St. Joseph's Cathedral, Hanoi
St. Joseph's Cathedral is a church on Nha Chung Street in the Hoàn Kiếm District of Hanoi, Vietnam, its a late 19th-century Gothic Revival church that serves as the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hanoi to nearly 4 million Catholics in the country. The cathedral was named after the patron saint of Vietnam and Indochina. Construction began in 1886, with the architectural style described as resembling Notre Dame de Paris; the church was one of the first structures built by the French colonial government in Indochina when it opened in December 1886. It is the oldest church in Hanoi; the cathedral conducts mass several times during the day. For Sunday evening mass at 6:00 PM, large crowds spill out into the streets; the prayer hymns are broadcast and Catholics who are unable to enter the cathedral congregate in the street and listen to hymns. The cathedral is situated west in a small square within the Old Quarter. Nearby, there are small apartment blocks. Centrally located at the end of the Nha Tho Street and the corner of Pho Nha Chung, the cathedral, the headquarters of Archdiocese of Vietnam has control over 480 churches and chapels, 113 parishes, serves 400,000 Catholics.
The main gate to the cathedral is opened during mass and during the rest of time the entry is only through a side door in the compound wall of the Diocese. From this point to the cathedral is a walk to the side door and ring a bell to enter the cathedral. In 1872, the French under Jean Dupuis captured the Hanoi Citadel, before Francis Garnier conquered the rest of the city. A decade passed. Construction of the cathedral most started after this time and it was completed in December 1886, a year before the federation of French Indochina was established as part of its colonial empire, it was built by the French missionary and apostolic vicar of Tonkin Paul-François Puginier who obtained permission from the colonial French administration. It was built on the site of Bao Thien Pagoda, a sacred Buddhist temple that served as an "administrative center" of Tonkin during the pre-French colonial era. In order to facilitate the construction of the church, the pagoda—which was built at the time when the city was founded during the Lý Dynasty in the 11th century—was demolished.
The cathedral was consecrated on December 24, 1886. After the Viet Minh took control of North Vietnam following the Geneva Accords in 1954, the Catholic Church suffered decades of persecution. Priests were arrested, church property was seized and expropriated. St. Joseph's Cathedral was not spared and it was closed down until Christmas Eve of 1990, when Mass was permitted to be celebrated there again. In 2008, protests related to religious symbols occurred at the lot next to the cathedral. Built with stone slabs and in brick with concrete facing, the façade consists of two towers, square in shape, rising to a height of 103 ft and each tower fitted with five bells; the cathedral was built in a Gothic Revival style. The twin bell towers have drawn comparisons to the ones at Notre Dame de Paris; the exterior walls of the church are made of granite stone slabs. Over the years, the cathedral's exterior has become worn down due to heavy pollution. Windows have pointed arches; the cathedral's stained glass windows were produced in France before being transported to Vietnam.
The ceiling is rib vaulted like those seen in medieval Europe. The nave is weathered and the sanctuary looks shiny and is made of gilt trimmed wood, similar to that of Phat Diem Cathedral and has royal Hue architectural embellishments. A statue of Virgin Mary is kept in palanquin according to the local custom, seen to the left of the nave, it is at the end of the church street, an upscale market area with boutiques and silks. Roman Catholicism in Vietnam Archdiocese of Hanoi
Ho Chi Minh City Hall
Ho Chi Minh City Hall or Saigon City Hall or Hôtel de Ville de Saïgon was built in 1902-1908 in a French colonial style for the city of Saigon. It was renamed after 1975 as Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee. Although this elegant colonial building is not open to the public, Saigon City Hall is popular for its great photo opportunities. Tourists can take photographs outside and many people choose to do this at night when the building and its grounds are lit up. Other buildings nearby: Municipal Theatre, Ho Chi Minh City HSBC Building, Ho Chi Minh City Rex Hotel, Ho Chi Minh City Photos of Ho Chi Minh City Hall Ho Chi Minh City Hall Ho Chi Minh City Hall
Hanoi railway station
Hanoi railway station is one of the main railway stations on the North–South Railway in Vietnam. It serves the city of Hanoi; the station is located at 120 Lê Duẩn Street, Cua Nam Ward, Hoan Kiem District of Hanoi and is the starting point of five railway lines leading to every Vietnamese province. These are the passenger services departing from Hanoi Main station; the train to Dong Dang can not continue on the Chinese railway network. Passengers destined for China must connect to a Chinese train at Pingxiang. Standard gauge tracks have been laid to Gia Lâm Railway Station, about 6 kilometres across the river from the main Hanoi Railway Station. Through trains to China depart from Gia Lâm rather than the main Hanoi Railway Station; the train to Nanning departs from Hanoi Gia Lam 2 more trains to Haiphong departing from Hanoi Gia Lam Hanoi railway station opened in 1902. The building was damaged in the Vietnam War 1972 and in 1976 the central hall was rebuilt in modern style, preserving the historic side wings
Hotel Continental, Saigon
The Hôtel Continental is a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. It was named after the Hôtel Continental in Paris, is located in District 1, the central business district of the city; the hotel is situated on Đồng Khởi Street by the Saigon Opera House and was built in 1880 during the French colonial period. The hotel has undergone refurbishments over the years, while still maintaining the essence of its original architecture and style; the hotel is owned by the state-owned Saigon Tourist. In the old days, Saigon's roads were named by ordinal numbers. Starting from the Saigon River bank, Đồng Khởi was the Sixth Road. In 1865, the French Commander Admiral De La Grandiere renamed these roads and Sixth Road became Rue Catinat, a bustling place. Across the street from the future Continental site, the first foundations and floors for factories were built, the first one for Denis Frere. Next was the first drugstore in Saigon, the Solinere Pharmaceutical which opened in 1865. In 1878, Pierre Cazeau, a home-appliance and construction material manufacturer, started building the Hotel Continental with the purpose of providing the French traveler a French style of luxury accommodation after a long cruise to the new continent.
