The equites constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class. A member of the equestrian order was known as an eques. During the Roman kingdom and the 1st century of the Roman Republic, legionary cavalry was recruited from the ranks of the patricians, who were expected to provide six centuriae of cavalry. Around 400 BC, 12 more centuriae of cavalry were established and these included non-patricians. Around 300 BC the Samnite Wars obliged Rome to double the normal annual military levy from two to four legions, doubling the cavalry levy from 600 to 1,200 horses. Legionary cavalry started to recruit wealthier citizens from outside the 18 centuriae; these new recruits came from the first class of commoners in the centuriate organisation and were not granted the same privileges. By the time of the Second Punic War, all the members of the first class of commoners were required to serve as cavalrymen; the presence of equites in the Roman cavalry diminished in the period 200–88 BC as only equites could serve as the army's senior officers.
After c. 88 BC, equites were no longer drafted into the legionary cavalry, although they remained technically liable to such service throughout the principate era. They continued to supply the senior officers of the army throughout the principate. With the exception of the purely hereditary patricians, the equites were defined by a property threshold; the rank was passed from father to son, although members of the order who at the regular quinquennial census no longer met the property requirement were removed from the order's rolls by the Roman censors. In the late republic, the property threshold stood at 50,000 denarii and was doubled to 100,000 by the emperor Augustus – the equivalent to the annual salaries of 450 contemporary legionaries. In the republican period, Roman senators and their offspring became an unofficial elite within the equestrian order; as senators' abilities to engage in commerce was limited by law, the bulk of non-agricultural activities were in the hands of non-senatorial equites.
As well as holding large landed estates, equites came to dominate mining and manufacturing industry. In particular, tax farming companies were all in the hands of equites. Under Augustus, the senatorial elite was given formal status with a higher wealth threshold and superior rank and privileges to ordinary equites. During the principate, equites filled the senior administrative and military posts of the imperial government. There was a clear division between jobs reserved for senators and those reserved for non-senatorial equites, but the career structure of both groups was broadly similar: a period of junior administrative posts in Rome or Italy, followed by a period of military service as a senior army officer, followed by senior administrative or military posts in the provinces. Senators and equites formed a tiny elite of under 10,000 members who monopolised political and economic power in an empire of about 60 million inhabitants. During the 3rd century AD, power shifted from the Italian aristocracy to a class of equites who had earned their membership by distinguished military service rising from the ranks: career military officers from the provinces who displaced the Italian aristocrats in the top military posts, under Diocletian from the top civilian positions also.
This reduced the Italian aristocracy to an idle, but immensely wealthy, group of landowners. During the 4th century, the status of equites was debased to insignificance by excessive grants of the rank. At the same time the ranks of senators were swollen to over 4,000 by the establishment of a second senate in Constantinople and the tripling of the membership of both senates; the senatorial order of the 4th century was thus the equivalent of the equestrian order of the principate. According to Roman legend, Rome was founded by its first king, Romulus, in 753 BC. However, archaeological evidence suggests that Rome did not acquire the character of a unified city-state until ca. 625 BC. Roman tradition relates that the Order of Knights was founded by Romulus, who established a cavalry regiment of 300 men called the Celeres to act as his personal escort, with each of the three Roman "tribes" supplying 100 horse; this cavalry regiment was doubled in size to 600 men by King Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.
That the cavalry was increased to 600 during the regal era is plausible, as in the early republic the cavalry fielded remained 600-strong. However, according to Livy, King Servius Tullius established a further 12 centuriae of equites, a further tripling of the cavalry, but this is anachronistic, as it would have resulted in a contingent of 1,800 horse, incongruously large, compared to the heavy infantry, only 6,000-strong in the late regal period. Instead, the additional 12 centuriae were created at a stage around 400 BC, but these new units were political not military, most designed to admit plebeians to the Order of Knights. Equites were provided with a sum of money by the state to purc
The Free Imperial knights were free nobles of the Holy Roman Empire, whose direct overlord was the Emperor. They were the remnants of the ministeriales. What distinguished them from other knights, who were vassals of a higher lord, was the fact that they had been granted Imperial immediacy, as such were the equals in most respects to the other individuals or entities, such as the secular and ecclesiastical territorial rulers of the Empire and the Free Imperial cities, that enjoyed Imperial immediacy. However, unlike all of those, the Imperial knights did not possess the status of Estates of the Empire, therefore were not represented, individually or collectively, in the Imperial Diet, they tended to define their responsibilities to the Empire in terms of feudalized obligations to the Emperor, including personal service and voluntary financial offerings paid to the Emperor himself. To protect their rights and avoid vassalage to more powerful nobles, they organized themselves into three unions in the late 15th century and into a single body in 1577, fought to win recognition.
