A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish. Worldwide, there are fish farmers. Fishermen may be both men or women. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since the Mesolithic period. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since the Mesolithic period. Fishing had become a major means of survival as well as a business venture. Fishing and the fisherman have influenced Ancient Egyptian religion. Bastet was manifested in the form of a catfish. In ancient Egyptian literature, the process that Amun used to create the world is associated with the tilapia's method of mouth-brooding. According to the FAO, there were about 39 million fishers in countries producing more than 200,000 tonnes in 2012, nearly 140% the number in 1995; the total fishery production of 66 million tonnes equated to an average productivity of 3.5 tonnes per person. Most of this growth took place in Asian countries, where four-fifths of world fishers and fish farmers dwell.
Most fishermen are men involved in deep-sea fisheries. Women fish in some regions collect shellfish and seaweed. In many artisanal fishing communities, women are responsible for making and repairing nets, post-harvest processing and marketing. Recreational fishing is fishing for competition, it can be contrasted with commercial fishing, fishing for economic profit, or subsistence fishing, fishing for survival. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, line and any one of a wide range of baits. Lures are used in place of bait; some people make handmade lures, including artificial flies. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is called angling; when angling, it is sometimes required that the fish be caught and released. Big-game fishing is fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Noodling and trout tickling are recreational activities. For some communities, fishing provides not only a source of food and work but community and cultural identity.
The fishing industry is hazardous for fishermen. Between 1992 and 1999, US commercial fishing vessels averaged 78 deaths per year; the main contributors to fatalities are: inadequate preparation for emergencies poor vessel maintenance and inadequate safety equipment lack of awareness of or ignoring stability issues. Many fishermen, while accepting that fishing is dangerous, staunchly defend their independence. Many proposed laws and additional regulation to increase safety have been defeated because fishermen oppose them. Alaska's commercial fishermen work in one of the world's harshest environments. Many of the hardships they endure include isolated fishing grounds, high winds, seasonal darkness cold water and short fishing seasons, where long work days are the norm. Fatigue, physical stress, financial pressures face most Alaska fishermen through their careers; the hazardous work conditions faced by fishermen have a strong impact on their safety. Out of 948 work-related deaths that took place in Alaska during 1990-2006, one-third occurred to fishermen.
This is equivalent to an estimated annual fatality rate of 128/100,000 workers/year. This fatality rate is 26 times that of the overall U. S. work-related fatality rate of 5/100,000 workers/year for the same time period. While the work-related fatality rate for commercial fishermen in Alaska is still high, it does appear to be decreasing: since 1990, there has been a 51 percent decline in the annual fatality rate; the successes in commercial fishing are due in part to the U. S. Coast Guard implementing new safety requirements in the early 1990s; these safety requirements contributed to 96 percent of the commercial fishermen surviving vessel sinkings/capsizings in 2004, whereas in 1991, only 73 percent survived. While the number of occupational deaths in commercial fishermen in Alaska has been reduced, there is a continuing pattern of losing 20 to 40 vessels every year. There are still about 100 fishermen. Successful rescue is still dependent on the expertly trained personnel of the US Coast Guard Search and Rescue operations, such efforts can be hindered by the harshness of seas and the weather.
Furthermore, the people involved in Search and Rescue operations are themselves at considerable risk for injury or death during these rescue attempts. Fishing Recreational fishing Aquaculture Fish farming Dirty and demeaning Fishery List of American fishers Fields, Leslie Leyland Out On The Deep Blue: Women and the Oceans They Fish. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-27726-0 Jones, Stephen Working Thin Waters: Conversations with Captain * Lawrence H. Malloy, Jr. University Press of New England. ISBN 978-1-58465-103-1 Moore, Charles W Did fishermen discover the New World? For Those in Peril: Dangers at Sea for fishermen on the East Coast of Scotland historyshelf.org Fisher Folk at Sea and Ashore North East Folklore Archive, Aberdeenshire Council. Retrieved 9 March 2011
Palais Rohan, Strasbourg
The Palais Rohan in Strasbourg is the former residence of the prince-bishops and cardinals of the House of Rohan, an ancient French noble family from Brittany. It is a major architectural and cultural landmark in the city, it was built next to Strasbourg Cathedral in the 1730s, from designs by Robert de Cotte, is considered a masterpiece of French Baroque architecture. Since its completion in 1742, the palace has hosted a number of French monarchs such as Louis XV, Marie Antoinette and Joséphine, Charles X. Reflecting the history of Strasbourg and of France, the palace has been owned successively by the nobility, the municipality, the monarchy, the state, the university, the municipality again, its architectural conception and its iconography were intended to indicate the return of Roman Catholicism to the city, dominated by Protestantism for the previous two centuries. Thus the prelate's apartments face the cathedral, to the north, many of the statues and paintings reflect the Catholic dogma.
