Grand master (order)

Grand Master is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood. The title occurs in modern civil fraternal orders such as the Freemasons, the Odd Fellows, various other fraternities. Additionally, numerous modern self-styled orders attempt to imitate habits of the former bodies. In medieval military orders such as the Knights Templar or the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, the Grand Master was the formal and executive head of a military and feudal hierarchy, which can be considered a "state within the state" in the crusader context lato sensu, notably aimed at the Holy Land or pagan territories in Eastern Europe, as well as the reconquista in the Iberian peninsula. If an order is granted statehood and thus considered sovereign, the Grand Master is its Head of State. If within the Holy Roman Empire, a Reichsfürst and Head of Government, thus a true territorial Prince of the church, as was the case with the Teutonic Knights and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

Except the modern continuation of the organisations of medieval foundation, the title of Grand Master has been used by the heads of Grand Lodges of Freemasons since 1717, by Odd Fellows since the 18th century. The title of Grand Master is used by various other fraternities, including academic ones associated with universities; the national leader of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity goes by the title "Worthy Grand Master". The heads of local chapters use the title of "Grand Master". A sovereign monarch holds the title of Grand Master of the highest honorary dynastic orders of knighthood, or may confer or entrust it upon another person including a prince of the royal family the heir to the throne, who in other orders may hold another high rank/title; the term "Sovereign" is used in place of "Grand Master" for the supreme head of various orders in Britain and other Commonwealth nations. In the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the Grand Master is styled "Sovereign", e.g. Sovereign Grand Master, due to its status as an internationally independent sovereign entity.

In republican nations, a president may serve as the grand master of the various state orders such as in France, where the president is the grand master of the Legion of Honour, Portugal. In Freemasonry, the Grand Master is an office given to a Freemason elected to oversee a Masonic jurisdiction. Micallef, Antonio. Lectures on the Statutes of the Sacred Order of St. John of Jerusalem: at the University of Malta 1792. KIT Scientific Publishing. Pp. 233–235. ISBN 9783866444027. List of Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller Grand Magistry and Lieutenancies of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre Grand Masters of the Knights Templar Grand Masters of the Order of Saint Lazarus Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights Grand Master

Crenshaw Boulevard

Crenshaw Boulevard is a principal north-south thoroughfare in Los Angeles, California that runs through Crenshaw and other neighborhoods along a 23-mile route in the west-central part of the city. The street starts at Wilshire Boulevard in Mid-Wilshire, Los Angeles and runs through several demographically diverse areas to end in Rolling Hills. Crenshaw makes the eastern boundary through the City of Gardena and Hawthorne; the commercial corridor in the Hyde Park neighborhood is known as "the heart of African American commerce in Los Angeles". Crenshaw Boulevard was named Angeles Mesa Drive until 1904, when the street was named after banker and Los Angeles real estate developer George Lafayette Crenshaw who developed the affluent Lafayette Square. In the early 1900s there were tracks for the 5 Line streetcar line in the 1920s through 1950s ran down the median between Leimert Boulevard on the north to near Florence Ave on the south. Since the abandonment of the streetcars, the former railway median has been narrowed, the driving lanes were improved and the street reconfigured for automobiles.

Many local residents were disappointed to see 71 mature street-line trees chopped down to make way for the Space Shuttle Endeavour to be moved from LAX to the California Science Center in nearby Exposition Park. Additional trees were removed for the under construction Crenshaw/LAX Line, but various officials have promised an aesthetically cohesive new revitalized boulevard with more trees being planted than were removed; the project will feature bike lanes, wider sidewalks, new Metro bus stops, street furniture with LED traffic lights and street lights. Metro Local lines 40 and 210, Metro Rapid lines 710 and 740, Torrance Transit line 10 serve Crenshaw Boulevard; the Metro C Line serves the Crenshaw station on Crenshaw Boulevard underneath Interstate 105, while the Metro E Line runs along Exposition Blvd and serves Expo/Crenshaw station at the intersection with Exposition Boulevard. In the Crenshaw district, Crenshaw Boulevard and Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza are served by LADOT trolleys and soon a light rail subway line with four Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines that are: Metro Local Line 40 - South Bay Galleria - Patsaouras Transit Plaza via Martin Luther King Boulevard and Hawthorne Boulevard Metro Local Line 210 - South Bay Galleria - Hollywood/Vine B Line Station via Crenshaw Boulevard, Rossmore Avenue, Vine Street Metro Rapid Line 710 - South Bay Galleria - Wilshire/Western D Line Station via Redondo Beach Boulevard and Crenshaw Boulevard Metro Rapid Line 740 - South Bay Galleria - Inglewood Transit Center - Expo/Crenshaw StationCrenshaw Boulevard is briefly served in the Crenshaw district by the following LACMTA lines: Metro Local Line 102 - LAX City Bus Center to Huntington Park via La Tijera Boulevard, Stocker Street, Exposition Boulevard and Jefferson Boulevard Metro Local Line 105 / Rapid Line 705 - West Hollywood - Vernon via La Cienega Boulevard, Barack Obama Boulevard and Vernon Avenue Crenshaw Boulevard is briefly served in the LADOT by the following LADOT Dash lines: LADOT Crenshaw - Stocker and Coliseum via La Brea LADOT Leimert Park/Slauson - Down King Boulevard via Crenshaw Blvd LADOT Midtown - Down Crenshaw Blvd The Crenshaw/LAX Line is under construction.

