Baileys Irish Cream
Baileys Irish Cream is an Irish whiskey and cream-based liqueur, made by Diageo at Nangor Road, in Dublin, Ireland and in Mallusk, Northern Ireland owned by Gilbeys of Ireland, the trademark is owned by Diageo. It has a declared alcohol content of 17% by volume. Baileys Irish Cream was created by Tom Jago of Gilbeys of Ireland, a division of International Distillers & Vintners, as it searched for something to introduce to the international market; the process of finding a product began in 1971 and it was introduced in 1974 as the first Irish cream on the market. The Baileys name was granted permission by John Chesterman after Gilbeys asked to use the name from a restaurant that John Chesterman owned; the fictional R. A. Bailey signature was inspired by the Bailey's Hotel in London, though the registered trademark omits the apostrophe. Baileys is produced in Mallusk. Cream and Irish whiskey from various distilleries are homogenized to form an emulsion with the aid of an emulsifier containing refined vegetable oil.
The process prevents separation of the cream during storage. Baileys contains a proprietary cocoa extract recipe giving Baileys its chocolate character and essence; the quantity of other ingredients is not known but they include herbs and sugar. According to the manufacturer, no preservatives are required as the alcohol content preserves the cream; the cream used in the drink comes from an Irish dairy company. Glanbia's Virginia facility in County Cavan produces a range of fat-filled milk powders and fresh cream, it has been the principal cream supplier to Baileys Irish Cream Liqueurs for more than thirty years. At busier times of the year, Glanbia will supply cream from its Ballyragget facility in Kilkenny; the manufacturer claims Baileys Irish Cream has a shelf life of 24 months and guarantees its taste for two years from the day it was made—opened or unopened, stored in a refrigerator or not—when stored away from direct sunlight at temperatures between 0 and 25 °C. Diageo provides nutritional information for Baileys.
As is the case with milk, cream will curdle. Milk and cream contain casein, which coagulates, when mixed with weak acids such as lemon, tonic water, or traces of wine. While this outcome is undesirable in most situations, some cocktails encourage coagulation. In 2003, Bailey & Co. launched Baileys Glide, aimed at the alcopop market. It was discontinued in 2006. In 2005, Baileys launched mint chocolate and crème caramel variants at 17% ABV, they were released in UK airports and were subsequently released in the mass markets of the UK, US, Australia and Canada in 2006. In 2008, after the success of previous flavour variants, released a coffee variant, followed by a hazelnut flavoured variant in 2010; the company trialled a new premium variety, Baileys Gold, at several European airports in 2009. The Gold version was marketed towards the Japanese consumer; the latest additions to the Baileys flavour family are Biscotti, launched in 2011, a sub-brand premium product Baileys Chocolat Luxe, which combined Belgian chocolate with Baileys, in 2013.
The company released a Vanilla-Cinnamon variety in the US market in 2013 with further flavours, Pumpkin Spice and Salted Caramel launching the following year. In 2017, Baileys launched their Pumpkin Spice flavoured liqueur their Vegan Friendly Baileys Almande, in 2018 Baileys Strawberries & Cream was made available. Irish coffee Official website Account of the invention of Baileys
Watney Combe & Reid
Watney Combe & Reid was a leading brewery in London. At its peak in the 1930s it was a constituent of the FT 30 index of leading companies on the London Stock Exchange, it produced Watney's Red Barrel. The Watney family were the main partners in the Stag Brewery, for much of the 19th century. In 1837 James Watney became a partner in the brewery, followed by his sons James and Norman in 1856. On his death in 1884, the brewery became a private limited company. In 1889 James Watney & Co. acquired the Mortlake Brewery, owned by Charles James Philips and James Wigan since the 1840s. In 1898 the company merged with Combe Delafield and Co. and Reid and Co. and was subsequently known as Watney Combe and Reid. The amalgamated company was the largest brewer in London; the Combe brewery in Longacre and the Reid brewery in Clerkenwell closed immediately, production was concentrated on the Watney Stag Brewery in Pimlico. The company had an annual output of 1.8 million hectolitres. Watney Mann was formed in 1958 with the merger of Watney, Reid & Co.