This project took 2 years, in 1880 the Hotel Continental was inaugurated. In the same period, many of Saigon's major colonial buildings were constructed including the Notre Dame Cathedral on Rue Catinat completed in 1880, the Postal and Telecom Service on Rue Catinat completed in 1891, the Hotel de Ville completed in 1898; the hotel was refurbished in 1892 by Mr Grosstephan. In 1911, the hotel was sold to Duke Montpensier. In 1930, the hotel had a new owner, Mathieu Franchini, a reputed gangster from Corsica, his son Philippe who ran the hotel until the Communist takeover in April 1975; the Continental had in the political life of Saigon during the French Colonial Era. During the First Indochina War the Hotel Continental was referred to as Radio Catinat, since this was the rendezvous point where correspondents, journalists and businessmen talked about politics, the business news, current events. Following the partition of Vietnam in 1955, Rue Catinat was renamed Tự Do Street, while Place Garnier was renamed Lam Sơn Square.
During the Vietnam War era the hotel was renamed the Continental Palace and became popular with journalists who nicknamed the ground-floor bar the Continental Shelf. Newsweek and Time magazines each had their Saigon bureaux on the second floor of the hotel. Following the Fall of Saigon in April 1975 ownership of the hotel was taken over by the Ho Chi Minh City Government and Tự Do Street was renamed Đồng Khởi Street; the hotel was reopened again in 1986 as the Đồng Khởi. The hotel was restored from 1988-9 and reopened in 1989 as the Hotel Continental. Notable guests include: Rabindranath Tagore Andre Malraux Graham Greene, long-term guest in room 214, who conceived the work The Quiet American about the aftermath of the French Colonial period Jacques Chirac Mahathir Mohamed Hubert Marchat Tiziano Terzani The hotel features prominently in Graham Greene's novel The Quiet American and in its two film adaptations in 1958 and 2002, it features in Don Winslow's novel Satori. The Continental is a central locale in the film Indochine.
Featured in Nelson Demille’s UP COUNTRY novel. Heritage hotels in Vietnam List of historic buildings in Ho Chi Minh City Hotel website
Museum of Cham Sculpture
The Museum of Cham Sculpture is a museum located in Hải Châu District, Đà Nẵng, central Vietnam, near the Han River. The establishment of a Cham sculpture museum in Da Nang was first proposed in 1902 by the Department of Archaeology of EFEO. Henri Parmentier, a prominent archaeologist of the department, made great contributions to the campaign for its construction. Founded in 1915 as the Musée Henri Parmentier, its first building opened in 1919 and was designed by two French architects, M. Deleval and M. Auclair, who were inspired by Parmentier to use some traditional Cham elements in the composition. Prior to the establishment of the museum, the site was known as the "garden of sculptures" and many Cham sculptures, collected in Da Nang, Quảng Nam and elsewhere had been brought there over the preceding twenty years; the museum has been expanded twice. The first expansion was in the mid-1930s, with two new galleries providing display space for the objects added in the 1920s and 1930s. Henri Parmentier directed the display based on the areas.
The 1000 meter square of floor space was arranged for the collections of Mỹ Sơn, Trà Kiệu, Đồng Dương, Tháp Mẫm, Quang Tri, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định and Kon Tum. In 2002, the Museum was again expanded with the two-story building providing an additional 1000 square meters; the new building provides not only space for display, but for storage, a library, a restoration workshop and offices for staff. Before 2007, the Museum was managed by Da Nang Museums, an administrative organ in charge of the city's museums and heritage. In 2008 it became affiliated with the city Department of Culture and Tourism; the museum houses the world's largest collection of Cham sculpture and is a popular tourist destination. Art of Champa Lenzi, Iola. Museums of Southeast Asia. Singapore: Archipelago Press. P. 200. ISBN 981-4068-96-9. Parmentier, Henri. Cham sculpture of the Tourane Museum, Da Nang, Vietnam: Religious ceremonies and superstitions of Champa. White Lotus Press. Pp. 142 pages. ISBN 978-9747534702. Guillon, Emmanuel.
