forces invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Poorly equipped and poorly trained, the Royal Yugoslav Army was defeated; the country was dismembered, with the Wehrmacht establishing the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia under a government of military occupation. The territory included most of Serbia proper, with the addition of the northern part of Kosovo, the Banat, it was the only area of occupied Yugoslavia. This was done to exploit the key rail and riverine transport routes that passed through it, because of its valuable resources non-ferrous metals.
The Military Commander in Serbia appointed Serbian puppet governments to "carry on administrative chores under German direction and supervision". The Germans promoted the fascist Yugoslav National Movement, led by Dimitrije Ljotić. Meanwhile, the extreme Croat nationalist and fascist Ante Pavelić, in exile in Benito Mussolini's Italy, was appointed Poglavnik of an Ustaše-led Croatian state – the Independent State of Croatia; the NDH combined all of modern-day Croatia, all of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of modern-day Serbia into an "Italian-German quasi-protectorate." NDH authorities, led by the Ustaše militia, implemented genocidal policies against the Serb and Romani population living within the borders of the new state. As a result, two resistance movements emerged in Yugoslavia – the Serb royalist Chetniks, led by Colonel Draža Mihailović, the multi-ethnic, Communist Yugoslav Partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito. On 29 August 1941, the Germans appointed the Government of National Salvation under General Milan Nedić, to replace the short-lived Commissioner Administration.
Nedić, a pre-war politician, believed since the defeat of France in the 1940 that the Germans would emerge as the winners in World War II and sought to protect the Serbian people from German retaliation by cooperating with the Axis. Resistance to the Germans emerged and caused the German High Command to declare that a hundred Serbs would be executed for every German soldier killed and fifty Serbs would be executed for every German soldier wounded. By October 1941, the Germans executed more than 25,000 Serbs in various revenge killings throughout the occupied territory. Upon capturing Belgrade in April, the Germans ordered the city's 12,000 Jews to report themselves to the occupational authorities. Laws were passed which prohibited Jews from various activities in the occupied territory, ranging from going to restaurants to riding streetcars. Jews were ordered to wear identifying armbands; some Serbs accused the Jews of being behind the Yugoslav coup d'état which resulted in the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia and Nedić went so far as to call the Partisans a "criminal Jewish gang."
The Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition opened in Belgrade on 22 October 1941 at 8 Ilija Garašanin Street. The Belgrade exhibit was organized by former members of Zbor and sought to expose an alleged Judeo-Masonic/Communist conspiracy for world domination through several displays featuring antisemitic propaganda, it was opened with Nedić's support. Despite nominally being anti-Masonic, its purpose was to promote antisemitic ideas and intensify hatred of Jews. Certain displays were intended to dehumanize the Jewish people and justify their extermination by the Germans. Others resembled anti-Jewish propaganda from the period of the Russian Empire and repeated the claims put forward in the book The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Besides the exhibits themselves, large amounts of propaganda material were prepared. An estimated 200,000 brochures, 108,000 copies of nine different types of envelopes, 100,000 flyers, 60,000 copies of twenty different posters, 176 propaganda films and four postage stamps designed specially for the occasion were presented to visitors.
Detroit Masonic Temple
The Detroit Masonic Temple is the world's largest Masonic Temple. Located in the Cass Corridor of Detroit, Michigan, at 500 Temple Street, the building serves as a home to various masonic organizations including the York Rite Sovereign College of North America; the building contains a variety of public spaces including three theaters, three ballrooms and banquet halls, a 160 by 100 feet clear-span drill hall. Recreational facilities include a swimming pool, handball court, bowling alley, a pool hall; the building includes numerous lodge rooms and dining spaces, as well as a hotel section. Although the hotel rooms are available to any noble of the mystic shrine or blue lodge mason, none is in usable condition. Architect George D. Mason designed the whole structure as well as the Masonic Temple Theatre, a venue for concerts, Broadway shows, other special events in the Detroit Theater District, it contains one of the largest in the country. The Detroit Masonic Temple was designed in the neo-gothic architectural style, using a great deal of limestone.