Since the end of the 19th century the palace has been home to three of Strasbourg's most important museums: the Archaeological Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the Museum of Fine Arts. The municipal art gallery, Galerie Robert Heitz, in a lateral wing of the palace, is used for temporary exhibitions; the Palais Rohan has been listed since 1920 as a Monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. In 1727 Armand Gaston Maximilien de Rohan, bishop of Strasbourg since 1704 and cardinal since 1712, commissioned the architect Robert de Cotte to design the palace. Seven years prior, in 1720, Cardinal de Rohan had charged de Cotte with renovation and embellishment works on his castle in Saverne, the predecessor of the current Rohan Castle. De Cotte had previously designed the Hôtel du grand Doyenné, the first hôtel particulier in Louis Quinze style built in Strasbourg; the Palais Rohan was built on the site of the former residence of the bishop, the "bishop's demesne", recorded since at least 1262.
The area itself is near the heart of the ancient Argentoratum, first mentioned in 12 BC. Diverse archaeological excavations on Place du Château, the square facing the palace, have unearthed many remains of the Roman camp. Building work on the Palais Rohan took place from 1732 until 1742 under the supervision of the municipal architect Joseph Massol, who worked on the Hôtel de Hanau and the Hôtel de Klinglin during the early years of the project. Massol was assisted by the architects Laurent Étienne Le Chevalier; the sculptures, including statues as well as reliefs, were provided by Robert Le Lorrain, assisted by Johann August Nahl, Gaspard Pollet, Laurent Leprince, the paintings by Pierre Ignace Parrocel and Robert de Séry. The ébéniste Bernard Kocke and the ironworkers and locksmiths Jean-François Agon and his son Antoine Agon worked on the furnishings of the apartments, while the stucco was the work of the Italians Castelli and Morsegno. A budget of 344,000 French livres had been established for the construction – 200,000 livres lent from the Cathedral chapter and 144,000 raised as local taxes over a period of twelve years – but the final cost is estimated at one million French livres.
The palace is built in yellow sandstone from Wasselonne, with pink sandstone for the less visible parts. The House of Rohan owned the palace until the French Revolution, when it was confiscated, declared bien national, auctioned off on 8 August 1791. Bought by the municipality, it became the new town hall the same year. Much of the furniture and many of the works of art in the Palais were sold, in 1793 the eight life-sized mural portraits of prince-bishops decorating the Salle des évêques were destroyed, they were replaced in 1796 by allegories of civic virtues painted by Joseph Melling. Only the portrait of Armand Gaston, the builder of the palace, was restored to its original place with a 1982 replica of Hyacinthe Rigaud's lost painting. Melling replaced the overdoor portraits of kings of France, decorating the same room with paintings of vases; the Palais Rohan remained the hôtel de ville until 1805. That year, the municipality presented it to Napoleon. Like the palace, the hôtel had been state-owned since the Revolution.
The 1805 arrangement proved favourable for the municipality: the maintenance of the Hôtel de Hanau was less costly than that of the larger Palais Rohan. It pleased Napoleon; as for the palace, imperial ownership meant renewed splendour. The present to Napoleon was accepted by decree on 21 January 1806. In the years before the Franco-Prussian War and the return of Alsace to Germany, the Palais Rohan was the property of the French state, in turn an empire, a kingdom, a monarchy, a republic, again an empire; the year 1871 signified the end of French rule and the beginning of German rule over Alsace, which had until 1681 been linked to Germany through the Holy Roman Empire. Having lost the Franco-Prussian War, France had to cede the departments of Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin, Moselle to the newly created German Empire. Now under new administration and having lost its residential purpose, the Palais Rohan had to be assigned a new role. Between 1872 and 1884, until the opening of the Palais
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Saint Stephen's Church, Strasbourg
Saint Stephen’s Church in Strasbourg is located inside the catholic ‘Saint-Étienne’ college in Strasbourg, for which it serves as a chapel. Saint Stephen's is one of the oldest churches in Strasbourg; the crypt contains the remains of a fifth-century Roman basilica. The site was occupied by a Roman fort. A new church was built on the site in early in 717 by Duke Adalbert of Alsace, brother of Saint Odile, as part of a new convent, in which he installed his daughter Attala as the first abbess; the Church served for many years as the episcopal seat for the north of Alsace. The church was rebuilt in 1220 in Romanesque-Gothic style. At the beginning of the 16th century, St Stephen's was a parish church, the parish of Stephen's being one of the nine parishes of Strasbourg. In 1534, as the reform was being introduced in Strasbourg, the parish of St Stephen's was transferred to St William's, on account of the opposition of the cannonesses of St Stephen's to the new teaching. In the seventeenth century Louis XIV closed the abbey and transferred it to the Visitandines to serve as a boarding school for young women, a function which continued up until the French Revolution.