Cham Art: Treasures from the Da Nang Museum, Vietnam. London: Thames & Hudson. Pp. 204 pages. ISBN 978-0500975930. Duoc, Huynh Thi. Cham Sculpture and Indian Mythology. Danang: Danang Publishing House. Pp. 75 pages. Media related to Museum of Cham Sculpture at Wikimedia Commons Vietnam National Administration of Tourism | Museum of Cham Sculpture Hotels in Da Nang TraveltoVietnam.com | Cham Museum Photo gallery of the museum Viajes a vietnam
An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organised presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions occur within a cultural or educational setting such as a museum, art gallery, library, exhibition hall, or World's fairs. Exhibitions can include many things such as art in both major museums and smaller galleries, interpretive exhibitions, natural history museums and history museums, varieties such as more commercially focused exhibitions and trade fairs. In British English the word "exhibition" is used for a collection of items placed on display, the event as a whole, which in American English is an "exhibit". In both varieties of English each object being shown within an exhibition is an "exhibit". In common usage, "exhibitions" are considered temporary and scheduled to open and close on specific dates. While many exhibitions are shown in just one venue, some exhibitions are shown in multiple locations and are called travelling exhibitions, some are online exhibitions.
Exhibitions featuring fragile or valuable objects, or live animals—may be shown only during a formal presentation, under the close supervision of attendant or educator. Temporary exhibits that are transported from institution to institution are traveling exhibits. Though exhibitions are common events, the concept of an exhibition is quite wide and encompasses many variables. Exhibitions range from an extraordinarily large event such as a World's fair exposition to small one-artist solo shows or a display of just one item. Curators are sometimes involved as the people. Writers and editors are sometimes needed to write text and accompanying printed material such as catalogs and books. Architects, exhibition designers, graphic designers and other designers may be needed to shape the exhibition space and give form to the editorial content. Organizing and holding exhibitions requires effective event planning and logistics; the exhibition came into its own in the 19th century, but various temporary exhibitions had been held before that the regular displays of new art in major cities.
The Paris Salon of the Académie des Beaux-Arts was the most famous of these, beginning in 1667, open to the public from 1737. By the mid-18th century this and its equivalents in other countries had become crucial for developing and maintaining the reputation of contemporary artists. In London the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition has been held annually since 1769, the British Institution ran temporary exhibitions from 1805 to 1867 twice a year, with one of new British painting and one of loans of old masters from the Royal Collection and the aristocratic collections of English country houses. By the mid-19th century many of the new national museums of Europe were in place, holding exhibitions of their own collections, or loaned collections, or a mixture of objects from both sourcers, which remains a typical mix today; the "Chronology of Temporary Exhibitions at the British Museum" goes back to 1838. The tradition of the Universal exposition "world Expo" or "World's Fair" began with the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London.
The Eiffel Tower in Paris was served as an entrance arch. Modern exhibitions may be concerned with preservation and demonstration, early exhibitions were designed to attract public interest and curiosity. Before the widespread adoption of photography, the exhibition of a single object could attract large crowds. Visitors might be overcome with Stendhal syndrome, feeling dizzy or overwhelmed by the intense sensory experience of an exhibit. Today, there is still tension between the design of exhibits for educational purposes or for the purpose of attracting and entertaining an audience, as a tourist attraction. Art exhibitions include an array of artifacts from countless forms of human making: paintings, crafts, video installations, sound installations, interactive art, etc. Art exhibitions may focus on one group, one genre, one theme or one collection. Fine arts exhibitions highlight works of art with generous space and lighting, supplying information through labels or audioguides designed to be unobtrusive to the art itself.
Exhibitions may occur in series or periodically, as in the case with Biennales and quadrennials. The first art exhibition to be called a blockbuster was the 1960 Picasso show at Tate in London. Interpretive exhibitions are exhibitions that require more context to explain the items being displayed; this is true of exhibitions devoted to scientific and historical themes, where text, charts and interactive displays may provide necessary explanation of background and concepts. Interpretive exhibitions require more text and more graphics than fine art exhibitions do; the topics of interpretive graphics cover a wide range including archaeology, ethnology, science and natural history. Commercial exhibitions called trade fairs, trade shows or expos, are organized so that organizations in a specific interest or industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, study activities of rivals and examine recent trends and opportunities; some trade fairs are open to the public, while others can only be attended by company representatives and members of the press.
