Sainte-Anne is a city in the southern part of Grande-Terre, considered by some to be one of the most touristy towns of Guadeloupe. The commune turned decidedly towards tourism in the last 20 years, but still remains dependent on agriculture. Public preschools include: Ecole maternelle Marcelle Borifax Ecole maternelle Gontran Jhigai Ecole maternelle Emmanuel Vilus Ecole maternelle Saturnin Palmier Ecole maternelle Lacavé Paul Ecole maternelle St-Pierre Phirmis Ecole maternelle Georges Troupé Ecole maternelle Urbino-CamprassePublic primary schools include: Ecole primaire Rigobert Anzala Ecole primaire Lucie Calendrier Bicep Ecole primaire Florent Donnat Ecole primaire Albert Lazard Ecole primaire Ginette Maragnes Ecole primaire Raymond et Gisèle Mathurine Ecole primaire Richard Pierrot Ecole primaire Victor ValierPublic junior high schools include: Collège Eugène Yssap Collège Olympe Rame DecorbinPublic senior high schools include: LGT Yves Leborgne Communes of the Guadeloupe department INSEE Official website Sainte-Anne History
For the largest city on the island of Basse-Terre and capital of Guadeloupe, see Basse-Terre. For the capital of Saint Kitts and Nevis see Basseterre. Basse-Terre Island is the name of the western-half of Guadeloupe proper, in the Lesser Antilles. To the South lies Les Saintes and Dominica. In the North-East, it is separated from the other half of Guadeloupe proper, Grande-Terre, by a narrow sea channel called the Rivière Salée. Basse-Terre Island has a land area of 847.8 km2. At the 2006 census the population of Basse-Terre Island was 186,661 inhabitants living in 16 communes; the population density was 220 inhabitants per square kilometre. The largest city on Basse-Terre Island is the city of Basse-Terre which had 37,455 inhabitants in its urban area at the 2006 census; the city of Basse-Terre is the prefecture of Guadeloupe. Despite its name, Basse-Terre Island is the highest island of Guadeloupe, rising to 1,467 metres above sea level at the Soufrière volcano; the name of the island is the result of French terminology used in the Caribbean in the 17th century.
In the Caribbean, the prevailing winds blow from the northeast, thus the western side of the Caribbean islands, the leeward side, protected from the trade winds, was called the Basse-Terre in 17th-century French because it is situated downwind compared to the eastern side of the Caribbean islands, the windward side, exposed to the trade winds and was called the Cabesterre. This distinction between a Basse-Terre and a Cabesterre was used in several Caribbean islands colonized by France; the capital of Saint Kitts and Nevis, for example, was named Basseterre because it is located on the western side of the island of Saint Kitts. Basse-Terre Island was called "Guadeloupe" and as in other French Caribbean islands its western side was called Basse-Terre while its eastern side was called Cabesterre; the capital and main settlement of Guadeloupe was established on the Basse-Terre side of the island in the 17th century and was called the city of Basse-Terre. In the 18th century, the entire island came to be known as Basse-Terre Island under the influence of its largest settlement the city of Basse-Terre, the name Guadeloupe was used for the combined islands of Basse-Terre Island and Grande-Terre.
La Grande Soufrière, the tallest mountain in the Lesser Antilles, is located on the island. It is an active volcano; the surrounding area of Basse-Terre has a rough volcanic relief fertile land. The surrounding areas of Basse-Terre consists of forest and sugar, coffee and cocoa plantations; the island has a land area of 847.8 km2. The eastern coast of Basse-Terre Island, known as the Windward Coast, is exposed to the trade winds and receives a lot of rain, whereas the western coast of the island, known as the Leeward Coast is protected from the winds by the Soufrière volcano and is thus much drier; the most populated communes on the island are, in descending order of population, Baie-Mahault, Petit-Bourg, Capesterre-Belle-Eau, Sainte-Rose, Basse-Terre, Saint-Claude. Above the city of Basse-Terre on a mountain road, is the village of Saint-Claude, at the base of the Soufrière volcano; the village is noted for stately homes. Tours to ascend the Soufrière can be arranged; the starting point is at Saint-Claude.