In 1714 the church was equipped with an organ by Andreas Silbermann, now in Bischheim. After the French Revolution, the building was used as a warehouse as a theatre. In 1802, the church was deprived of its tower and in 1805 this was transformed into a theatre; the college, of which the church now forms part, began life in 1861 as a'Petit seminaire', educating future priests as well as lay students. Allied bombing destroyed much of the building in 1944. Only the wide transept with its triple apse survived. In 1956, the ancient site was excavated and a Merovingian apse was discovered beneath the foundations of the old tower. In 1961, the nave was renovated; the church was classified as a historical monument in 1962. In 2016, the monumental concert organ from the former conservatory located in the National Theatre of Strasbourg was moved into the nave in order to be used as a church organ; the instrument, a 1963 work by organ builder Curt Schwenkedel, had been out of use since 1995. It was restored by Quentin Blumenroeder from Haguenau.
As the Church is now part of a school, public access is only possible on special occasions, such as European Heritage Days. The school owns some valuable historical tapestries from the abbey church, some of which can be seen in the nearby Notre Dame museum. Eglise Saint Etienne - 2 rue de la Pierre Large on archi-wiki.org website of the Saint-Etienne college Aerial photo on French historical monuments website
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Ludwig I was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states. Born in the Hôtel des Deux-Ponts in Strasbourg, he was the son of Count Palatine Maximilian Joseph of Zweibrücken by his first wife Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. At the time of his birth, his father was an officer in the French army stationed at Strasbourg, he was the namesake of Louis XVI of France. On 1 April 1795 his father succeeded Ludwig's uncle, Charles II, as duke of Zweibrücken, on 16 February 1799 became Elector of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Arch-Steward of the Empire, Duke of Berg on the extinction of the Sulzbach line with the death of the elector Charles Theodore, his father assumed the title of King of Bavaria on 1 January 1806. Starting in 1803 Ludwig studied in Landshut where he was taught by Johann Michael Sailer and in Göttingen. On 12 October 1810 he married Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, the daughter of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen; the wedding was the occasion of the first-ever Oktoberfest.
Ludwig rejected the alliance of his father with Napoleon I of France but in spite of his anti-French politics the crown prince had to join the emperor's wars with allied Bavarian troops in 1806. As commander of the 1st Bavarian Division in VII Corps, he served under Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre in 1809, he led his division in action at the Battle of Abensberg on 20 April. With the Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status. On 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France; the treaty was passionately backed by Marshal von Wrede. At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Ludwig advocated a German national policy; until 1816 the crown prince served as governor-general of the Duchy of Salzburg, which cession to Austria he opposed. His second son Otto, the King of Greece, was born there. Between 1816 and 1825, he spent his years in Würzburg.
He made numerous trips to Italy and stayed in the Villa Malta in Rome, which he also bought. Ludwig supported generously as a Philhellene the Greek War of Independence, in which he in the war of 1821 provided a loan of 1.5 million florins from his private funds. In 1817 Ludwig was involved in the fall of Prime Minister Count Max Josef von Montgelas whose policies he had opposed, he succeeded his father on the throne in 1825. Ludwig's rule was affected by his enthusiasm for the arts and women and by his overreaching royal assertiveness. An enthusiast for the German Middle Ages, Ludwig ordered the re-erection of several monasteries in Bavaria, closed during the German Mediatisation, he reorganized the administrative regions of Bavaria in 1837 and re-introduced the old names Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, Swabia, Upper Palatinate and Palatinate. He changed his royal titles to Ludwig, King of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, Duke in Swabia and Count Palatine of the Rhine, his successors kept these titles.