This status, beholden only to the Emperor himself rather than through a more powerful noble, meant the Imperial Knights were "immediate subjects". As such, the Imperial Knights exercised a limited form of sovereignty within their territories; the Imperial Knighthood was a regional phenomenon limited to southwestern and south-central Germany—Swabia and the Middle Rhine area—zones which were fragmented politically and where no powerful states were able to develop. In northern and northeastern Germany, as well as in Bavaria and Austria, the local nobles, facing larger states and stronger rulers, were incapable of developing and maintaining their independence, they formed the territorial nobility. The immediate status of the Imperial Knights was recognized at the Peace of Westphalia, they never gained access to the Imperial Diet, the parliament of lords, were not considered Hochadel, the high nobility, belonging to the Lower Nobility. The Free Imperial Knights arose in the 14th century, the fusion of the remnants of the old free lords and the stronger elements of the unfree ministeriales that had won noble status.
Around 1300, the manoral economy suffered contraction due to the fluctuation in the price of agricultural foodstuffs. Ministeriales who were in a stronger economic position were better able to survive the weakening of their basis as landowners; the vast majority languished in poverty, resorting to selling lands to brigandage. The minority of ministeriales rich enough to weather the crises soon came to be identified with the remnants of the free nobility, were thus seen as constituting one noble order. By 1422, some of these nobles had achieved jurisdictional autonomy under the Emperor, the corporation of free imperial knights was born; the other ministeriales that did not manage to receive the status of immediate vassals of the Emperor were transformed into a titled nobility of free status: the Freiherren. By 1577, the Imperial Knights achieved the status of a noble corporate body within the empire: the corpus equestre. In the Peace of Westphalia, the privileges of the Imperial Knights were confirmed.
The knights paid their own tax to the Emperor, possessed limited sovereignty, the ius reformandi. The knightly families had the right of house legislation, subject to the Emperor's approval, so could control such things as the marriage of members and set the terms of the inheritance of family property. Imperial knights did not, have access to the Imperial Diet. Concerning the rights of Free Imperial Knights, Joseph Friederich von Ledersheim wrote in 1715: Section XII: “…they possess forestry rights …the right of hunting. Section XV: “they enjoy the freedom of religion and therefore of establishing the Protestant Religion in churches and schools not only in their own hereditary territories but in those fiefs held from another state…they are able whenever they wish to abolish and introduce either religion if they hold the position of vogt over the possessions.” All matters relating to the Imperial Knights' legal status as immediate vassals of the Emperor were managed by the Imperial Aulic Council.
Lacking access to the Imperial Diet, in 1650 the immediate knights organized themselves into three circles: the Fr
A king-emperor, the female equivalent being queen-empress, is a sovereign ruler, a king of one territory and emperor of another. This title results from a merger of a royal and imperial crown, but recognises that the two territories are different politically or culturally and in status, it denotes a king's imperial status through the acquisition of an empire or vice versa. The dual title signifies a sovereign's dual role, but may be created to improve a ruler's prestige. Both cases, show that the merging of rule was not a case of annexation where one state is swallowed by another, but rather of unification and equal status, though in the case of the British monarchy the suggestion that an emperor is higher in rank than a king was avoided by creating the title "king-emperor" instead of "emperor-king"; the British Crown had taken over the governing of British India from the East India Company in 1858, in the aftermath of what the British called'the Indian Mutiny'. Henceforth, the new British Raj was ruled directly from Whitehall via the India Office.
Following the Delhi Durbar in 1877, Queen Victoria was given Imperial status by the British Government, she assumed the title Empress of India. She was thus the Queen-Empress, her successors, until George VI, were known as King-Emperors; this title was the shortened form of the full title, in widespread popular use. The reigning King-Emperors or Queen-Empress used the abbreviation Ind.. Imp. after their name. British coins, those of the British Empire and Commonwealth dominions included some variation of the titles Rex Ind. Imp. although in India itself the coins said "Empress", "King Emperor." When, in August 1947, India became independent, all dies had to be changed to remove the latter two abbreviations, in some cases taking up to a year. In Great Britain, coins of George VI carried the title up to 1948. Another use of this dual title was when, in 1867, the multi-national Austrian Empire, German-ruled and facing growing nationalism, undertook a reform that gave nominal and factual rights to Hungarian nobility.