The volcano is dormant. About three miles east, is the village of Gourbeyre where Fort Louis Delgres was built in 1650 by Charles Houël; this fort guarded the approach to the city of Basse-Terre and served in several battles against the British. About eight miles south-south-east is the village of Trois-Rivières, a fishing community rich in ancient settlements of the peaceful Arawaks. Near the village is an archaeological park which features sculpted and engraved rocks and relics left by the Arawaks in a grotto deep in the forest. A few beaches are located along the coast and south of the city of Basse-Terre. There are fishing areas
Le Moule is the sixth-largest commune in the French overseas department of Guadeloupe. It is located on the northeast side of the island of Grande-Terre. Beginning 1635 with the arrival of the French and during the 17th century, the village was called Portland; the principal part of the city was located towards the east. During the 18th century, the city became the stronghold for colonial aristocracy and the center moved to the left bank of river Audoin; this was thanks to the development of sugar cane and for a better placement of the port on the Atlantic Ocean. A lot of important construction took place to protect and improve the city, one of, a breakwater that gave the city its new name, Le Moule, that became Guadeloupe's main commercial port. On September 20, 1828, Le Moule received rights to export its commodities to the metropolitan France without going through Pointe à Pitre, thus having direct contact with French territory, it became a target for the British fleet during the Napoleon war at the beginning of the 19th century.
The heroic battle of 1809 remains a historic date for Guadeloupe. In practice, all sugar cane and rum produced in Grande Terre were shipped from Le Moule's port; the city enjoyed a flourishing commerce, further supplemented by shipments of coffee, fertilizer, building material and spare parts. During the first half of the 19th century with its numerous refineries and plantations, the planters lived a self-sufficient lifestyle farming sugar cane, cotton, cocoa and other essential food products, thus dominating Guadeloupean economics during the 1850s. After that, they experienced many financial collapses because of failed crops, abolition of slavery, the production of better sugar in Europe and the strict "colonial pact". Shared farming has become necessary as well as industrial modernization, steam machines replaced traditional windmills; the sugar crises forced a new decision. In 1901, only four refineries survived: Duchassaing, Zévallos and Gardel. Le Moule's port lost its place of dominance to Pointe à Pitre, the center of commerce shifted and the city fell into solitude.
The devastating cyclone of 1928 was the point of return for the community. The city not only rose from its ruins thanks to Mayor Charles Romana, but it constructed new buildings: the townhouse, churches and parks. In 2002, Gabrielle Louis-Carabin became the mayor of Le Moule, is a member of the general council of Guadeloupe. Le Moule's history, the richest on the island, enabled it to maintain many remains and relics, to develop centers of interest around them. Le Moule is on Grand-Terre Island; the island is a limestone plateau. The city extends along the north shore of the Atlantic coast, 51 km northeast of Pointe-a-Pitre; the settlements in the commune of Le Moule include Boisvin, Gardel, Laureal, Mahaudiere, Palais-Sainte-Marguerite, Portland, La Rosette, Saint-Marguerite and Zevallos. Le Moule is near the Equator; the town experiences warm/hot temperatures at cool temperatures at night. The temperature range at daytime vary between 80°F to 84°F between October–May & 84°F to 90°F, sometimes above 90°F between.
The heat and humidity are higher from July to October. Le Moule was a sugar port in the 17th-18th centuries. Now tourism has boomed and there are some seaside resorts on nearby beaches. There are two distilleries nearby. Agriculture is predominantly spread around Le Moule with fields growing bananas and livestock rearing. Public preschools include: Ecole maternelle Debibakas Albert Ecole maternelle Laura Flessel Ecole maternelle Château Gaillard Ecole maternelle Soliveau Laure-Laurent Ecole maternelle Vitalle Laurette Ecole maternelle Dupuits Marie-Eva Ecole maternelle Sainte MargueritePublic primary and elementary schools include: Ecole primaire Debibakas Albert Ecole primaire Adélaïde Amédée Ecole primaire Girard Aristide Ecole primaire Boisvin Ecole primaire Cocoyer Ecole primaire Grands-Fonds Ecole primaire Lacroix Ecole élémentaire Jean GalleronPrivate primary schools include: Ecole primaire privée Externat Saint Joseph du MoulePublic junior high schools include: Collège Général de Gaulle Collège GuénettePublic senior high schools include: LP Louis DelgresPrivate secondary schools under contract: Collège Saint-Dominique There are an array of sights to see either in or around Le Moule.
The Damoiseau Distillery is in Bellevue in the middle of a sugar cane field. Production is limited to white rum, old vintage rum and punches, all of which have received numerous awards for their quality; the Gardel Plant was built under the reconstruction plan for the agriculture sector in 1870, after the historic financial collapse. It is owned by the world leader in the sugar refinery industry, it is the sole refinery on the main island of Guadeloupe and a symbol. Its installation in the epicenter of sugar cane plantations affords heavy production from March to July; the Ouatibi-Tibi Archaeological Park is situated in Morel on 7 hectares of beach that run alongside the lagoon. This is a place for taking strolls, for meditating, it is intensely rich in culture and is composed of three sites: a memorial center, an archaeological center and a recreation center. The Edgar Clerc Museum is a prehistoric Amerindian museum unique to the island, it is located west of the city. It showcases the traditions of the Tainos, Caribs and the Caribbean peoples through its collections of pottery and tools found at the diggings of the archaeological park in Morel.