The ritual building features stands 210 feet tall, with 1,037 rooms. It dominates the skyline in an area known as Cass Corridor, across Temple Street from Cass Park, Cass Technical High School, it is within walking distance of the built Little Caesars Arena as well as the MotorCity Casino Hotel. The Masonic Temple Association was incorporated in Detroit in 1894, it moved into its first temple, on Lafayette Boulevard at First Street, in 1896. Outgrowing these quarters, the Association purchased land on Bagg Street to build a new temple that would include a public theater. Fund-raising for construction of the building raised $2.5 million, ground-breaking took place on Thanksgiving Day, 1920. The cornerstone was placed on September 19, 1922, using the same trowel that George Washington had used to set the cornerstone of the United States Capitol in Washington D. C.. The building was dedicated on Thanksgiving Day, 1926; the horseshoe-shaped auditorium had a capacity of 5,000. Due to poor sight lines along the sides of the stage, nearly 600 seats were removed, reducing maximum seating to 4,404.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, is part of the Cass Park Historic District, established in 2005. In April 2013, the building was reported to be in foreclosure over $152,000 in back taxes owed to Wayne County; the debt was paid off in May 2013, in June 2013, it was revealed that $142,000 of the bill was footed by singer-songwriter Jack White, a Detroit native known for his work with The White Stripes. He wanted to help the temple in its time of need as they had helped his mother in a time of need: the temple gave her a job as an usher in the theater when she was struggling to find work. In response, the Detroit Masonic Temple Association renamed its Scottish Rite cathedral the Jack White Theater; the Detroit Masonic Temple has been the largest Masonic Temple in the world since 1939, when the Chicago Masonic Temple was demolished. The stage of the auditorium is the second largest in the United States, having a width between walls of 100 feet and a depth from the curtain line of 55 feet.
The large complex includes a 16-story 210-foot ritual building connected to a 10-story wing for the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, now known as Shriners International, by the 7-story Auditorium Building. In between these areas are a 1,586-seat Scottish Rite Cathedral, a 17,500-square-foot drill hall used for trade shows and conventions; the drill hall is home to Detroit Roller Derby. The drill hall has a floating floor; this type of construction known as a sprung floor, provides'give' to the floor which tends to relieve the marchers. The building houses two ballrooms: the Crystal Ballroom. An unfinished theatre located in the top floor of the tower would have seated about 700. Seven "Craft Lodge Rooms" all have different decorative treatments, the motifs of decoration being taken from the Egyptian, Ionic, Italian Renaissance, Byzantine and Romanesque styles. All of the artwork throughout the building the decorated ceilings, was done under the direction of Italian artists.
The building includes Royal Arch room, as well as a Commandery Asylum for the Knights Templar. The Scottish Rite Cathedral has a seating capacity of 1600, its stage is 64-feet wide from wall to wall, with a depth of 37 feet from the foot lights. Architect George D. Mason designed the theatre. Detroit Masonic Temple was designed in the neo-gothic architectural style, is faced with Indiana limestone. Although few Masonic buildings are in the Gothic style, the architect believed that Gothic best exemplified Masonic traditions. Much of the stone and metal work in the interior of the building was designed and executed by architectural sculptor Corrado Parducci; the three figures over the main entrance were by Leo Friedlander, while the rest of the considerable architectural sculpture on the exterior was by Bill Gehrke. Media related to Detroit Masonic Temple at Wikimedia Commons Hill, Eric J.. AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press.
ISBN 0-8143-3120-3. Kvaran, Einar Einarsson. Architectural Sculpture in America. Unpublished. Lundberg, Alex. Detroit's Masonic Temple. Arcadia Pub
There are a number of masonic manuscripts that are important in the study of the emergence of Freemasonry. Most numerous are the Old Constitutions; these documents outlined a "history" of masonry, tracing its origins to a biblical or classical root, followed by the regulations of the organisation, the responsibilities of its different grades. More rare are old hand-written copies of ritual, affording a limited understanding of early masonic rites. All of those which pre-date the formation of Grand Lodges are found in Scotland and Ireland, show such similarity that the Irish rituals are assumed to be of Scottish origin; the earliest Minutes of lodges formed before the first Grand Lodge are located in Scotland. Early records of the first Grand Lodge in 1717 allow an elementary understanding of the immediate pre-Grand Lodge era and some insight into the personalities and events that shaped early 18th century Freemasonry in Britain. Other early documentation is included in this article; the Kirkwall Scroll is a hand painted roll of linen used as a floorcloth, now in the care of a lodge in Orkney.