This reform revived the Austrian-annexed Kingdom of Hungary, therefore created the dual-monarchic union state of Austria-Hungary and the dual title of "emperor-king". The Habsburg dynasty therefore ruled as Emperors of Austria over the western and northern half of the Empire, as Kings of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary and much of Transleithania. Hungary enjoyed some degree of representation in joint affairs; the federation bore the full name of "The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen". In 1936, with the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, Victor Emmanuel III was proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia, thus he became King-Emperor, i.e. King of Italy and Emperor of Ethiopia, because conquered Ethiopia was an Empire. In the following years foreign countries recognized the Italian rule in Ethiopia; the King-Emperor was represented by the Viceroy, appointed as Governor-General of Italian East Africa. The capital city of the Viceroy and Governor-General was Addis Ababa.
The Serbian emperor Stefan Dušan, earlier king, is attested with the title "Emperor of Greece and King of All Serb Lands and the Maritime" in a document dating to between 1347–56. Dušan has been described as a "king-emperor"; the German Empire was ruled by a King-Emperor, as the German Hohenzollern Emperor was King of Prussia. The Holy Roman Emperors were Kings of Italy and Burgundy for most of the time that title existed. Emperor Napoléon I of the French was King of Italy, his title was shortened in "Emperor-King" rather than "King-Emperor". John VI of Portugal was made titular Emperor of Brazil alongside being King of Portugal and was titled as King-Emperor until his death. After John VI's death, his son Pedro acceded him as King of Portugal while reigning as Emperor of Brazil. Kaiserlich und königlich King-Grand Duke
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. Its female form is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or in earlier times, the wife of the person styled crown prince. Crown prince as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince being first in line to a throne and is expected to succeed barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent. In these monarchies, the term crown prince may be used less than the substantive title; until the late twentieth century, no modern monarchy adopted a system whereby females would be guaranteed to succeed to the throne. A crown princess would therefore more refer to the spouse of a crown prince and would be styled crown princess not in her own right but by courtesy; the term crown prince is not used in monarchies wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.
In Europe, where primogeniture governed succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra, the eldest son or eldest child of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights. Primogeniture has been abolished in Belgium, Luxembourg, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living. In some monarchies, those of the Middle East for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, such as former crown prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan.
Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent: hereditary prince, it is the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In Luxembourg, the heir apparent bears the title of hereditary grand duke. Many monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent of historical origin: Dauphin Duke of Brabant Duke of Braganza Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay used by the Prince of Wales in place of his Welsh title when in Scotland Grand Prince Margrave of Moravia Prince of Asturias Prince of Girona Prince Imperial Prince of Orange, whether or not the equivalent title is held by the spouse of the titleholder is decided by the Dutch parliament Prince of Piedmont a title conferred by King Joseph Bonaparte to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren in the male and female line. Prince Royal Prince of Turnovo Prince of Viana Rex iunior, lit.
Junior king as he was crowned during the life of the incumbent king Tsesarevich Some monarchies have used a territorial title for heirs apparent which, though perceived as a crown princely title, is not automatically hereditary. It requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld. Current and past titles in this category include: Caesar or Kaisar in honor of Gaius Julius Caesar, distinguished from the senior Augustus Symbasileus, lit. co-emperor but still distinguished from the senior, addressed as Autocrator Aetheling and edling, lit. of the royal family Duke of Estonia and Lolland Prince of Norway.
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the Holy Roman Emperor who would receive the Papal coronation after assuming the titles of King in Germany and King of Italy. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor. In practice, every emperor from 1440 onwards came from the Austrian House of Habsburg, the Electors ratified the Habsburg succession; the dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was considered to be second only to that of King or Emperor. The Electors had exclusive privileges that were not shared with the other princes of the Empire, they continued to hold their original titles alongside that of Elector; the heir apparent to a secular prince-elector was known as an electoral prince. The German element Kur- is based on the Middle High German irregular verb kiesen and is related etymologically to the English word choose.