Ltd with Mann, Crossman & Paulin Ltd. When the Stag Brewery in Victoria was demolished in 1959 the name was transferred to Mortlake Brewery; the business acquired other brewers, including Wilsons of Manchester, Phipps NBC of Northampton, Samuel Webster & Sons of Halifax and Ushers of Trowbridge, before being taken over by Grand Metropolitan, a hotels and catering group, in 1972 and closed in 1979. Watney's Red Barrel was a bitter which sold in the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s, it was introduced in 1931 as an export keg beer that could travel for long distances by being made stable through filtering and pasteurising – as such it was the first keg beer. It was renamed "Red" in 1971. A 3.9% abv pale lager called Watney's Red Barrel was sold by the Sleeman Brewery until 1997 and a 6.0% beer with the same name is still brewed by Alken-Maes. In Monty Python's "Travel Agent Sketch", Eric Idle's character, Mr. Smoketoomuch, mentions Watney's Red Barrel many times in his rambling tirade about cheap holiday packages.
For many years, Watney's advertised with the strapline "What we want is Watney's". Access to Archives: Files held at the London Metropolitan Archives on Watney Come Reid and Co Ltd and Watney Mann Ltd Illustration of label of Combe Delafield & Co. Best London Porter
Guinness Black Lager
Guinness Black Lager is a black lager being tried in Northern Ireland and the United States by Diageo, in Malaysia by Guinness Anchor Berhad, under its Guinness brand name. Test marketing began in March 2010; the new product is aimed at young men who prefer bottled lagers to pints of beer. Guinness believes there are lager drinkers that may be interested in a dark beer but not their famous stout, it is being sold in 330 millilitre bottles for six to nine months in Northern Ireland, as a test market for Europe, in Malaysia to see whether there are opportunities for the product elsewhere. In Malaysia, the beer will be known as Guinness Premium Beer, it will be offered at a comparable price to other premium lagers. The move follows previous attempts by Diageo to boost sales by introducing variations of Guinness stout. In 2005, the company sold Brew 39 in bars in Dublin and before that it introduced Guinness XXX Extra Strong, Guinness Gold. If the beer sells well during its trial, it will be introduced to other markets in Ireland and the U.
S. Guinness Black Lager is available in Australia and Canada. In July 2012, Black Lager was launched into the Republic of Ireland market, available in packs of 4 X 330 ml bottles. Diageo had decided not to launch the new beer in the Republic of Ireland because of the massive decrease in alcohol sales in that country. Alcohol consumption has dropped two per cent from its all-time peak in 2001; the lager is being offered at off-sales outlets in Northern Ireland. The launch will be accompanied by an marketing campaign with promotions in bars; as of February 2013, the product is still being advertised in North America. It is a 4.5% a.b.v. Strength brew and gets its black colour from the roasted barley added into it. Guinness has made several attempts to vary its brand in the past; these include Guinness Light. Official website
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most built near or combined with hotels, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated; some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy and sporting events. The term "casino" is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the term casino may mean summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming; the Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were outlawed in California by the time it was built.
The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre; the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess; the precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance; the first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season.
It was closed in 1774. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons; the creation and importance of saloons was influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco, it was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America's first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now America's second largest gambling city. Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, baccarat and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players; this can be expressed more by the notion of expected value, uniformly negative.
This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary comps to gamblers. Payout is the percentage of funds returned to players. Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house's money. Video Lottery Machines have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos; as of 2011 investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive. Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling. Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in "the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash".
Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested. Casino designer Roger Thomas is credited with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008, he broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space; the following li
Black Eagle Brewery
The Black Eagle Brewery is the former brewing plant of Truman's Brewery located around Brick Lane in the Spitalfields area, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Truman's subsequently became Truman and Buxton. By 1853, the Black Eagle Brewery was the largest in the world, with an annual production of 400,000 barrels; the former buildings and yards were redeveloped by The Zeloof Partnership as the "Old Truman Brewery" and now house over 250 businesses, ranging from cultural venues to art galleries and retail shops. The Director's House and former Brew House are listed buildings; the original brewery was established by the Bucknall family, who leased the site in the seventeenth century. The site's first associations with brewing can be traced back to 1666 when a Joseph Truman is recorded as joining William Bucknall's Brewhouse in Brick Lane. Part of the site was located on Black Eagle Street, hence the brewery's name. Truman appears to have acquired the lease of the brewery in 1679, upon the death of William Bucknell.