Ludwig's plan to reunite the eastern part of the Palatinate with Bavaria could not be realized. The Electoral Palatinate, a former dominion of the Wittelsbach, had disappeared under Napoleon when France first annexed the left bank of the Rhine, including about half of the Palatinate, gave what remained on the right bank including and Heidelberg, to Baden during the German Mediatization of 1803. In 1815, Baden's possession of Manheim and Heidelberg was confirmed and only the left bank territories were given back to Bavaria. Ludwig founded the city of Ludwigshafen there as a Bavarian rival to Mannheim. Ludwig moved the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität from Landshut to Munich in 1826; the king encouraged Bavaria's industrialization. He initiated the Ludwig Canal between the Danube. In 1835 the first German railway was constructed in his domain, between the cities of Fürth and Nuremberg. Bavaria joined the Zollverein in 1834; as Ludwig had supported the Greek fight of independence his second son Otto was elected king of Greece in 1832.
Otto's government was run by a three-man regency council made up of Bavarian court officials. After the July Revolution of 1830 in France, Ludwig's previous liberal policy became more and more repressive; the Hambacher Fest in 1832 revealed the discontent of the population caused by high taxes and censorship. In connection with the unrest of May 1832, some 142 political trials were initiated; the seven death sentences that were pronounced were commuted to long-term imprisonment by the king. About 1,000 political trials were to take place during Ludwig's reign; the strict censorship, which he had reinstated after having abolished it in 1825, was opposed by large sectors of the population. In 1837 the Ultramontanes backed by the Roman Catholic Church gained control of the Bavarian parliament and began a campaign of changes to the constitution, such as removing civil rights that had earlier been granted to Protestants, as well as enforcing political censorship. On 14 August 1838, the King issued an order for all members of the military to kneel in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament at Corpus Christi processions and church services.
This policy, in place when Bavaria was still purely Catholic in the period before 1803, had been discontinued the inclusion of large Protestant areas. Catholic disturbances during the funeral of the Protestant Queen Caroline of Baden in 1841 caused a scandal; this treatment of his beloved stepmother permanently softened the attitude of Car
An hôtel particulier is a townhouse of a grand sort, comparable to the British townhouse. Whereas an ordinary maison was built as part of a row, sharing party walls with the houses on either side and directly fronting on a street, an hôtel particulier was free-standing, by the 18th century it would always be located entre cour et jardin: between the cour d'honneur and the garden behind. There are hôtels particuliers in many large cities in France; the word hôtel represents the Old French hostel, particulier means "personal" or "private". The English word hotel developed a more specific meaning as a commercial building accommodating travellers, modern French uses hôtel for hotels in this sense. For example, the Hôtel de Crillon on the Place de la Concorde was built as an hôtel particulier and is today a public hotel. In French, an hôtel de ville or mairie is a town hall. Other official bodies might give their name to the structure in which they maintained a seat: aside from Paris, several other French cities have an Hôtel de Cluny, maintained by the abbey of Cluny.
The Hôtel de Sens was built as the Paris residence of the archbishop of Sens. Hôtel-Dieu is the old name given to the principal hospital in French towns, such as the Hôtel-Dieu de Beaune; the Hôtel des Invalides retains its early sense of a hospital for war wounded. In Aix-en-Provence: In Blois: In Paris: In Rennes: In Toulouse: In Vesoul: Château Mansion Single-family detached home Monographs have been published on some outstanding Parisian hôtels particuliers; the classic photographic survey, now a rare book found only in large art libraries, is the series Les Vieux Hotels de Paris by J. Vacquer, published in the teens and twenties of the 20th century, which takes Paris quarter by quarter and which illustrates many hôtels particuliers that were demolished during the 20th century. Blanc, Olivier, Hôtels particuliers de Paris Caylux, Odile et al. Les Hôtels particuliers d'Arles Coquery, Natacha, L’hôtel aristocratique. Le marché du luxe à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1998 Courtin, Nicolas, L'Art d'habiter à Paris au XVIIe siècle: L'ameublement des hôtels particuliers, Faton, 2011 Cros, Philippe,Hôtels particuliers de France Gady, Les Hôtels particuliers de Paris, du Moyen-Âge à la Belle époque, Parigramme, 2007 Naudin, Jean-Baptiste et al.
Hôtels particuliers de Paris: Visite privée. Papillault, Remi Les hôtels particuliers du XVIe siècle à Toulouse Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Faubourg Saint-Germain Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Faubourg Saint-Honoré Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Ministère de la Marine Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Quartier Saint-Paul Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Temple et le Marais Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M