In English, the "s"/"r" mix in the Germanic verb conjugation has been regularized to "s" throughout, while German retains the r in Kur-. There is a modern German verb küren which means'to choose' in a ceremonial sense. Fürst is German for'prince', but while the German language distinguishes between the head of a principality and the son of a monarch, English uses prince for both concepts. Fürst itself is related to English first and is thus the'foremost' person in his realm. Note that'prince' derives from Latin princeps, which carried the same meaning. Electors were reichsstände, they were, until the 18th century entitled to be addressed with the title Durchlaucht. In 1742, the electors became entitled to the superlative Durchläuchtigste, while other princes were promoted to Durchlaucht; as Imperial Estates, the electors enjoyed all the privileges of the other princes enjoying that status, including the right to enter into alliances, autonomy in relation to dynastic affairs and precedence over other subjects.
The Golden Bull had granted them the Privilegium de non appellando, which prevented their subjects from lodging an appeal to a higher Imperial court. However, while this privilege, some others, were automatically granted to Electors, they were not exclusive to them and many of the larger Imperial Estates were to be individually granted some or all those rights and privileges; the electors, like the other princes ruling States of the Empire, were members of the Imperial Diet, divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, the Council of Cities. In addition to being members of the Council of Electors, several lay electors were therefore members of the Council of Princes as well by virtue of other territories they possessed. In many cases, the lay electors ruled numerous States of the Empire, therefore held several votes in the Council of Princes. In 1792, the King of Bohemia held three votes, the Elector of Bavaria six votes, the Elector of Brandenburg eight votes, the Elector of Hanover six votes.
Thus, of the hundred votes in the Council of Princes in 1792, twenty-three belonged to electors. The lay electors therefore exercised considerable influence, being members of the small Council of Electors and holding a significant number of votes in the Council of Princes; the assent of both bodies was required for important decisions affecting the structure of the Empire, such as the creation of new electorates or States of the Empire. In addition to voting by colleges or councils, the Imperial Diet voted on religious lines, as provided for by the Peace of Westphalia; the Archbishop of Mainz presided over the Catholic body, or corpus catholicorum, while the Elector of Saxony presided over the Protestant body, or corpus evangelicorum. The division into religious bodies was on the basis of the official religion of the state, not of its rulers, thus when the Electors of Saxony were Catholics during the eighteenth century, they continued to preside over the corpus evangelicorum, since the state of Saxony was Protestant.
The electors were summoned by the Archbishop of Mainz within one month of an Emperor's death, met within three months of being summoned. During the interregnum, imperial power was exercised by two imperial vicars; each vicar, in the words of the Golden Bull, was "the administrator of the empire itself, with the power of passing judgments, of presenting to ecclesiastical benefices, of collecting returns and revenues and investing with fiefs, of receiving oaths of fealty for and in the name of the holy empire". The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law, while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire; the Elector of Bavaria replaced the Elector Palatine in 1623, but when the latter was granted a new electorate in 1648, there was a dispute between the two as to, vicar. In 1659, both purported to act as vicar; the two electors made a pact to act as joint vicars, but the Imperial Diet rejected the agreement. In 1711, while the Elector
King, or king regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own refers to the consort of a king. In the context of prehistory and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership. In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor. In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies; the title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East, sultan or emir, etc. The term king may refer to a king consort, a title, sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A king dowager is the male equivalent of the queen dowager. A king father is a king dowager, the father of the reigning sovereign; the English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as kuningas; the English term "King" translates, is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx and its equivalents in the various European languages. The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages, it is a derivation from the term *kunjom "kin" by the -inga- suffix. The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the kin", or "son or descendant of one of noble birth"; the English word is of Germanic origin, refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century. With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons, the intermediate positions of counts and dukes; the core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period.
In the Iberian Peninsula, the remnants of the Visigothic Kingdom, the petty kingdoms of Asturias and Pamplona, expanded into the kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon with the ongoing Reconquista. In southern Europe, the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy; the Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a separate title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217. In eastern-central Europe, the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars; the kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, respectively. In Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus' consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia. In northern Europe, the tribal kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great, king of Denmark and Norway.
The Christianization of Scandinavia resulted in "consolidated" kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, by the end of the medieval period the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union. Fifteen kings are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states. Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies. Thomas J. Craughwell, 5,000 Years of Royalty: Kings, Princes, Emperors & Tsars. David Cannadine, Simon Price, Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Jean Hani, Sacred Royalty: From the Pharaoh to the Most Christian King. Media related to Kings at Walter Alison. "King". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Pp. 805–806