It will transport passengers from the existing Expo/Crenshaw station to the planned Aviation/96th Street station and Metro Green Line stations. It is projected to be completed in mid 2020; the intersection of Slauson Avenue and Crenshaw Boulevard was named Ermias “Nipsey Hussle” Asghedom Square in April 2019 to honor him and his contributions to the neighborhood. Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza Crenshaw High School Destination Crenshaw, 1.3-mile-long open-air museum of African American history and culture The Holiday Bowl was a bowling alley and café known for being a center of ethnic diversity during the 1960s and 1970s. It featured a sushi bar known as the Sakiba Lounge with live musical acts with a Modernist Googie architecture style, it is City of Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument #688. Los Angeles Sentinel SpaceX Headquarters Media related to Crenshaw Boulevard at Wikimedia Commons

Roe Green Park

Roe Green Park is a park in the London Borough of Brent, northwest London, England. The Barn Hill Conservation Group maintain the Roe Green walled garden, within the park. Roe Green Village was built between 1918 and 1920, using Prussian/German prisoners of war as cheap labour after World War I; the park was incorporated and thus taken under council control between 1935 and 1938. This now much used park in Kingsbury came about because of the rapid growth of suburban housing in this part of the district in the early 1930s. In 1933 the local Council identified a 5-acre site on the north side of Kingsbury Road for a park, but this was subject to plans for housing by the developer, George Cloke, he had moved into Kingsbury Manor in 1929, bought most of the land of Valley Farm the following year. Under pressure from the local Ratepayers' Association, the Council negotiated with Mr Cloke to purchase some of his other land for a park, in March 1935 two fields on the south side of Bacon Lane were bought for about £27,000, with Middlesex County Council contributing 25% of the money.

As the entrance to this new park was from Roe Green, it was given the name "Roe Green Park". While the purchase was going through, Wembley Urban District Council decided to use part of the park fronting Kingsbury Road as the site for an open air swimming pool. In 1936 and 1937 Roe Green Park was used as the venue for a week-long Carnival and Fete to raise money for Wembley Hospital and for brass band concerts on summer Sunday evenings, but these events were transferred to Silver Jubilee Park when work started on building Kingsbury Swimming Pool in 1938; the Olympic-sized pool opened in May 1939. After buying the two fields, the Council wanted to acquire further land, to make the park more accessible from the main shopping centre and Kingsbury Station. After three years of negotiations, they bought the 5-acre Westcroft field for £13,750 from another local developer, Henry Higinbotham, in 1938. In the same year, Kingsbury Manor and its 10-acre grounds were purchased from George Cloke; this was a joint purchase with Middlesex County Council, who wanted to use the large, secluded house as a Maternity Hostel for unmarried mothers.

The land for the park as it now exists had been acquired, but soon the outbreak of the Second World War meant that all of the park was ploughed up to provide allotments where local people could grow vegetables and fruit. After the war, twenty "pre-fab" bungalows were built along the Kingsbury Road edge of the park between the swimming pool and the Kingsbury Manor lodge, as emergency housing for families, it was only around 1960 that local residents could enjoy the use of all of the park again. John Logie Baird, the television pioneer, leased the former stables and coach house at Kingsbury Manor in 1928, he employed H. Barton-Chapple to take charge of his experiments there, which included designing and building prototype TV receivers. In May 1929, two 25-metre high masts were erected, the first international moving picture transmissions, from Berlin in Germany to England, were received here; the following year, the first combined sound and vision signals were received. For many years afterwards the former stables were known as Kingsbury Manor Studio, are now the home of Kingsbury Veterans' Club.

The masts were taken down at the start of the Second World War, as they would have been a landmark for German bombers, but the concrete base of one of the masts can still be seen in Roe Green Park. A plaque to commemorate Baird's work here was unveiled next to this by Wembley History Society in the 1950s, moved to the Veterans' Club after damage by vandals; the park was in the news headlines in February 2002 when the fire-blistered body of an 18-year-old Sri Lankan man was found there. A year four other Sri Lankans – including ring-leader Senthamil Thillainathan – were found guilty of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. Senthamil had murdered another man in an axe attack in nearby Wembley eight months earlier; the video for the 2004 single "Round Here" from George Michael's fifth solo album, features several clips of Roe Green Park. The song is about the singer's childhood, includes the lyric "I hear my mamma call/In Kingsbury Park". Brent Council – Roe Green Park Brent Brain Community Network, Walk 3 – Roe Green and Barnhill Barn Hill Conservation Group – Roe Green Walled Garden