The town hall was reconst
The Lebanese people are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon. The term may include those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state; the religious groups among the Lebanese people are Shias, Maronites, Greek Orthodox, Druze, Protestants. There is a large diaspora in North America, South America, Europe and Africa; as the relative proportion of the various sects is politically sensitive, Lebanon has not collected official census data on ethnic background since the 1932 under the French Mandate. It is therefore difficult to have an exact demographic analysis of Lebanese society; the largest concentration of people of Lebanese ancestry may be in Brazil having an estimated population of 5.8 to 7 million, but it may be an exaggeration, given that an official survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics showed that less than 1 million Brazilians claimed any Middle-Eastern origin. The Lebanese have always traveled the world, many of them settling permanently, most notably in the last two centuries.
Reduced in numbers and estimated to have lost their status as a majority in Lebanon itself as a result of their emigration, Christians still remain one of the principal religious groups in the country. Descendants of Lebanese Christians make up the majority of Lebanese people worldwide, appearing principally in the diaspora; the people residing in Lebanon—both those who would become Muslim and the vast majority who would remain Christian, along with the tiny Jewish minority—still spoke Aramaic, or more a Western Aramaic language. However, since at least the 15th century, the majority of people of all faiths living in what is now Lebanon have been Arabic-speaking, or more speakers of Lebanese Arabic, although up until the 17th century, travellers in the Lebanon still reported on several Aramaic-speaking villages. Among the Lebanese Maronites, Aramaic still remains the liturgical language of the Maronite Church, although in an Eastern Aramaic form, distinct from the spoken Aramaic of Lebanon, a Western Aramaic language.
As the second of two liturgical languages of Judaism, Aramaic was retained as a language in the sphere of religion among Lebanese Jews, although here too in an Eastern Aramaic form. Among Lebanese Muslims, Aramaic was lost twice, once in the shift to Arabic in the vernacular and again in the religious sphere, since Arabic is the liturgical language of Islam; some Lebanese Christians Maronites, identify themselves as Lebanese rather than Arab, seeking to draw "on the Phoenician past to try to forge an identity separate from the prevailing Arab culture". They argue that Arabization represented a shift to the Arabic language as the vernacular of the Lebanese people, that, according to them, no actual shift of ethnic identity, much less ancestral origins, occurred. With their own histories and lore, that therefore they do not belong to the one pan-Arab ethnicity, thus such categorisation is erred or inapplicable. Certain portions of Lebanon's Christian population in particular tend to stress aspects of Lebanon's non-Arab prior history to encompass all Lebanon's historical stages, instead of considering the beginning of Lebanese history being with the Arab conquests.
In light of this "old controversy about identity", some Lebanese prefer to see Lebanon, Lebanese culture and themselves as part of "Mediterranean" and "Levantine" civilization, in a concession to Lebanon's various layers of heritage, both indigenous, foreign non-Arab, Arab. The total population of Lebanese people is estimated at 13-18 million. Of these, the vast majority, or 8.6 - 14 million, are in the Lebanese diaspora, 4.7 million in Lebanon itself. There are 4.7 million Lebanese citizens in Lebanon. In addition to this figure, there are an additional 1 million foreign workers, about 470,000 Palestinian refugees in the nation. Lebanon is a home to various ethnic minorities found refuge in the country over the centuries. Prominent ethnic minorities in the country include the Armenians, the Kurds, the Turks, the Assyrians, the Iranians and many European ethnicities. There are a small number of nomadic Dom Gypsies The Lebanese diaspora consists of 8.6 - 14 million, both Lebanese-born living abroad and those born-abroad of Lebanese descent.
The majority of the Lebanese in the diaspora are Christians, disproportionately so in the Americas where the vast majority reside. An estimate figure show. Lebanese abroad are considered "rich and influential" and over the course of time immigration has yielded Lebanese "commercial networks" throughout the world; the largest number of Lebanese is to be found in Brazil, where according to the Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim, there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent. These figures, may be an exaggeration given that, according to a 2008 survey conducted by IBGE, in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle EastLarge numbers reside elsewhere in North America, most notably
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps held together by calcium carbonate. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals. Coral belongs to the class Anthozoa in the animal phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish. Unlike sea anemones, corals secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons that protect the coral. Most reefs grow best in warm, clear and agitated water. Called "rainforests of the sea", shallow coral reefs form some of Earth's most diverse ecosystems, they occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean area, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for at least 25% of all marine species, including fish, worms, echinoderms, sponges and other cnidarians. Coral reefs flourish in ocean waters, they are most found at shallow depths in tropical waters, but deep water and cold water coral reefs exist on smaller scales in other areas. Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services for tourism and shoreline protection.