Its dating and the meaning of its symbols have generated considerable debate. Early operative documents and the printed constitutions are covered; the Old Charges of the masons' lodges were documents describing the duties of the members, part of which every mason had to swear on admission. For this reason, every lodge had a copy of its charges written into the beginning of the minute book, but as a separate manuscript roll of parchment. With the coming of Grand Lodges, these were superseded by printed constitutions, but the Grand Lodge of All England at York, the few lodges that remained independent in Scotland and Ireland, retained the hand-written charges as their authority to meet as a lodge. Woodford, Hughan and Gould, all founders of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, Dr Begemann, a German Freemason, produced much published work in the second half of the nineteenth century, collating and classifying the available material. Since aside from the occasional rediscovery of another old document, little has been done to update the field.
The oldest, the Regius poem, is unique in being set in verse. The rest, of which over a hundred survive have a three part construction, they start with a prayer, invocation of God, or a general declaration, followed by a description of the Seven Liberal Arts, extolling Geometry above the others. There follows a history of the craft, how it came to the British Isles culminating in a general assembly of masons during the reign of King Athelstan; the last part consists of the charges or regulations of the lodge, the craft of masonry in general, which the members are bound to maintain. The earliest masonic documents are those of the church and the state; the first claimed by modern Freemasons as the lineal ancestors of their own Charges relate to the self-organisation of masons as a fraternity with mutual responsibilities. From the reign of Henry VI to the Elizabethan period, from about 1425 to 1550, surviving documents show the evolution of a legend of masonry, starting before the flood, culminating in the re-establishment of the craft of masonry in York during the reign of King Athelstan.
The Halliwell Manuscript known as the Regius Poem, is the earliest of the Old Charges. It consists of 64 vellum pages of Middle English written in rhyming couplets. In this, it differs from the prose of all the charges; the poem begins by describing how Euclid "counterfeited geometry" and called it masonry, for the employment of the children of the nobility in Ancient Egypt. It recounts the spread of the art of geometry in "divers lands." The document relates how the craft of masonry was brought to England during the reign of King Athelstan. It tells how all the masons of the land came to the King for direction as to their own good governance, how Athelstan, together with the nobility and landed gentry, forged the fifteen articles and fifteen points for their rule; this is followed by fifteen articles for the master concerning both moral behaviour and the operation of work on a building site. There are fifteen points for craftsmen which follow a similar pattern. Warnings of punishment for those breaking the ordinances are followed by provision for annual assemblies.
There follows the legend of the Four Crowned Martyrs, a series of moral aphorisms, a blessing. The origins of the Regius are obscure; the manuscript was recorded in various personal inventories as it changed hands until it came into possession of the Royal Library, donated to the British Museum in 1757 by King George II to form the nucleus of the present British Library. It came to the attention of Freemasonry much this oversight being due to the librarian David Casley, who described it as "a Poem of Moral Duties" when he catalogued it in 1734, it was in the 1838–39 session of the Royal Society that James Halliwell, not a Freemason, delivered a paper on "The early History of Freemasonry in England", based on the Regius, published in 1840. The manuscript was dated to 1390, supported by such authorities as Woodford and Hughan, the dating of Edward Augustus Bond, the curator of manuscripts at the British Museum, to fifty years was sidelined. Hughan mentions that it was written by a priest. Modern analysis has confirmed Bond's dating to the second quarter of the fiftee
Order of the Eastern Star
The Order of the Eastern Star is a Masonic appendant body open to both men and women. It was established in 1850 by lawyer and educator Rob Morris, a noted Freemason, but was only adopted and approved as an appendant body of the Masonic Fraternity in 1873; the order is open to people of all religious beliefs. It has 10,000 chapters in twenty countries and 500,000 members under its General Grand Chapter. Members of the Order of the Eastern Star are aged 18 and older. A woman would have to be the daughter, wife, sister, or mother of a Master Mason, but the Order now allows other relatives as well as allowing Job's Daughters, Rainbow Girls, Members of the Organization of Triangles and members of the Constellation of Junior Stars to become members when of age; the Order was created by Rob Morris in 1850 when he was teaching at the Eureka Masonic College in Richland, Mississippi. While confined by illness, he set down the principles of the order in his Rosary of the Eastern Star. By 1855, he had organized a "Supreme Constellation" in New York, which chartered chapters throughout the United States.