Through the Truman family's efforts - not least those of Sir Benjamin Truman - the business expanded over the following 200 years. By 1748 the Black Eagle Brewery was the third largest brewery in London, the world, with 40,000 barrels produced annually. In the mid-18th century Huguenot immigrants introduced a new beverage flavoured with hops, which proved popular. Truman's imported hops from Belgium, but Kent farmers were soon encouraged to grow hops to help the brewery meet growing demand. Sir Benjamin died in March 1780 and, without a son to take on the business, it passed to his grandsons. In 1789, the brewery was taken over by Sampson Hanbury. Hanbury's nephew, Thomas Fowell Buxton, joined the company in 1808, improved the brewing process, converted the works to steam power and, with the rapid expansion and improvement of Britain's road and rail transport networks, the Black Eagle label soon became famous across Britain; the Brick Lane brewery – now known as Truman, Buxton & Co – took on new partners in 1816, the Pryor brothers.
By 1853 the brewery was the largest in the world, producing 400,000 barrels of beer each year, with a site covering six acres. However, the company faced competition from breweries based outside London – notably in Burton upon Trent, where the water was suitable for brewing – and in 1873 the company acquired a brewery in Burton and began to build a major new brewery, named the Black Eagle after the original London site. In 1888, Hanbury, Buxton & Co became a public company with shareholders, but the balance of production was now shifting to Burton; the Brick Lane brewery site covered six acres by 1898. The Brick Lane facility remained active through a take-over by the Grand Metropolitan Group in 1971 and a merger with Watney Mann in 1972, but it was in terminal decline, it closed in 1989. In Charles Dickens’ novel David Copperfield, the character Mrs Micawber makes specific reference to Messrs Truman and Buxton):... I have long felt the brewing business to be adapted to Mr Micawber. Look at Barclay and Perkins!
Look at Truman and Buxton! It is on that extensive footing that Mr Micawber, I know from my own knowledge of him, is calculated to shine, but if Mr Micawber cannot get into those firms—which decline to answer his letters, when he offers his services in an inferior capacity—what is the use of dwelling upon that idea? In 2014/15 the Black Eagle Brewery featured in the fifth episode of the third series of the fictional BBC TV period drama Ripper Street, where protective employees harassed and killed London publicans who had changed supplier and were buying wares from breweries in Burton-upon-Trent. While a fictional account, the storyline reflected the real concerns that the London breweries had in late Victorian times, as rival product was brought from the north of England by the expanding railway network; the old brewery buildings have become home to an arts and events centre and various shops and bars and it is now owned by The Zeloof Partnership. Business and leisure share the regenerated 11-acre site for restaurants, shops, events spaces, offices and two weekly fashion markets.
The building is to undergo significant changes in the next few years, as part of the Tower Hamlets Council City Fringe Area Action Plan. The site was the location for the second Summer of Sonic event, a convention for Sonic the Hedgehog fans, which took place on 29 August 2009.'Industries: Brewing', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 2: General. Date accessed: 27 March 2010.'Plate 53: Truman's Brewery, Brick Lane.', Survey of London: volume 27: Spitalfields and Mile End New Town, pp. 53. Date accessed: 27 March 2010.'The Black Eagle Brewery, Brick Lane', Survey of London: volume 27: Spitalfields and Mile End New Town, pp. 116-22 Date accessed: 23 February 2007 Old Truman Brewery website
Harp Lager is an Irish lager created in 1960 by Guinness in its Great Northern Brewery, Dundalk. It is a major lager brand throughout most of Ulster, but is a minor lager brand in the rest of Ireland. Harp Lager was first produced in 1960 as a bottled beer by the Guinness company, in response to the trend among drinkers in Britain and Ireland towards Continental lager. Guinness converted its Dundalk brewery into a modern lager production plant with the guidance of Dr. Herman Muender, a distinguished German brewer. Various names were considered for the brand, including Atlas and Dolphin, before Harp was chosen; the brand was marketed with the Brian Boru harp as its emblem. By 1961 a consortium of brewers, Barclay & Simonds, Scottish & Newcastle, Mitchells & Butlers and Guinness, grouped together as Harp Lager Ltd to brew and market the beer. Courage's Alton Brewery, where Courage Director's had been brewed, was rebuilt to produce the lager in Great Britain. By 1964, the product was being led in its category for sales.