The annual global economic value of coral reefs is estimated between US$30–375 billion and 9.9 trillion USD. Coral reefs are fragile because they are sensitive to water conditions, they are under threat from excess nutrients, rising temperatures, oceanic acidification, sunscreen use, harmful land-use practices, including runoff and seeps. Most coral reefs were formed after the last glacial period when melting ice caused sea level to rise and flood continental shelves. Most coral reefs are less than 10,000 years old; as communities established themselves, the reefs grew pacing rising sea levels. Reefs that rose too could become drowned, without sufficient light. Coral reefs are found in the deep sea away from continental shelves, around oceanic islands and atolls; the majority of these islands are volcanic in origin. Others have tectonic origins. In The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Charles Darwin set out his theory of the formation of atoll reefs, an idea he conceived during the voyage of the Beagle.
He theorized that subsidence of the Earth's crust under the oceans formed the atolls. Darwin set out a sequence of three stages in atoll formation. A fringing reef forms around an extinct volcanic island as the ocean floor subsides; as the subsidence continues, the fringing reef becomes a barrier reef and an atoll reef. Darwin predicted that underneath each lagoon would be a bedrock base, the remains of the original volcano. Subsequent research supported this hypothesis. Darwin's theory followed from his understanding that coral polyps thrive in the tropics where the water is agitated, but can only live within a limited depth range, starting just below low tide. Where the level of the underlying earth allows, the corals grow around the coast to form fringing reefs, can grow to become a barrier reef. Where the bottom is rising, fringing reefs can grow around the coast, but coral raised above sea level dies. If the land subsides the fringing reefs keep pace by growing upwards on a base of older, dead coral, forming a barrier reef enclosing a lagoon between the reef and the land.
A barrier reef can encircle an island, once the island sinks below sea level a circular atoll of growing coral continues to keep up with the sea level, forming a central lagoon. Barrier reefs and atolls do not form complete circles, but are broken in places by storms. Like sea level rise, a subsiding bottom can overwhelm coral growth, killing the coral and the reef, due to what is called coral drowning. Corals that rely on zooxanthellae can die when the water becomes too deep for their symbionts to adequately photosynthesize, due to decreased light exposure; the two main variables determining the geomorphology, or shape, of coral reefs are the nature of the substrate on which they rest, the history of the change in sea level relative to that substrate. The 20,000-year-old Great Barrier Reef offers an example of how coral reefs formed on continental shelves. Sea level was 120 m lower than in the 21st century; as sea level rose, the water and the corals encroached on what had been hills of the Australian coastal plain.
By 13,000 years ago, sea level had risen to 60 m lower than at present, many hills of the coastal plains had become continental islands. As sea level rise continued, water topped most of the continental islands; the corals could overgrow the hills, forming cays and reefs. Sea level on the Great Barrier Reef has not changed in the last 6,000 years; the age of living reef structure is estimated to be between 8,000 years. Although the Great Barrier Reef formed along a continental shelf, not around a volcanic island, Darwin's principles apply. Development stopped at the barrier reef stage, it formed 300 -- 1,000 m from shore, stretching for 2,000 km. Healthy tropical coral reefs grow horizontally from 1 to 3 cm per year, grow vertically anywhere from 1 to 25 cm per year; as the name implies, coral reefs are made up of coral skeletons from intact coral colonies. As other chemical elements present in corals become incorporated into the calcium carbonate deposits, aragonite is formed. However
Pointe de la Grande Vigie
The Pointe de la Grande Vigie is the northernmost point of the island of Grande-Terre in Guadeloupe and, as such, is the northernmost point of Guadeloupe as a whole. Located about 6 kilometres northeast of Anse-Bertrand, this rocky peninsula with vertical limestone cliffs reaching up to 80 metres high is reminiscent of the French coasts of eastern Normandy and Brittany. Exposed to trade winds and sea spray, it has scanty and xerophytic vegetation, it has been the site of no construction, its coastal escarpment makes access by sea difficult. In clear weather, the Pointe de la Grande Vigie offers impressive views of Grande-Terre's lowlands to the south and of the islands of Montserrat, 80 kilometres to the northwest. Office de tourisme d'Anse Bertrand — Official site of Anse-Bertrand Tourism Board