In 1866, Dr. Morris started working with Robert Macoy, handed the Order over to him while Morris was traveling in the Holy Land. Macoy organized the current system of Chapters, modified Dr. Morris' Rosary into a Ritual. On December 1, 1874, Queen Esther Chapter No. 1 became the first Prince Hall Affiliate chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star when it was established in Washington, D. C. by Thornton Andrew Jackson. The "General Grand Chapter" was formed in Indianapolis, Indiana on November 6, 1876. Committees formed at that time created the Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star in more or less its current form; the emblem of the Order is a five-pointed star with the white ray of the star pointing downwards towards the manger. The letters FATAL surrounding the center pentagon in the emblem stands for "Fairest Among Thousands, Altogether Lovely," a reference to Song of Songs. In the Chapter room, the downward-pointing white ray points to the West; the character-building lessons taught in the Order are stories inspired by Biblical figures: Adah.
In Eastern Star, Adah is represented by a sword and veil. Adah represents the virtue of obedience to duty. Ruth, the widow from the Book of Ruth. In Eastern Star, Ruth is represented by a sheaf of barley. Ruth represents the virtue of religious principles. Esther, the wife from the Book of Esther. In Eastern Star, Esther is represented by a crown and scepter. Esther represents the virtue of loyalty. Martha, sister of Mary and Lazarus, from the Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of John. In Eastern Star, Martha is represented by a broken column. Martha represents the virtue of endurance in trial. Electa, the mother. In Eastern Star, Electa is represented by a chalice. Electa represents the virtue of endurance of persecution. There are 18 main officers in a full chapter: Worthy Matron – presiding officer Worthy Patron – a Master Mason who provides general supervision Associate Matron – assumes the duties of the Worthy Matron in the absence of that officer Associate Patron – assumes the duties of the Worthy Patron in the absence of that officer Secretary – takes care of all correspondence and minutes Treasurer – takes care of monies of the Chapter Conductress – Leads visitors and initiations.
Associate Conductress – Prepares candidates for initiation, assists the conductress with introductions and handles the ballot box. Chaplain – leads the Chapter in prayer Marshal – presents the Flag and leads in all ceremonies Organist – provides music for the meetings Adah – Shares the lesson of Duty of Obedience to the will of God Ruth – Shares the lesson of Honor and Justice Esther – Shares the lesson of Loyalty to Family and Friends Martha – Shares the lesson of Faith and Trust in God and Everlasting Life Electa – Shares the lesson of Charity and Hospitality Warder – Sits next to the door inside the meeting room, to make sure those that enter the chapter room are members of the Order. Sentinel – Sits next to the door outside the chapter room, to ensure people who wish to enter are members of the Order. Traditionally, a woman, elected Associate Conductress will be elected to Conductress the following year the next year Associate Matron, the next year Worthy Matron. A man elected Associate Patron will be elected Worthy Patron the following year.
The woman, elected to become Associate Matron will let it be known who she wishes to be her Associate Patron, so the next year they will both go to the East together as Worthy Matron and Worthy Patron. There is no male counterpart to the Conductress and Associate Conductress. Only women are allowed to be Matrons and the Star Points and only men can be Patrons. Once a member has served a term as Worthy Matron or Worthy Patron, they may use the post-nominal letters, PM or PP respectively; the General Grand Chapter headquarters, the International Temple, is located in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D. C. in the Perry Belmont Mansion. The mansion was built in 1909 for the purpose of entertaining the guests of Perry Belmont, they included Britain's Prince of Wales in 1919. General Grand Chapter purchased the building in 1935; the secretary of General Grand Chapter lives there while serving her term of office. The mansion features works of art from around the world, most of which were given as gifts from various international Eastern Star chapters.