Changes in scholarly communication and the rise of the Internet have led to the creation of online exhibition
Hỏa Lò Prison
Hỏa Lò Prison was a prison used by the French colonists in French Indochina for political prisoners, by North Vietnam for U. S. prisoners of war during the Vietnam War. During this period it was known to American POWs as the Hanoi Hilton; the prison was demolished during the 1990s. The name Hỏa Lò translated as "fiery furnace" or "Hell's hole" means "stove"; the name originated from the street name phố Hỏa Lò, due to the concentration of stores selling wood stoves and coal-fire stoves along the street from pre-colonial times. The prison was built in Hanoi by the French, in dates ranging from 1886–1889 to 1898 to 1901, when Vietnam was still part of French Indochina; the French called the prison Maison Centrale – Central House-, still the designation of prisons for dangerous and/or long sentence detainees in France. It was located near Hanoi's French Quarter, it was intended to hold Vietnamese prisoners political prisoners agitating for independence who were subject to torture and execution. A 1913 renovation expanded its capacity from 460 inmates to 600.
It was often overcrowded, holding some 730 prisoners on a given day in 1916, a figure which rose to 895 in 1922 and 1,430 in 1933. By 1954 it held more than 2000 people; the central urban location of the prison became part of its early character. During the 1910s through 1930s, street peddlers made an occupation of passing outside messages in through the jail's windows and tossing tobacco and opium over the walls. Within the prison itself and ideas passed. Indeed, many of the future leading figures in Communist North Vietnam spent time in Maison Centrale during the 1930s and 1940s. Following the defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the 1954 Geneva Accords the French left Hanoi and the prison came under the authority of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Thereafter the prison served as an education center for revolutionary doctrine and activity, it was kept around after the French left to mark its historical significance to the North Vietnamese. During the Vietnam War, the first U. S. prisoner to be sent to Hỏa Lò was Lieutenant Junior Grade Everett Alvarez Jr., shot down on August 5, 1964.
From the beginning, U. S. POWs endured miserable conditions, including poor unsanitary conditions; the prison complex was sarcastically nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton" by the American POWs, in reference to the well-known Hilton Hotel chain. There is some disagreement among the first group of POWs who coined the name but F8D pilot Bob Shumaker was the first to write it down, carving "Welcome to the Hanoi Hilton" on the handle of a pail to greet the arrival of Air Force Lieutenant Robert Peel. Beginning in early 1967, a new area of the prison was opened for incoming American POWs; these names were chosen because many pilots had trained at Nellis Air Force Base, located in proximity to Las Vegas. American pilots were already in bad shape by the time they were captured, injured either during their ejection or in landing on the ground; the Hanoi Hilton was one site used by the North Vietnamese Army to house and interrogate captured servicemen American pilots shot down during bombing raids. Although North Vietnam was a signatory of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949, which demanded "decent and humane treatment" of prisoners of war, severe torture methods were employed, such as rope bindings, irons and prolonged solitary confinement.
When prisoners of war began to be released from this and other North Vietnamese prisons during the Johnson administration, their testimonies revealed widespread and systematic abuse of prisoners of war. Regarding treatment at Hỏa Lò and other prisons, the North Vietnamese countered by stating that prisoners were treated well and in accordance with the Geneva Conventions. During 1969, they broadcast a series of coerced statements from American prisoners that purported to support this notion; the North Vietnamese maintained that their prisons were no worse than prisons for POWs and political prisoners in South Vietnam, such as the one on Côn Sơn Island. Mistreatment of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese prisoners and South Vietnamese dissidents in South Vietnam's prisons was indeed frequent, as was North Vietnamese abuse of South Vietnamese prisoners and their own dissidents. Beginning in late 1969, treatment of the prisoners at Hỏa Lò and other camps became less severe and more tolerable. Following the late 1970 attempted rescue operation at Sơn Tây prison camp, most of the POWs at the outlying camps were moved to Hỏa Lò, so that the North Vietnamese had fewer camps to protect.
This created the "Camp Unity" communal living area at Hỏa Lò, which reduced the isolation of the POWs and improved their morale. Everett Alvarez Jr. Mexican American the 2nd longest held U. S. POW, enduring over 8 years of captivity John L. Borling, USAF pilot, POW for 6 1⁄2 years, retired Major General Charles G. Boyd, USAF pilot, POW for 7 years, retired General. George Thomas Coker, US Navy pilot Bud Day, USAF pilot, Medal of Honor and Air Force Cross recipient, political activist, was cellmates with McCain Jeremiah Denton, US Navy pilot, Senator Leon F. "Lee" Ellis, USAF fighter pilot, motivational speaker a