Grand Masters of the Order of Saint Lazarus

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The Grand Master of the Order of Saint Lazarus was the leader of an order of chivalry that was established by the Holy See in the 12th century. A number of Masters of the order, eventually termed Grand Masters, have been listed by previous historians of the order.

The early history of the Order of Saint Lazarus, like is the case of several other medieval orders, is shrouded in a haze of reality and myth simply because the early historians of the various orders assumed the role of enthusiastic eulogists to the detriment of objective writing, the genealogists even went so far as to try tracing origins to personages and events in the Old Testament.[1] The available early cartulary only confirms some of the individuals in the list.[2]

To complicate it further, historical legacy and contingency is claimed by the modern Order of Saint Lazarus (statuted 1910), see Grand Masters of the Order of Saint Lazarus (statuted 1910).

List of Masters or Grand Masters[edit]

The following individuals have been elected as Masters or Grand Masters of the Order of Saint Lazarus, or any of its predecessor titles, their highest title is shown here:

Order Name Image Title Date installed Term ended Term of office Comments Notes
1 Gérard le Fondateur ++Gerard Tum, by Laurent Cars.jpg Master of the Order of St John in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099 1120 20–21 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known. Founder of the Order of St John. Allegedly was also responsible for the Leprosarium outside the walls of Jerusalem. [2]
2 Boyant Roger Master of the Hospitallers of St Lazarus in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1120 1131 10–11 years Served as Rector of the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem. Allegedly followed Gérard as Master of the Leprosarium, while Raymond de Puy assumed the Mastership of the Hospitallers of St John.
3 Jean circa 1131 circa 1153 21–22 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known.
4 Barthélémy or Bartholomeo circa 1153 circa 1154 0–1 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known. He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883.
5 Hitier or Hector circa 1154 circa 1155 0–1 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known. He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883.
6 Hughes de Saint-Paul circa 1155 circa 1157 1–2 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known. He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883.
7 Raymond du Puy +Raymond du Puy, by Laurent Cars.jpg Master of the Hospitallers of St John in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1157 1159 1–2 years He allegedly further assumed the Mastership of the Leprosarium in Jerusalem at the end of his life.
8 Rainier or Lambertus circa 1164 circa 1168 3–4 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known. He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883. [2]
9 Raymond circa 1168 circa 1169 0–1 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known. He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883.
10 Gérard de Montclar circa 1169 1185 15–16 years He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order. [3]
11 Bernard 1185 1186 0–1 years No further information about his patronymic origins is known. He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883. [2]
12 Gauthier de Châteauneuf or Walter de Novo Castro Master General of the Hospitallers of St John in Acre in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1228 1234 5–6 years Served originally as Master of Burton Lazars in England, before becoming Master General of the Order. He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883.
13 Rainaldus de Floriaco or Reynald de Fleury 1234 1254 19–20 years He is mentioned in the cartulary of the Order published by de Marsy in 1883.
13a Miles circa 1256 1267 10–11 years Not usually listed by authors but a contemporary deed mentions him as being the serving magister of the Order. [3]
14 Jean de Meaux Preceptor General of the Hospitallers of St John in Acre in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem circa 1267 1277 9–10 years He is titled Preceptor General in a charter dated 1267. [1]
15 Thomas de Sainville Master General of the Hospitallers of St John in Acre in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1277 1312 34–35 years He was responsible for moving the central seat of the Order to Boigny, France before the fall of Acre.
16 Sir Adam de Veau Master General of the Order of the Hospitallers of St John in Boigny, France 1313 1330 16–17 years Previously served as Master of Burton Lazars, England, before becoming Master General of the Order.
17 Jean de Paris 1332 1348 15–16 years
18 Jean de Couraze circa 1349 circa 1354 4–5 years