The Order has a charitab
William Preston (Freemason)
William Preston was a Scottish author and lecturer, born in Edinburgh. After attending school and college he became secretary to the linguist Thomas Ruddiman, who became his guardian on the death of his father. On the death of Thomas, Preston became a printer for Thomas' brother. In 1760 he started a distinguished career with the printer William Strahan, he became a Freemason, instituting a system of lectures of instruction, publishing Illustrations of Masonry, which ran to several editions. It was under Preston that the Lodge of Antiquity seceded from the Moderns Grand Lodge to become "The Grand Lodge of All England South of the River Trent" for ten years, he died on 1 April 1818, after a long illness, was buried in St Paul's Cathedral. Preston was a born in Edinburgh, on 7 August 1742, his father William Preston, was a Writer to the Signet, a form of solicitor. His second, only surviving child, was encouraged in Classical studies, entering the Royal High School, Edinburgh at six, where he shone in Latin, would have studied Greek.
He continued his classical studies at college, before becoming secretary to Thomas Ruddiman, a classical scholar whose blindness now necessitated such help. Meanwhile, Preston senior's health and fortunes declined, due to bad investments and supporting the wrong side in the 1745 rebellion. On his death, in 1751, Ruddiman became young William's guardian, he was apprenticed to the printer, Walter Ruddiman, Thomas' brother, but until Thomas' death in 1757 spent most of his time reading to him, transcribing and copy-editing his work. In 1760, furnished with letters of introduction by Ruddiman, Preston arrived in London, where he took employment with William Strahan to become the King's Printer, a former pupil of the same school as Preston. Here he would spend his professional life as an editor, earning the respect of writers such as David Hume and Edward Gibbon. Shortly after Preston's arrival in London, a group of Edinburgh Freemasons living in the English capital decided to form themselves into a lodge.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland felt they could not grant them a constitution, as they recognised the jurisdiction of the Antient's Grand Lodge in the capital. They were accordingly constituted as Lodge no. 111 at the "White Hart" in the Strand on 20 April 1763. It may have been at this meeting. Unhappy with the status of the new Grand Lodge which they found themselves part of, Preston and some others began attending a lodge attached to the original Grand Lodge of England, persuaded their brethren to change allegiance. Accordingly, on 15 November 1764, Lodge no 111 of the Antients became Caledonian Lodge no 325, under a constitution, just starting to be known as the "Moderns". Antient/ancient and Modern referred to the ritual used by the respective constitutions, not to the age of the Grand Lodges; the shift of allegiance occasioned some vitriolic correspondence between Caledonian Lodge and their former Grand Lodge. Caledonian Lodge became the major component in the first Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry.
Preston soon began an extensive program of masonic research. Interviewing where he could, entering into an extensive correspondence with Freemasons in Britain and overseas, he built a vast storehouse of masonic knowledge, which he applied to explaining and organising the lectures attached to the three degrees of Freemasonry, he met with friends once or twice a week to test and refine his presentation, on 21 May 1772 he organised a Gala at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand, at his own considerable expense, to introduce the Grand Officers and other prominent masons to his system. The success of his oration on that day led to the publication that year, of his Illustrations of Masonry, which ran to twelve English editions in the authors lifetime, as well as being translated into other languages. In 1774 he organised his material into lecture courses, delivered by him at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street. There were twelve lectures per degree, at one guinea per degree. Present at the Gala were two members of the Lodge of Antiquity.
John Bottomley was the Master, John Noorthouck a colleague of Preston at Strahan's printing firm. Antiquity was suffering from declining membership, these two men conceived the idea of reviving their lodge by recruiting Preston, he was elected a member, in absentia, on 1 June 1774. On his first attendance as a member, a fortnight he was elected Master of the lodge; the lodge accordingly flourished, which somehow displeased Bro Noorthouck. He complained that the younger masons who now flocked to the lodge were all Preston's creatures, which had enabled him to stay in the chair for three and a half years. During this period, commencing in 1769, Preston became the Assistant Grand Secretary, "Printer to the Society"; this gave him access to material. It gave him the opportunity to attempt to drive a wedge between the Antients and the Grand Lodge of Scotland, by challenging the basis on which the younger Grand Lodge was formed; the attempt failed, only served to widen the division between the two Grand Lodges.
On 27 December 1777, some members of the Lodge of Antiquity, including Preston, returned from church wearing their masonic regalia. This amounted to little more than crossing the road. Certain of the original members of Antiquity who were not present chose to report the incident to Grand Lodge as a proscribed M