Members of the Harp consortium changed over the years, with Courage and Scottish & Newcastle leaving in 1979, but becoming franchisees. Available on draught, in 330ml and 500ml bottles, its top market is Ulster Northern Ireland and County Donegal. In 2005, Harp saw a makeover. Diageo Ireland separated the brand from Guinness. On 9 May 2008, Diageo Ireland announced that it would close the Dundalk Brewery along with the Kilkenny Brewery over a five-year period, and the last Harp was brewed at Great Northern in October 2013, after which production moved to Diageo's sole Irish brewery, St James's Gate Brewery in St. James's Gate, Dublin. Today, Harp is brewed in Hydes Brewery for Great Britain. In Australia, distribution is handled by United Breweries. Harp sold in America is brewed in Canada by Guinness Canada and is brewed at the Moosehead Brewery in New Brunswick. For many years the slogan "Harp stays sharp" was used in advertisements, it was written by the advertising executive Rod Allen. It has used the slogan "Look on the Harp side".
Diageo The Harp Club
Guinness is a dark Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Ireland, in 1759, it is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide, brewed in 50 countries, available in over 120. Sales in 2011 amounted to 850 million litres, it is popular with the Irish, both in Ireland and abroad. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is still the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland. Where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes €2 billion worth annually. Guinness' flavour derives from malted barley and roasted unmalted barley, a modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic acid flavour. Although Guinness's palate still features a characteristic "tang", the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs; the draught beer's thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with carbon dioxide. The company moved its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932.
In 1997, Guinness Plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the multinational alcoholic-drinks producer Diageo plc, based out of London. Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in 1759 at Dublin. On 31 December 1759, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. Ten years on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale: he shipped six-and-a-half barrels to Great Britain. Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778; the first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s. Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced only three variations of a single beer type: porter or single stout, double or extra and foreign stout for export. "Stout" referred to a beer's strength, but shifted meaning toward body and colour. Porter was referred to as "plain", as mentioned in the famous refrain of Flann O'Brien's poem "The Workman's Friend": "A pint of plain is your only man."Already one of the top-three British and Irish brewers, Guinness's sales soared from 350,000 barrels in 1868 to 779,000 barrels in 1876.
In October 1886 Guinness became a public company, was averaging sales of 1,138,000 barrels a year. This was despite the brewery's refusal to either offer its beer at a discount. Though Guinness owned no public houses, the company was valued at £6 million and shares were twenty times oversubscribed, with share prices rising to a 60 per cent premium on the first day of trading; the breweries pioneered several quality control efforts. The brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym "Student" for techniques developed for Guinness Student's t-distribution and the more known Student's t-test. By 1900 the brewery was operating unparalleled welfare schemes for its 5,000 employees. By 1907 the welfare schemes were costing the brewery £40,000 a year, one-fifth of the total wages bill; the improvements were supervised by Sir John Lumsden. By 1914, Guinness was producing 2,652,000 barrels of beer a year, more than double that of its nearest competitor Bass, was supplying more than 10 per cent of the total UK beer market.
In the 1930s, Guinness became the seventh largest company in the world. Before 1939, if a Guinness brewer wished to marry a Catholic, his resignation was requested. According to Thomas Molloy, writing in the Irish Independent, "It had no qualms about selling drink to Catholics but it did everything it could to avoid employing them until the 1960s."Guinness thought they brewed their last porter in 1973. In the 1970s, following declining sales, the decision was taken to make Guinness Extra Stout more "drinkable"; the gravity was subsequently reduced, the brand was relaunched in 1981. Pale malt was used for the first time, isomerized hop extract began to be used. In 2014, two new porters were introduced: Dublin Porter. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986; this led to a scandal and criminal trial concerning the artificial inflation of the Guinness share price during the takeover bid engineered by the chairman, Ernest Saunders. A subsequent £5.2 million success fee paid to an American lawyer and Guinness director, Tom Ward, was the subject of the case Guinness plc v Saunders, in which the House of Lords declared that the payment had been invalid.
In the 1980s, as the IRA's bombing campaign spread to London and the rest of Britain, Guinness considered scrapping the harp as its logo. The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo. Due to controversy over the merger, the company was maintained as a separate entity within Diageo and has retained the rights to the product and all associated trademarks of Guinness; the Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland was moved to St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin. Guinness has been referred to as "that black stuff". Guinness had a fleet of ships and yachts; the Irish Sunday Independent newspaper reported on 17 June 2007 that Diageo intended to close the historic St James's Gate plant in Dublin and move to a greenfield site on the outskirts of the city. This news caused some controversy; the following day, the Irish Daily Mail ran a follow-up story with a double page spread complete with images and a history of the plant since 1759.
Diageo said that talk of a move was pure speculation but in the face of mounting speculation in the wake of the Sunday Independent article, the company confirmed that it is undertaking a "significant review of its operations"