19 Jean le Comte circa 1355 1361 5–6 years
20 Jacques de Besnes or Jacques de Baynes circa 1382 1384 1–2 years
21 Pierre des Ruaux 1413 1454 40–41 years
22 Guillaume des Mares circa 1454 1469 14–15 years
23 Jean le Cornu 1469 1493 23–24 years
24 François d'Amboise Grand Master of the Order of the Hospitallers of St John in Rhodes 1493 1500 6–7 years Nephew of Aimery d'Amboise.
25 Agnan de Mareul 1500 1519 18–19 years
26 François de Bourbon, Comte de Saint-Paul Commander of the Order of the Hospitallers of St Lazarus in Boigny, France 1519 1521 1–2 years
27 Claude de Mareul 1521 1554 32–33 years Nephew of Agnan de Mareul.
28 Jean de Conti 1554 1557 2–3 years
29 Jean de Lévis Grand Master of the Order of the Hospitallers of St Lazarus in Boigny, France 1557 1564 6–7 years Knight of St John. Was confirmed as Grand Master of St Lazarus with the Papal bull Nos igitur.
30 Michel de Seure de Lumigny 1564 1578 13–14 years Was originally a Knight of St John. He resigned his post as Grand Master in 1578 but retained his magisterial privileges.
31 François de Salviati Vicar General of the Order of the Hospitallers of St Lazarus in Boigny, France 1571 1586 14–15 years Was originally Knight and Ambassador of St John. Served as Vicar General from 1571 to 1578.
32 Michel de Seure de Lumigny Grand Master of the Order of the Hospitallers of St Lazarus in Boigny, France 1586 1593 6–7 years Resumed the role of Grand Master on the death of François Salviati.
33 Aymard de Clermont de Chastes Marshal of the Order of the Hospitallers of St John in Boigny, France 1593 1599 5–6 years Was originally a Knight of St John. Served as Marshal of St John and Vice-Admiral of France.
33a Hughes Catelan de Castelmore circa 1603 Included by some authors. His appointment is however in doubt.
34 Jean-Charles de Gayand de Monterolles 1599 1604 4–5 years Nephew of Aymard de Clermont de Chastes
35 Philibert, Marquis de Nérestang Grande Maître de Ordres Royaux, Militaires et Hospitaliers de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel et de Saint-Lazare de Jérusalem Réunis 1604 1613 8–9 years Grand Master of St Lazarus and later of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, united to it in 1608 by King Henri IV
36 Claude, Marquis de Nérestang 1613 1639 25–26 years Son of Philibert
37 Charles, Marquis de Nérestang 1639 1644 4–5 years Son of Claude
38 Charles-Achilles, Marquis de Nérestang 1645 1673 27–28 years Brother of Charles
39 François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois Louvois1.jpg Vicar General de Ordres Royaux, Militaires et Hospitaliers de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel et de Saint-Lazare de Jérusalem Réunis 1673 1691 17–18 years Vicar General of the Order with magisterial privileges
40 Philippe de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau Portrait Of Phillippe De Courcillon.jpg Grande Maître de Ordres Royaux, Militaires et Hospitaliers de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel et de Saint-Lazare de Jérusalem Réunis 1691 1720 28–29 years
41 Prince Louis de Bourbon, Duc d'Orléans,
Chartres, Valois, Nemours et Montpensier
1720 1752 31–32 years
42 Prince Louis de France, Duc de Berry Antoine-François Callet - Louis XVI, roi de France et de Navarre (1754-1793), revêtu du grand costume royal en 1779 - Google Art Project.jpg Protector de Ordres Royaux, Militaires et Hospitaliers de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel et de Saint-Lazare de Jérusalem Réunis 1757 1773 15–16 years Later King Louis XVI (serving as Protector from 1774).
43 Prince Louis Stanislas Xavier de France,
Comte de Provence, Duc d’Anjou
Louis18.jpg 1773 1814 40–41 years Later King Louis XVIII (serving as Protector from 1814-1824). Brother of King Louis XVI.

During the period 1814 to 1841, the order was under the direction of the Council of Officers with King Louis XVIII (1814-1824) and Charles X (1824-1831) as Protectors of the joint Orders.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Algrant y Cañete, James J.; Beaugourdon, Jean de St. Vincent de (1983). Armorial of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. Delft. 
  • Savona-Ventura, Charles. (2012). Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem - Grandmasters, Administrators & Protectors. Grand Priory of the Maltese Islands - MHOSLJ, Malta. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b de Sibert, P. E. G. (1771). Histoire des Ordres Royaux, Hospitalliers-Militaires de Notre Dame du Mont-Carmel, et de Saint Lazare de Jerusalem (in French). Paris: Royal Press. 
  2. ^ a b c d de Marsy, A. (1883). Fragment d'un Cartulaire de l'Ordre de Sauint Lazare en Terre Sancte (in French). vol. 2. Paris: Archives de l'Orient Latin. 
  3. ^ a b Marcombe, D. (2003). Leper Knights: The Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem in England, 1150-1544. Woodridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-067-1.