Manouba is a city in north-eastern Tunisia, part the agglomeration of Tunis, called Grand Tunis. It is located at the west of Tunis city center at around 36°48′28″N 10°6′4″E and it is the capital city of Manouba Governorate. Manouba is well known for its university and it is an ideal place for family life because of its security, availability of all kinds of services and its high level of education
At various times, various parts of the region were governed by the Persians, the Macedonians, Iranian peoples from Persia and Central Asia, the Xionites and Indian empires. The Greek term Arianē is based upon an Iranian word found in Avestan Airiiana-, the Greeks referred to Haroyum/Haraiva as Aria, which is one of the many provinces found in Ariana. The exact limits of Ariana are laid down with little accuracy in classical sources and it seems to have been often confused with the small province of Aria. As a geographical term, Ariana was introduced by the Greek geographer, Eratosthenes, a detailed description of that region is to be found in Strabos Geographica, Book XV – Persia, the Indian subcontinent, chapter 2, sections 1–9. By Herodotus Ariana is not mentioned, nor is it included in the description of Stephanus of Byzantium and Ptolemy. The tribes by whom Ariana was inhabited, as enumerated by Strabo were, Arii, Drangae, Paropamisadae, Persians Sogdians. Pliny specifies the following tribes, Arii, the inhabitants of Daritis, Drangae, Gedrussi, Methorici, Urbi, Zarangae.
Pliny says that some add to India four satrapies to the west of the river, – the Gedrosii, Arii, pliny therefore agrees on the whole with Strabo. Dionysius Periegetes agrees with Strabo in extending the boundary of the Ariani to the Paropamisus. Rüdiger Schmitt, the German scholar of Iranian Studies, believes that Ariana should have included other Iranian people, G. Gnoli, Postilla ad Ariyō šayana, RSO41,1966, pp. 329–34. P. Calmeyer, AMI15,1982, pp. 135ff, encyclopaedia Iranica Aria region in the eastern part of the Persian empire Ărĭāna, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Perseus Digital Library. Ariana, Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography, William Smith,1870 Stabo GeographyY, Book XV, pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap,25. —The Ariani and the adjoining nations, Perseus Digital Library
Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent and it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisias population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014, Tunisias name is derived from its capital city, which is located on Tunisias northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the end of the Atlas Mountains. Much of the rest of the land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic and it is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human development index. In addition, Tunisia is a state of the United Nations. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation, in ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers.
Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC, these immigrants founded Carthage, a major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the eight hundred years, introduced Christianity. After several attempts starting in 647, the Arabs conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881, Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis, an urban hub. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country.
Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с and Spanish Túnez, in this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, and only by context can one tell the difference. The name Tunis can be attributed to different origins and it is generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means to lay down or encampment
Tunis is both the capital and the largest city of Tunisia. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as Grand Tunis, has some 2,700,000 inhabitants. Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf, behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette, the city extends along the coastal plain, at its core lies its ancient medina, a World Heritage Site. Beyond this district lie the suburbs of Carthage, La Marsa, as the capital city of the country, Tunis is the focus of Tunisian political and administrative life, it is the centre of the countrys commercial activity. Tunis is the transcription of the Arabic name تونس which can be pronounced as Tūnus, Tūnas, All three variations were mentioned by the Greek-Syrian geographer al-Rumi Yaqout in his Mujam al-Bûldan. Different explanations exist for the origin of the name Tunis, some scholars relate it to the Phoenician goddess Tanith, as many ancient cities were named after patron deities. Another possibility is that it was derived from the Berber verbal root ens which means to lie down or to pass the night, given the variations of the precise meaning over time and space, the term Tunis can possibly mean camp at night, camp, or stop.
There are mentions in ancient Roman sources of such names of nearby towns as Tuniza, Thinissut. As all of these Berber villages were situated on Roman roads, the historical study of Carthage is problematic. Because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War and these writers belonged to peoples in competition, and often in conflict, with Carthage. Greek cities contended with Carthage over Sicily, and the Romans fought three wars against Carthage, not surprisingly, their accounts of Carthage are extremely hostile, while there are a few Greek authors who took a favourable view, these works have been lost. The existence of the town is attested by sources dating from the 6th century BC, in the 2nd millennium BC a town, originally named Tunes, was founded by Berbers and over time occupied by Numidians. In 146 BC, the Romans destroyed Tunis, the city was subsequently rebuilt under the rule of Augustus and became an important town under Roman control and the center of a booming agricultural industry.
Situated on a hill, Tunis served as an excellent point from which the comings and goings of naval and caravan traffic to and from Carthage could be observed. Tunis was one of the first towns in the region to fall under Carthaginian control, during Agathocles expedition, which landed at Cape Bon in 310 BC, Tunis changed hands on various occasions. During the Mercenary War, it is possible that Tunis served as a center for the population of the area, and that its population was mainly composed of peasants, fishermen. Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large, according to Strabo, it was destroyed by the Romans during the Third Punic War. Both Tunis and Carthage were destroyed, however, was rebuilt first, the city is mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana as Thuni